Islamic Scholars

Download 141.06 Kb.
Date conversion04.02.2017
Size141.06 Kb.
1   2   3

world struggled to accommodate the influx of news that was coming

from Iran; the Imam has returned. Some quoted thousands had gone

to meet him and others, hundreds of thousands, but the truth is

that millions thronged to receive the Imam when he landed on home

Imam Khomeini returned to Iran, from exile and brought with him the

'Dawn of the Islamic Revolution,' but now the light of the full sun

shines from the faces of those who have followed his guidance and

accepted the tenets of Islam.
The Islamic Republic of Iran like a beacon, shines out across the

globe and embraces the oppressed.

On Saturday evening, June 3, 1989 (the 13th of Khurdad, 1368

corresponding to the 28 of Shawwal of the lunar year 1409) Imam

Ruhullah Khomeini (S.A.), the great leader of the Islamic revolution

and founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran, passed away and joined

the high heaven. In Imam Khomeini's demise the world lost a great

history making revolutionary and a matchless leader who awakened

the Muslims, revived Islam and restored to it its pristine grandeur by

his honorable life.

Go back...


Mohammad Fazel Lankarani

Mohammad Fazel Lankarani was born

in 1930 in Qum. His father was one of

the great sages at Qum's religious

school (Hozeh Ilmieh Qum). At the

age of 13 he started his education in

Islamic sciences in Qum's religious

school. He rapidly progressed through

the various levels and by the age of

19 was able to attend the "Kharij"

level, which at that time was taught

by Grand Ayatollah Borujerdi. His

studentship at this level lasted for 11

years (this level being among the

longest and most difficult collection of

courses taught at the religious school

of Qum). Also, he attended Imam

Ruhollah Khomeini's courses for a

period of nine years. He learned "interpretation" and "philosophy" in

the classes of Ayatollah Tabataba'ie. At the age of 25, Mohammad

Fazel Lankarani was formally designated Grand Ayatollah by his

teacher Grand Ayatollah Borujerdi.

For the past 25 years, Grand Ayatollah Fazel Lankarani has been

teaching, inter alia, the "Kharij" level at Qum's religious school. His

classes are usually attended by over 700 religious experts and

students. Part of the lectures are broadcast on the radio for Iranian

and non-Iranian audiences.
Subsequent to the demise of Imam Khomeini [p], and Grand

Ayatollah Araki [p], Grand Ayatollah Fazel Lankarani was conferred

the status of the "first source of emulation" of the Islamic ummah by

the Society of Instructors at Qum's religious school.

Go back...


Ayatullah Sayyid Ali Khamene'i

Born: Mashad, 15 July, 1939

Sayyed Ali Khamene'i was born in

Mashad, the holiest city, in the

north-eastern province of Khorasan, in

1939. Both his parents belonged to

clergy's families and spent the year

1964, he achieved the highest degrees

in his theological studies at the

Theological Academy of Qum but

continued his studies at the Theological

Academy at Mashad up to the age of

Ayatullah Sayyid Ali Khamene'i proved a

worthy student of Iman Khomeini: Joined

his Islamic movement in 1962 and was

imprisoned and exiled several times between 1963 and 1978 for his

active role in organising the masses aganist the Pahlavi regime.
A list of some of his active posts, since the sucess of the

Revolution, shows the confidence Imam Khomeini had in him:

March 1979 - Member of the Revolutionary Council

August 1979 - Commander of the Revolutionary Guards

January 1980 - Friday Prayer Leader, Tehran

March 1980 - Member of Majlis from Tehran

September 1981 - Secretary General, Hizb Jamhouri Islami
On June 27, 1981, he was seriously injured by a bomb planted by

MKO terrorist, and his right arm was disabled. He was elected

President of the Islamic Republic of Iran in October of 1981 and got

re-elected in August 1985.

Upon the death of Imam Khomeini, he was elected the leader of IR

of Iran. He takes keen interest in the development of educational

system at Qum; and has established the Computerised Research

Centre of the Islamic Knowledge there with various important


Go back...


