Knowledge, attitudes and practice survey of family planning among South Asian immigrant women in Oslo, Norway



Download 0.98 Mb.
Page7/10
Date conversion04.02.2017
Size0.98 Mb.
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10

    1. Descriptive result of practice of family planning

      1. Fertility background

Table 16 Fertility background of South Asian immigrant married women (n=228)




n

%

Age of marriage years







Less than 18

6

2.6

18-24

190

83.3

25-30

32

14.0

After marriage contraceptives use







No

152

66.7

Yes

76

33.3

Planned Pregnancy







No

78

34.2

Yes

144

63.2

No rememberance

6

2.6

Number of children







0-1

129

56.6

2 and more

99

43.4

Want more children

n

%

No

218

95.6

Yes

10

4.4

Currently use contraceptive methods







No

71

31.1

Yes

157

68.9

Total

228

100.0

Table 16 shows the majority of the (83.3%) of the South Asian immigrant women married in the age of 18-24 years. Two third of the (66.7%) respondents had not used any contraceptives after marriage and half of the (56.6%) respondents have at least one child.

Among the South Asian immigrant respondents, 68.9% of women were using contraceptives either modern or traditional contraceptive methods. Over forty percent (40.1%) of South Asian immigrant married respondents take oral contraceptive pills followed by 31.2% of women who use intrauterine device, 12.1% who use condoms and 13.4% of women who practised traditional methods (table 17).



Table 17 Number and percentage of ever used of contraceptives

Family planning method

n

%

Modern contraceptive methods

Oral contraceptive pills

63

40.1

IUD

49

31.2

Condom

19

12.1

Male sterilization

2

1.3

Female sterilization

3

1.9

Traditional method

Calendar/withdrawal method

21

13.4







157

100.0

Table 18 shows more than two third (80.2%) of the women 31-45 years were using contraceptives. The majority (76.7%) of the women using contraceptive were Sri-Lankan in origin using contraceptive. Only 57.1% women of Pakistani origin were using contraceptives compared to other ethnic group.

Women who had less than 12 years of education 84.3% were using contraceptives. There is a significant association between use of contraceptives and age (p-value <0.001*) and education (p-value <0.001).

Women who had positive attitude towards family planning (78.1%) and women who have 2 or more children (85.9%) were using contraceptives and there was significant association between positive attitude (p-value 0.001*Fisher’s exact test), number of children (p-value-<0.001* Fisher’s exact test) and contraceptive use.


Table 18 Association between contraceptive use and demographics and knowledge, attitude of family planning and number of children reported by South Asian immigrant women n=228







Use any contraceptives

p-value







No

Yes




Age

20-30 yrs

49

41.9%

68

58.1%

<0.001*

31-45 yrs

22

19.8%

89

80.2%




Ethnicity

Pakistan

36

42.4%

39

57.6%

0.046




Bangladesh

9

25.4%

28

74.6%







Sri-Lanka

10

23.3%

33

76.7%







India

16

24.3%

47

75.7%




Immigration status

1st generation

65

31.1%

144

68.9%

0.575*

2nd generation

6

31.6%

13

68.4%




Education

Less than 12 years education

20

15.7%

107

84.3%

<0.001

More than 12 years education

51

50.5%

50

49.5%




Employment

Unemployed

42

33.3%

84

66.7%

0.258*




Employed

29

28.4%

73

71.6%




Knowledge of FP

Lack of knowledge

24

13.3%

157

86.7%

<0.001*




Average knowledge

47

100%

-

-




Attitude towards FP

I never used/don’t like to use

43

43.0%

57

57.0%

0.001*




I have used without problem/ in spite of problem

28

21.9%

100

78.1%




Number of children

0-1 children

57

44.2%

72

55.8%

<0.001*




2 and more

14

14.1%

85

85.9%




Total




71

31.1 %

157

68.9%




*Fishers exact test

      1. Reason for not using contraceptives

Figure 7 Percentage of reasons for not using contraceptives (n=71)

Figure 4 illustrates that the majority of the women 40 (56.3%) mentioned that fear of side effects was the main reason for not using contraceptives while 21 preferred traditional method and only 10 respondents desired for children.

