Knowledge, attitudes and practice survey of family planning among South Asian immigrant women in Oslo, Norway



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Family planning Knowledge group


Figure Percentages of different knowledge group among South Asian immigrant women

Figure 1 illustrates the percentages of different knowledge groups. Only 34 women (11%) made up the good knowledge group, A total 181respondents (59%) belonged to the lack of knowledge group while 94 women (30%), were referred to the average knowledge group.

Attitude towards family planning

    1. Descriptive results for attitude towards family planning

      1. Attitude towards family formation among married women

Among the participants, 228 respondents (73.8%) were married. Married respondent’s minimum age was 21 years, maximum age was 45 years and mean age was 31.22 years; standard deviation was 5.677. They were asked about their thoughts on family formation. Nearly half of the married respondents (46.1%) thought 25-30 years is ideal for having a first child; more than half (53.1%) of the women desired 3 or 4 children to complete the family. (Table10).

Table 10 Attitude towards family planning among South Asian immigrant married women=228

Variables

n

%

Ideal age of first child







18-24 years

72

31.6

25-30 years

105

46.1

30 years and over

32

14.0

Don't know

19

8.3

Birth space between children







1 yr

10

4.4

1-2 yr

88

38.6

3-4 yr

121

53.1

4-5 yr

7

3.1

Desired number of children







Child 1-2

72

31.6

Children 3-4

121

53.1

Children 5 and more

35

15.4

      1. Attitude towards modern contraceptives

Figure 4 illustrates that nearly half (47.8%) of the respondents were using modern contraceptives without any problem and one fourth of the respondents didn’t like to use or thought contraceptive usage was against nature while18.9% of the respondents never used any modern contraceptives.

Figure 4 Attitude towards modern contraceptives among South Asian immigrant married women

Table11 shows 59.5% of the respondents were 31-45 years and have a positive attitude towards contraceptives while 53.0% women 20-30 years shows negative attitudes like they never used modern methods. The relationship between age group and attitude towards modern contraceptives shows slightly significant association (p-value 0.007).


Table 11 Attitude towards contraceptive use among South Asian immigrant women n=228







Attitude towards moderen contraceptives

P-value







I never used

I have used without any problem

I have used

in spite of problems/

troubles


It is against nature/don’t like to use




Age

20-30 years

25(21.4%)

43(36.8%)

12(10.3%)

37(31.6%)

0.007




31-45 years

18(16.2%)

66(59.5%)

7(6.3%)

20(18.0%)




Total

43(18.9%)

109(47.8%)

19(8.3%)

57(25.0%)

























Figure 5 Attitude towards FP discussions among immigrant women themselves by ethnicity

Figure 5 illustrate 42 or nearly two third of the Indian origin women (66.7% ) show positive attitudes towards family planning discussions followed by 54 women of Pakistan (63.5%), 25 women of Sri-Lanka (58.1%) and 14 Bangladesh origin women (37.8%). Twenty three or more than half of the Bangladesh origin women (62.2%) feel embarrassed during discussions.



There was a significant association (p-value 0.002) between ethnicity and attitude towards family planning discussion.


      1. Attitude towards family planning discussion among South Asian immigrant married couples

More than two-thirds (72.4%) of the respondent’s husbands were positive towards family planning, 16.2% of women reported their husband felt embarrassed, and 11.4% of respondents husband were negative or didn’t’ want to talk, while 59.2% of respondents themselves were positive during discussion. Respondents who felt embarrassed or wanted to avoid the discussion comprised 32.5% (table 12, 13,). There was a significant association between husband’s and wives’ attitudes toward family planning discussions.



