(…) Selfies, headshots, mug shots — photos of oneself convey more these days than snapshots ever did back in the Kodak era. Most digitally minded people continually post and update pictures of themselves at professional, social media and dating sites such as LinkedIn, Facebook, Match.com and Tinder. For better or worse, viewers then tend to make snap judgments about someone’s personality or character from a single shot. As such, it can be a stressful task to select the photo that conveys the best impression of ourselves. For those of us seeking to appear friendly and trustworthy to others, a new study underscores an old, chipper piece of advice: Put on a happy face.
A newly published series of experiments by cognitive neuroscientists at New York University is reinforcing the relevance of facial expressions to perceptions of characteristics such as trustworthiness and friendliness. More importantly, the research also revealed the unexpected finding that perceptions of abilities such as physical strength are not dependent on facial expressions but rather on facial bone structure.
The team’s first experiment featured photographs of 10 different people presenting five different facial expressions each. Study subjects rated how friendly, trustworthy or strong the person in each photo appeared. A separate group of subjects scored each face on an emotional scale from “very angry” to “very happy.” And three experts not involved in either of the previous two ratings to avoid confounding results calculated the facial width-to-height ratio for each face. An analysis revealed that participants generally ranked people with a happy expression as friendly and trustworthy but not those with angry expressions. Surprisingly, participants did not rank faces as indicative of physical strength based on facial expression but graded faces that were very broad as that of a strong individual.
In a second survey facial expression and facial structure were manipulated in computer-generated faces. Participants rated each face for the same traits as in the first survey, with the addition of a rating for warmth. Again, people thought a happy expression, but not an angry one, indicated friendliness, trustworthiness — and in this case, warmth. The researchers then showed two additional sets of participants the same faces, this time either with areas relevant to facial expressions obscured or the width cropped. In the first variation, for faces lacking emotional cues, people could no longer perceive personality traits but could still perceive strength based on width. Similarly, for those faces lacking structural cues, people could no longer perceive strength but could still perceive personality traits based on facial expressions.
In a third iteration of the survey participants had to pick four faces out of a lineup of eight faces varied for expression and width that they might select either as their financial advisor or as the winner of a power-lifting competition. As might be expected, participants picked faces with happier expressions as financial advisors and selected broader faces as belonging to power-lifting champs.
In a final survey the researchers generated more than 100 variations of one individual “base face” by varying facial features. Participants saw two faces at a time, and then picked one as either trustworthy or high in ability or as a good financial advisor or power-lifting winner. Using these results, a computer then created an average face for each of these four categories, which were shown to a separate set of participants who had to pick which face appeared either more trustworthy or stronger. Most of the participants found the computer-generated averages to be good representations of trustworthiness or strength — and generally saw the average “financial advisor” face as more trustworthy and the “powerlifter” face as stronger. The findings from all four surveys were published in the Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin on June 18.
Adaptado de www.scientific.american.com/article/your-facial-bone-strecture-has-a-big-influence-on-how-people-see-you.(acesso em 20/8/2015)
De acordo com o texto são relatados os resultados de quatro pesquisas realizadas por neurocientistas ligados a empresas de recursos humanos.
todos os estudos utilizaram o mesmo método para analisar as fotos, mas os resultados são distintos.
as pesquisas foram encomendadas por gerenciadores de redes sociais como o Facebook e o LinkedIn.
as pesquisas mostram que as pessoas avaliam a confiabilidade observando as expressões faciais do indivíduo.
os quatro estudos apresentam resultados totalmente distintos no que se refere à afetuosidade.
Questão 2: ENEM 2014
A Tall Order
The sky isn’t the limit for an architect building the world’s first invisible skyscraper.
Charles Wee, one of the world’s leading high-rise architects, has a confession to make: he’s bored with skyscrapers. After designing more than 30, most of which punctuate the skylines of rapidly expanding Asian cities, he has struck upon a novel concept: the first invisible skyscraper.
As the tallest structure in South Korea, his infinity tower will loom over Seoul until somebody pushes a button and it completely disappears.
