Language family Latitude



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Table S4. Terms for bananas in the database used in this study. Where no latitude and longitude are given, precise coordinates for this language’s centroid are not known. In those cases where a language appears more than once, or a language is listed with more than one term, the different terms represent different species of bananas; rarely is identifying information available for the different terms (that is, we cannot in most cases associate a particular term with a specific cultivar). The presence of multiple terms in the table in most cases reflects the availability of good etymological data, rather than the linguistic resources of the language in question. Note that we have not attempted to identify all possible cognates, only those that appear to be relevant to the Melanesian/Island Southeast Asian dispersal. Work on related terms outside this area will reveal further cognate sets, such as those found in Dravidian languages27, and possibly link some of the currently proposed cognate sets. Additional reflexes of, eg., *qaRutay can be found in Munda (Austro-Asiatic) languages of eastern South Asia27.





Language family

Latitude

Longitude

Language name

Banana term(s)

Cognate class/ reconstruction

1

Austronesian

1

109

Lara'

barak

*baRat

2

Austronesian

2.5

111.58

Melanau

balak

*baRat

3

Austronesian

2

112.25

Tanjong

balat

*baRat

4

Austronesian

2.42

113.33

Penan (Nibong)

balak

*baRat

5

Austronesian

2.5

113.5

Kajaman

balat

*baRat

6

Austronesian

3.83

113.67

Bintulu

balak

*baRat

7

Austronesian

2.33

114

Ukit

balak

*baRat

8

Austronesian

15.33

120.5

Kapampangan

balat

*baRat

9

Austronesian

16.33

120.5

Inibaloi

balat

*baRat

10

Austronesian

16.75

120.58

Kankanay

ba/at

*baRat

11

Austronesian

17.67

120.67

Itneg

balat

*baRat

12

Austronesian

17.08

120.92

Bontok

balat

*baRat

13

Austronesian

18.25

121

Isneg

ba…gat

*baRat

14

Austronesian

17.5

121

Kalinga (Linimos)

ba…lat

*baRat

15

Austronesian

16.67

121

Ifugao (Bayninan)

ba…lat

*baRat

16

Austronesian

16.67

121

Keley-I, Kallahan

balat

*baRat

17

Austronesian

16.83

121.08

Ifugao (Batad)

ba…lat

*baRat

18

Austronesian

16.58

121.17

Kayapa, Kallahan

balat

*baRat

19

Austronesian

16.67

121.17

Ifugao (Amganad)

balat

*baRat

20

Austronesian

16.42

121.17

Gaddang

/abat

*baRat

21

Austronesian

17.75

121.5

Itawis

bahat

*baRat

22

Austronesian

16.67

121.75

Yogad

bagat

*baRat

23

Austronesian

16.33

122

Dumagat (Casiguran)

biget

*baRat

24

Austronesian

13.33

123.5

Bikol

batag

*baRat

25

Austronesian

17.17

1211.68

Balangao

balat

*baRat

26

Austro-Asiatic

15

100

Mon

braat

*baRat, *braat

27

Austro-Asiatic

15

100

Mon

braat

*baRat, *braat

28

Austro-Asiatic







Pakoh

pee/

*baRat, *braat

29

Austro-Asiatic







Ngeu

pli´t

*baRat, *braat

30

Austro-Asiatic







Kuay

pri´t

*baRat, *braat

31

Austro-Asiatic







Tariang

pri´t

*baRat, *braat

32

Austro-Asiatic







Kaseng

pri´t

*baRat, *braat

33

Austro-Asiatic







Yaeh

pri´t

*baRat, *braat

34

Austro-Asiatic







Chatong

priit

*baRat, *braat

35

Austro-Asiatic







Alak

priit

*baRat, *braat

36

Austro-Asiatic

29

92

Katuic

pri…t

*baRat, *braat

37

Austro-Asiatic

15.92

101.5

Nyakur

phraat

*baRat, *braat

38

Austro-Asiatic

22.5

102.75

Kui

priit

*baRat, *braat

39

Austro-Asiatic

17.33

103.5

Sou

pariat

*baRat, *braat

40

Austro-Asiatic

14.83

103.92

Kuy

pri…t

*baRat, *braat

41

Austro-Asiatic

17.92

105.5

Kri

priit

*baRat, *braat

42

Austro-Asiatic

15.33

106.33

Jaru

prI´t

*baRat, *braat

43

Austro-Asiatic

15.33

106.33

Jru'

prI´t

*baRat, *braat

44

Austro-Asiatic

15.13

106.5

Nyaheun

prI´t

*baRat, *braat

45

Austro-Asiatic

14.67

106.5

Su'

prI´t

*baRat, *braat

46

Austro-Asiatic

15.58

106.75

Ngeq

preet klOOy

*baRat, *braat

47

Austro-Asiatic

16

107

Tauih

p´´/

*baRat, *braat

48

Austro-Asiatic

14.5

107

Lavi (Lawi)

pr´´t

*baRat, *braat

49

Austro-Asiatic

14.5

107

Lavi

prIIt

*baRat, *braat

50

Austro-Asiatic

14

107

Brao

prIIt

*baRat, *braat

51

Austro-Asiatic

12

107

Stieng

prit

*baRat, *braat

52

Austro-Asiatic

15

107.17

Cheng

prIIt

*baRat, *braat

53

Austro-Asiatic

10.67

107.5

Chrau

priit

*baRat, *braat

54

Austro-Asiatic

15.83

107.58

Katu

prii/

*baRat, *braat

55

Austro-Asiatic

11.67

108

Köho

p´ri…t

*baRat, *braat

56

Austro-Asiatic

12.17

108.08

C-Mnong

pri…t

*baRat, *braat

57

Austro-Asiatic

12.17

108.42

E-Mnong

prit

*baRat, *braat

58

Austronesian

12

107

Stieng

p´ri…t

*baRat, *braat

59

Austronesian

10.67

107.5

Chrau

p´ri…t

*baRat, *braat

60

Kam-Tai







Kantu

priit

*baRat, *braat

61

Kam-Tai







Dakkan

priit

*baRat, *braat

62

Austronesian

-1.75

119.92

Uma

loka/ moku

*muku

63

Austronesian

-8.67

120.33

Manggarai

muku

*muku

64

Austronesian

-9.83

120.5

Kambera

kalu muku

*muku

65

Austronesian

-8.83

120.67

Rongga

muku

*muku

66

Austronesian

-8.83

121

Ngadha

muku

*muku

67

Austronesian

-8.83

121.25

Kéo

muku

*muku

68

Austronesian

-8.83

121.67

Ende

muku

*muku

69

Austronesian

-8.5

121.67

Lio

muku

*muku

70

Austronesian

-8.33

121.75

Palu'e

muku

*muku

71

Austronesian

-8.5

122.33

Sika

mu/u

*muku



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