      1. History of requesting induced abortion and reason for termination of pregnancy

Figure 7 Percentage of requesting abortion and its reason among South Asian immigrant women( n=81)
Figure7 shows that one third of the respondents 81 (35.5%) have a history of induced abortion. One third of the women mentioned study as the reason, followed by not planned pregnancy, economical reason, and too young or too little birth spacing.

Family planning service

    1. Preferred to talk or discuss about family planning

Among 309 respondents, only 40 women preferred to visit health centres (17.5%) for family planning service, while 62 respondents preferred not to go anywhere (27.7%). Nearly one fifth of the respondents preferred discussions with their general physician (21.5%) and 37 respondents wanted to talk with family member and friends (16.2%).

Figure 8 preferred to talk or discuss about family planning (n=309)
Figure 8 illustrates that the youngest group prefers to talk with family or friends while the two elder groups preferred to get service from health care providers either by visiting health centres or visiting physicians. There was significant association between preferred to ask or discuss for family planning information and age group (p-value<0.001).
More than two third of the immigrant married women 168 (73.7%) never faced any problem when they were seeking for family planning service.

Only 60 respondents (26.3%) faced problems, among them 29 (48.3 %) mentioned they couldn’t speak Norwegian language and 26 respondents (43.3%) depended on their husbands to ease communication at health centres.

Very few women 3 (5%) mentioned that the health staff never understood them; and 2 (3.3%) women said they didn’t know where to go.


    1. Outcome of the result




      1. Relationship between knowledge of family planning and independent variable (demographic factors)

Results from logistic regression showed that age group(Ref=13-19,1=20-30 and 2=31-45), immigration status(1= 1st generation-ref. 2= 2nd generation), ethnicity( 1=Pakistan, 2=India 3=Sri-Lanka and 4= Bangladesh-ref), marital status(1=unmarried and 2=married-ref) and employment status(1=unemployment-ref. and 2=employment) had significantly higher odds for family planning knowledge compared to the reference group.



More than half, South Asian immigrants 181 (58.6%) showed they have lack of family planning knowledge while 128 women (41.4%) have average knowledge.. Table 21 shows that the odds of FP knowledge were 3 times higher for the women of Indian compared to Bangladeshi women and 2 times higher for first generation and 19 times higher for more than 12 years educated women compared to less than 12 years educated women..
Table 1 Odds Ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for good family planning knowledge according to demographic characteristics among South Asian immigrant women of reproductive age




OR

95% CI


p-value

aOR*

95% CI


p-value

13-19 yrs

Ref







0.137

Ref







<0.001

20-30 yrs(1)

1.7

0.9

3.0

0.082

8.4

2.6

27

<0.001

31-45 yrs(2)

1.1

0.6

2.0

0.720

4.9

1.4

16

0.009

Pakistan(1)

3.2

1.7

6

<0.001

2.6

1.2

5.9

0.014

India(2)

4.2

2

8.8

<0.001

3.7

1.5

8.7

0.003

Sri-Lanka(3)

2.6

1.3

5.4

0.007

2.2

1

5.1

0.050

Bangladesh

Ref.







<0.001

Ref.







0.015




























1st generation immigrant women

Ref










Ref.










2nd generation immigrant women

1.2

0.7

2.1

0.328

2.6

0.9

7.5

0.058




























Less than 12 years education

11

6.2

22

<0.001

19

9.4

41

<0.001

More than 12 years education

Ref.










Ref.





































*aOR indicates adjusted Odds Ratio after adjusting for other variables in the model Ref.= Reference category

We wanted to find out the impact of our explanatory variables (Age, ethnicity, immigration status, education) to the level of family planning knowledge. Therefore we fitted these variables into a binary logistic regression model with two categories of family planning knowledge.

The Hosmer-Lemeshow test supported the model as being worthwhile. The Chi-square value for Hosmer-lameshow test is 5.740 with significance level of 0.676. This value is larger than 0.05. Therefore it indicated support for the model.

The model explained between 31.6% and 42.5% of variance in the family planning knowledge. Here education withstood adjustment for each other indicating that being age 20-30 yrs women 8.4(95% CI=2.6, 27), for more than 12 years educated women 19 (95%CI=9.4, 41.7) most important predictor of good knowledge of FP with an adjusted OR of 3.7 (95%CI=1.5, 8.7) for Indian women; 2.6 (95%CI=0.9, 7.5) for second generation immigrant women.


1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10


The database is protected by copyright ©dentisty.org 2016
send message

    Main page