When he entered a 2004 competition to design a landmark tower, the Korean-American architect rejected the notion of competing with Dubai, Toronto, and Shanghai to reach the summit of man-made summits. “I thought, let’s not jump into this stupid race to build another ‘tallest’ tower,” he says in a phone conversation. “Let’s take an opposite approach — let’s make an anti-tower.”
The result will be a 150-story building that fades from view at a flick of a swtich.The tower Will effectively function as an enormous television screen, being able to project an exact replica of whatever is happening behind it onto its façade. To the human eye, the building will appear to have melted away.
It will be the most extraordinary achievement of Wee’s stellar architectural career. After graduating from UCLA, he worked under Anthony Lumsden, a prolific californian architect who helped devise the modern technique of wrapping buildings inside smooth glass skins.
No título e no subtítulo desse texto, as expressões A Tall Order e The sky isn’t the limit são usadas para apresentar uma matéria cujo tema é:
Inovações tecnológicas usadas para a construção de um novo arranha-céu em Seul.
Confissões de um arquiteto que busca se destacar na construção de arranha-céus.
Técnicas a serem estabelecidas para a construção de edifícios altos na Califórnia.
Competição entre arquitetos para a construção do edifício mais alto do mundo.
Construção de altas torres de apartamentos nas grandes metrópoles da Ásia.
Questão 3: ITA 2015
IRON MAN DESIGNERS TO BUILD BODY ARMOUR FOR US ARMY
Hollywood special effect team is working on a new Iron Man 'agile exoskeleton' for US soldiers
The Oscar-nominated special effects team behind the Iron Man suit has been contracted to design body armour for the US military.
Legacy Effects, a Hollywood design studio based in California, has previously worked on power suits for films such as RoboCop, Captain America, The Terminator and Iron Man. Now, the company is building body armour equipped with an "agile exoskeleton" that will allow soldiers to carry hundreds of pounds of equipment, the Wall Street Journal reports.
"We are trying to be revolutionary," said Mike Fieldson, who manages the US military project known as the Tactical Assault Light Operator Suit (Talos).
Three prototypes have been presented to the Pentagon by teams of bioengineers, technologists and a Canadian company that studies insect and animal exoskeletons. The prototypes will contribute to the creation of a new generation of body armour which the US Special Operations Command aims to complete within four years.
The suits are designed to protect soldiers from bullets, explosions and bayonet attacks.
Legacy Effects admits that bringing an Iron Man to life presents significant challenges. For one thing, a real-life version of the suit would add extra bulk to a soldier limiting his or her agility. Also, the company estimates that the Iron Man suit would probably weigh about 180kg, and would need to be supported by a mobile exoskeleton, but "none of the exoskeletons in the industry are capable of moving that much weight", SlashGear reports.
Russ Angold of Ekso Bionics, a company that designs exoskeletons for medical use, says that power armour in films offer an unrealistic model, so engineers are presently trying to make the suits more practical. "Hollywood has definitely made the Iron Man suit impossibly thin, impossibly light, impossibly agile and impossibly energy efficient. So we're really trying to solve the problem and ask the question: What would Iron Man look like if it was real?"
The US military has so far spent about $10 million on Talos, prompting the armed services committee to request a briefing on the project to ensure taxpayer money is not being wasted.
"Will you ever have an Iron Man? I don't know," said Brian Dowling, a former soldier involved in the project. "But you'll have some greatly improved technology along the way".
De acordo com o texto, O projeto Talos tem por objetivo construir uma prótese a ser usada por soldados americanos.
foi idealizado há quatro anos e três protótipos foram apresentados.
é constituído por uma equipe formada por militares americanos e pesquisadores aposentados.
conta com a participação do studio que desenvolveu a armadura do Iron Man.
faz parte de um projeto mais amplo desenvolvido pela empresa americana Legacy Effects.
