Figure Percentages of different knowledge group among South Asian immigrant women
Figure 1 illustrates the percentages of different knowledge groups. Only 34 women (11%) made up the good knowledge group, A total 181respondents (59%) belonged to the lack of knowledge group while 94 women (30%), were referred to the average knowledge group.
Attitude towardsfamily planning
Descriptive results for attitude towards family planning
Attitude towards family formation among married women
Among the participants, 228 respondents (73.8%) were married. Married respondent’s minimum age was 21 years, maximum age was 45 years and mean age was 31.22 years; standard deviation was 5.677. They were asked about their thoughts on family formation. Nearly half of the married respondents (46.1%) thought 25-30 years is ideal for having a first child; more than half (53.1%) of the women desired 3 or 4 children to complete the family. (Table10).
Table 10 Attitude towards family planning among South Asian immigrant married women=228
Figure 4 illustrates that nearly half (47.8%) of the respondents were using modern contraceptives without any problem and one fourth of the respondents didn’t like to use or thought contraceptive usage was against nature while18.9% of the respondents never used any modern contraceptives.
Figure 4 Attitude towards modern contraceptives among South Asian immigrant married women
Table11 shows 59.5% of the respondents were 31-45 years and have a positive attitude towards contraceptives while 53.0% women 20-30 years shows negative attitudes like they never used modern methods. The relationship between age group and attitude towards modern contraceptives shows slightly significant association (p-value 0.007).
Table 11 Attitude towards contraceptive use among South Asian immigrant women n=228
Figure 5 illustrate 42 or nearly two third of the Indian origin women (66.7% ) show positive attitudes towards family planning discussions followed by 54 women of Pakistan (63.5%), 25 women of Sri-Lanka (58.1%) and 14 Bangladesh origin women (37.8%). Twenty three or more than half of the Bangladesh origin women (62.2%) feel embarrassed during discussions.
There was a significant association (p-value 0.002) between ethnicity and attitude towards family planning discussion.
Attitude towards family planning discussion among South Asian immigrant married couples
More than two-thirds (72.4%) of the respondent’s husbands were positive towards family planning, 16.2% of women reported their husband felt embarrassed, and 11.4% of respondents husband were negative or didn’t’ want to talk, while 59.2% of respondents themselves were positive during discussion. Respondents who felt embarrassed or wanted to avoid the discussion comprised 32.5% (table 12, 13,). There was a significant association between husband’s and wives’ attitudes toward family planning discussions.
Attitude towards FP discussion among study participants themselves
Attitude towards FP discussions with unmarried women in the country of origin
n= 228 (100%)
n= 209 (100%)
Not common in society
Shame or embarrass to discuss
*Fishers exact test
Table 14 shows the numbers and percentages of attitudes among 228 married respondent’s parent’s society towards family planning discussions along with unmarried women.
Married participants were asked whether or not they had received any contraceptives information before marriage, 78.8% of respondents didn’t receive any information before they got married. Out of 19 second-generation immigrant women 12 (68.4%) received family planning information before marriage while only 36 (16.9%) out of 209, 1st generation immigrant women got information. The relationship between immigration status and attitudes towards family planning information before marriage shows statistically significant p-value<0.001*.
More than two thirds of the respondents said that discussion of family planning before marriage either was not common in their society or was embarrassing to ask about.
When they were asked whether unmarried women need to know about family planning information, 42.1% of the respondents answered that young girls should know about contraceptives before they get married of which 14 respondents were second-generation immigrants (73.7%).
Attitude towards FP information among unmarried South Asian women (n=81)
Unmarried respondents comprised 26.2% of the study group with a minimum age of 13 years and maximum age of 24 years; the mean age was 16.44 years, with a standard deviation of 2.77. When the unmarried respondents were asked about whether they feel the need to discuss family planning, 43.2% responded that there is need to know about contraceptives.
With a majority of 71 the young respondents (87.7%) feel embarrassed to ask, and more than half (58%) of the young girls said they never had thought about this topic before. The attitudes toward family planning discussions among respondents are shown in Table 15.
Table 15 Positive Attitude towards family planning discussion on among young South Asian unmarried women (n=81)
Unmarried girl need to know about Family planning
Attitude towards family planning among study participants themselves
Preferable source for FP information among unmarried women (n=81)
One third of the respondents 28 (34.5%) preferred not go anywhere to get family planning service, while only 14 (17.3%) preferred health centre’s followed by 12(14.8%) who preferred clinics for sexual information and 12(14.8%) who checked the internet.
If they needed any information about contraceptives, 31% respondents preferred to discuss it with friends. Half of the young (50.6%) respondents know that in Norway girls under the age of 16 can get oral contraceptive pills to avoid the conception.
Figure 6 South Asian unmarried women’s preferable source for family planning information