Variables

n

%

Attitude towards FP discussion among study participants themselves

Negative/don’t want to talk

19

8.3

Positive/we enjoy the discussion

135

59.2

Embarrass/avoid discussion

74

32.5

Attitude among participants husband towards discussion

Negative/don’t want to talk

26

11.4

Positive/we enjoy the discussion

165

72.4

Embarrass/avoid discussion

37

16.2

Table 12 Attitude among married women (n=228) towards family planning (FP) discussion with the other study participants and with their own husbands

Table 13 Association between husbands and wives attitude towards family planning (n=228)




Participants husband’s attitude










p-value







Negative

n (%)


Positive

n (%)


Embarrass

n (%)





Participant’s own attitude

Negative

14

73.7%

3

15.8%

2

10.5%

<0.001

Positive

0

0%

135

100%

0

0%

Embarrass

12

16.2%

27

36.5%

35

47.3%







26

11.4%

165

72.4%

37

16.2%






      1. Family planning discussions in countries of origin

Table 14 Attitude towards FP discussions in the country of origin among South Asian immigrant married women

Received family planning information before marriage

1st generation immigrant women

2nd generation immigrant women

p-value




n= 226 (100%)

n= 108 (100%)

n= 18 (100%)




No/don’t know

178 (78.8%)

172 (83.1%)

6 (31.6%)

<0.001*

Yes

48 (21.2%)

36 (16.9%)

12 (68.4%)




Need to know family planning information before marriage

n= 228 (100%)

n= 209 (100%)

n= 19(100%)




No/dont know

132(57.9 %)

127(60.8%)

5(26.3%)

0.004*

Yes

96(42.1 %)

82(39.2%)

14(73.7%)




Attitude towards FP discussions with unmarried women in the country of origin




n= 228 (100%)

n= 209 (100%)

n= 19(100%)




Not common in society










No

55(24.1%)

52(15.8%)

3(24.9%)

0.282*

Yes

173(75.9%)

157(84.2%)

16(75.1%)




Shame or embarrass to discuss

No

36(15.8%)

31(14.8%)

5(26.3%)

0.160*

Yes

192(84.2%)

178(85.2%)

14(73.3%)




*Fishers exact test
Table 14 shows the numbers and percentages of attitudes among 228 married respondent’s parent’s society towards family planning discussions along with unmarried women.

Married participants were asked whether or not they had received any contraceptives information before marriage, 78.8% of respondents didn’t receive any information before they got married. Out of 19 second-generation immigrant women 12 (68.4%) received family planning information before marriage while only 36 (16.9%) out of 209, 1st generation immigrant women got information. The relationship between immigration status and attitudes towards family planning information before marriage shows statistically significant p-value<0.001*.

More than two thirds of the respondents said that discussion of family planning before marriage either was not common in their society or was embarrassing to ask about.

When they were asked whether unmarried women need to know about family planning information, 42.1% of the respondents answered that young girls should know about contraceptives before they get married of which 14 respondents were second-generation immigrants (73.7%).




      1. Attitude towards FP information among unmarried South Asian women (n=81)

Unmarried respondents comprised 26.2% of the study group with a minimum age of 13 years and maximum age of 24 years; the mean age was 16.44 years, with a standard deviation of 2.77. When the unmarried respondents were asked about whether they feel the need to discuss family planning, 43.2% responded that there is need to know about contraceptives.

With a majority of 71 the young respondents (87.7%) feel embarrassed to ask, and more than half (58%) of the young girls said they never had thought about this topic before. The attitudes toward family planning discussions among respondents are shown in Table 15.



Table 15 Positive Attitude towards family planning discussion on among young South Asian unmarried women (n=81)




N

%

Unmarried girl need to know about Family planning

35

43.2




Attitude towards family planning among study participants themselves




Feel embarrass to talk

71

87.7

Not common in our society

64

79.0

I never thought about this topic before

47

58.0

      1. Preferable source for FP information among unmarried women (n=81)

One third of the respondents 28 (34.5%) preferred not go anywhere to get family planning service, while only 14 (17.3%) preferred health centre’s followed by 12(14.8%) who preferred clinics for sexual information and 12(14.8%) who checked the internet.

If they needed any information about contraceptives, 31% respondents preferred to discuss it with friends. Half of the young (50.6%) respondents know that in Norway girls under the age of 16 can get oral contraceptive pills to avoid the conception.


Figure 6 South Asian unmarried women’s preferable source for family planning information


Practice of family planning
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