Questão 4: ENEM 2014
If You Can’t Master English, Try Globish
PARIS — It happens all the time: during an airport delay the man to the left, a Korean perhaps, starts talking to the man opposite, who might be Colombian, and soon they are chatting away in what seems to be English. But the native English speaker sitting between them cannot understand a word.
They don’t know it, but the Korean and the Colombian are speaking Globish, the latest addition to the 6,800 languages that are said to be spoken across the world. Not that its inventor, Jean-Paul Nerrière, considers it a proper language. “It is not a language, it is a tool,” he says. “A language is the vehicle of a culture. Globish doesn’t want to be that at all. It is a means of communication.”
Nerrière doesn’t see Globish in the same light as utopian efforts such as Kosmos, Volapuk, Novial or staunch Esperanto. Nor should it be confused with barbaric Algol (for Algorithmic language). It is a sort of English lite: a means of simplifying the language and giving it rules so it can be understood by all.
BLUME, M. Disponível em: www.nytimes.com. Acesso em: 28 out. 2013 (fragmento).
Considerando as ideias apresentadas no texto, o Globish (Global English) é uma variedade da língua inglesa que
tem status de língua por refletir uma cultura global.
facilita o entendimento entre o falante nativo e o não nativo.
tem as mesmas características de projetos utópicos como o esperanto.
altera a estrutura do idioma para possibilitar a comunicação internacional.
apresenta padrões de fala idênticos aos da variedade usada pelos falantes nativos.
Questão 5: FUVEST 2015
Between now and 2050 the number of people living in cities will grow from 3.9 billion to 6.3 billion. The proportion of urban dwellers will swell from 54% to 67% of the world’s population, according to the UN. In other words, for the next 36 years the world’s cities will expand by the equivalent of six São Paulos every year. This growth will largely occur in developing countries. But most governments there are ignoring the problem, says William Cobbett of the Cities Alliance, an NGO that supports initiatives such as the one launched by New York University to help cities make long term preparations for their growth. “Whether we want it or not, urbanisation is inevitable,” say specialists. “The real question is: how can we improve its quality?”
The Economist, June 21st 2014. Adaptado.
De acordo com o texto,
a população rural crescerá na mesma proporção que a população urbana nos próximos 20 anos.
a população, nas cidades, chegará a mais de 6 bilhões de pessoas até 2050.
a expansão de cidades como São Paulo é um exemplo do crescimento global.
a cidade de São Paulo cresceu seis vezes mais, na última década, do que o previsto por especialistas.
o crescimento maior da população em centros urbanos ocorrerá em países desenvolvidos.
Questão 6: ENEM 2014
The Road Not Taken (by Robert Frost)
Two roads diverged in a wood, and I —
I took the one less traveled by,
And that has made all the difference.
Disponível em: www.poetryfoundation.org. Acesso em: 29 nov. 2011 (fragmento).
Estes são os versos finais do famoso poema The Road Not Taken, do poeta americano Robert Frost. Levando-se em consideração que a vida é comumente metaforizada como uma viagem, esses versos indicam que o autor
festeja o fato de ter sido ousado na escolha que fez em sua vida.
lamenta por ter sido um viajante que encontrou muitas bifurcações.
viaja muito pouco e que essa escolha fez toda a diferença em sua vida.
reconhece que as dificuldades em sua vida foram todas superadas.
percorre várias estradas durante as diferentes fases de sua vida.
Questão 7: ENEM 2015
Why am I compelled to write? Because the writing saves me from this complacency I fear. Because I have no choice. Because I must keep the spirit of my revolt and myself alive. Because the world I create in the writing compensates for what the real world does not give me. By writing I put order in the world, give it a handle so I can grasp it.
ANZALDÚA, G. E. Speaking in tongues: a letter to third world women writers.
In: HERNANDEZ, J. B. (Ed.). Women writing resistance: essays on
Latin America and the Caribbean. Boston: South End, 2003.
Gloria Evangelina Anzaldúa, falecida em 2004, foi uma escritora americana de origem mexicana que escreveu sobre questões culturais e raciais. Na citação, o intuito da autora é evidenciar as
razões pelas quais ela escreve.
compensações advindas da escrita.
possibilidades de mudar o mundo real.
maneiras de ela lidar com seus medos.
escolhas que ela faz para ordenar o mundo.
Questão 8:ITA 2015
THE MAN IN THE CONVERTIBLE
One morning, well after I was diagnosed with cancer, I got an email from Robbee Kosak, Carnegie Mellon’s vice president for advancement. She told me a story.
She said she had been driving home from work the night before, and she found herself behind a man in a convertible. It was a warm, gorgeous, early-spring evening, and the man had his top down and all his windows lowered. His arm was hanging over the driver’s side door, and his fingers were tapping along to the music on his radio. His head was bobbing along, too, as the wind blew through his hair.
Robbee changed lanes and pulled a little closer. From the side, she could see that the man had a slight smile on his face, the kind of absentminded smile a person might have when he’s all alone, happy in his own thoughts. Robbee found herself thinking: “Wow, this is the epitome of a person appreciating this day and this moment.”
The convertible eventually turned the corner, and that’s when Robbee got a look at the man’s full face. “Oh my God,” she said to herself. “It’s Randy Pausch!”
She was so struck by the sight of me. She knew that my cancer diagnosis was grim. And yet, as she wrote in her email, she was moved by how contented I seemed. In this private moment, I was obviously in high spirits. Robbee wrote in her email: “You can never know how much that glimpse of you made my day, reminding me of what life is all about.”
I read Robbee’s email several times. I came to look at it as a feedback loop of sorts.
It has not always been easy to stay positive through my cancer treatment. When you have a dire medical issue, it’s tough to know how you’re really faring emotionally. I had wondered whether a part of me was acting when I was with other people. Maybe at times I forced myself to appear strong and upbeat. Many cancer patients feel obliged to put up a brave front. Was I doing that, too?
But Robbee had come upon me in an unguarded moment. I’d like to think she saw me as I am. She certainly saw me as I was that evening.
Her mail was just a paragraph, but it meant a great deal to me. She had given me a window into myself. I was still fully engaged. I still knew life was good. I was doing OK.
Fonte: PAUSCH, R. The last lecture. New York, Hyperion, 2008. p.64-65.
De acordo com as informações no texto, Robbee Kosak
descreveu detalhadamente o cenário do seu primeiro encontro com Randy Pausch.
sentiu-se atraída pelo veículo de Randy Pausch devido à alta velocidade dele.
escreveu palavras motivadoras a Randy Pausch porque desejava reanimá-lo.
caracterizou o motorista do veículo como uma pessoa satisfeita e de bem com a vida.
ocupava o cargo de Vice-Presidente na empresa presidida por Randy Pausch.
Observe o texto abaixo para as questões 9 e 10:
Missing Out: In Praise of the Unlived Life is Adam Phillips's 17th book and is a characteristic blend of literary criticism and philosophical reflection packaged around a central idea. The theme here is missed opportunities, roads not taken, alternative versions of our lives and ourselves, all of which, Phillips argues, exert a powerful hold over our imaginations. Using a series of examples and close readings of authors including Philip Larkin and Shakespeare, the book suggests that a broader understanding of life's inevitable disappointments and thwarted desires can enable us to live fuller, richer lives. Good things come to those who wait.
Does he see himself as a champion of frustration? “I'm not on the side of frustration exactly, so much as the idea that one has to be able to bear frustration in order for satisfaction to be realistic. I'm interested in how the culture of consumer capitalism depends on the idea that we can't bear frustration, so that every time we feel a bit restless or bored or irritable, we eat, or we shop.”
The Guardiaguardian.co.uk, 1 June 2012. Adaptado. Questão 9: No texto, em resposta à pergunta “Does he see himself as a champion of frustration?”, o autor do livro argumenta ser necessário que as pessoas tenham experiências satisfatórias para compreender a frustração.
entendam cada vez mais a cultura capitalista de consumo.
se distraiam fazendo compras quando estão irritadas.
lidem com as frustrações para que suas satisfações sejam realistas.