Ayatullah Sayyid Muhsin Al-Hakeem

Ayatullah Seyyid Muhsin Al­Hakim was

born in 1306 AH. in a family renowned

for its scholarship. He studied under the

tutelage of great FUQAHA, like

Ayatullah Seyyid Muhammad Kadhim

Yazdi, Ayatullah Mirza Husain Naeeni,

Ayatullah Zia Iraqi and others.

He was always in the fore-front to

defend Islam and Muslims. After World

War I, when the British wanted to

colonize Iraq, the Shi'a ulama, under

Sayyid Muhammad Taqi Shirazi, took

arms to defend the Muslim land.

Ayatullah Hububi too raised a militia and

made Sayyid Muhsin Al-Hakeem, aged

26, his right hand man.
The communists dominated Abdul-Karim Qasim's government, and

began a reign of terror against Islam. Sayyid Muhsin Al-Hakeem's

historic fatewa, branding communism as kufr and atheism, proved

the beginning of the end for communists. He stood firm against the

Ba'thists onslaught against Islam and Muslims.
The regime continuously harassed him in one way or the other; his

son Mahdi, was sentenced to death in absentia, and was eventually

killed in Khartoum in 1988. His family is still paying the price for their

adherence to justice and truth.

He became a sole Marja after the death of Ayatullah Seyyid Husain

Burujardi, with whom his family tree shared a common lineage finally

reaching Ameerul Mumineen ­ Imam Ali b. Abu Talib (AS). The Hawza

of Najaf grew immensely under his Marjaiyya, boasting nearly an

unprecedented figure of 8000 students. He also instituted several

changes in the curriculum of the Hawzas, which have had far

reaching effects. His famous work in FIQH is 'MUSTAMSAK' which is

acknowledged as the most exhaustive and enlightening commentary

on the first part of al­Urwatul Wuthqa. The style and skill of his

reasoning established him among the FUQAHA of the first rank. He is

also well known for his clear fatwa against Communism, declaring it

an ideology of KUFR and ATHEISM.

He died on 27the Rabi­ul­Awwal 1390 AH. in Najaf and was buried in

the great and modern library he had established.

Go back...


Ayatullah Sayyid Mohammad Raza Gulpaygani

Ayatullah Seyed Muhammad Reza

Gulpaygani departed for his heavenly

abode on Thursday night, 9th of

December at the age of 96. He suffered

from acute respiratory deficiency and

lung infection for which he was confined

at hospital.

The Ayatullah who was the supreme

religious authority of the Shi'a world,

became terminally ill immediately after

midnight Tuesday and was rushed to

the Cardiac Care Unit of the hospital but

his condition continued to deteriorate

despite the extra care and attention of

his doctors.

Ayatullah Gulpaygani went into a coma in the wee hours of

Wednesday morning and eventually left the mortal world minutes

before evening prayers Thursday.
He saw the light of day in the village of Koukeh near the city of

Gulpaygan (135 kms north-east of Isfahan) in the closing years of

the 19th century and at the age of 20 went to Arak which was the

Centre of the Theological studies. There, he received his education

under Ayatullah Abdul Karim Haeri. Later in 1921 he went to the city

of Qum to complete his studies.

In the early 1960s following the death of Grand Ayatullah Boroujerdi

and during the banishment Ayatullah Imam Khumayni from Iran, he

became superintendent of the Qum Theological Seminary. He took

over the administration of the school at a crucial time when both

the theological school and Islamic scholars were in at stake due to

repressive measures directed by Shah. At that time he had about

800 students who attended his classes and received advanced

training in religious studies.

Ayatullah Gulpaygani is the author of a number of scholarly works

and treatises as well as commentaries on various other works of

scholastically abstruse character. Among them is an annotation on

the Al-Urwat-ul-Wuthqa, 'Tawzih-al-Masa'il' the Manasik-e-Hajj' and

so on.
He rendered valuable services during his superintendence of the

Theological Seminary in Qum, and also helped establish almost 30

theological schools in various towns and cities throughout Iran, as

well as health clinics for students and other types of public utility

centers in many parts of the country and abroad as well.
Ayatullah Gulpaygani was a great scholar and a 'Marj'a' and he had

many followers throughout the world. He subscribed to the concept

of 'Willayat-e-Faqhih put forwarded by Imam Khumayni.
The Leader of the Islamic Revolution Ayatullah Seyed Ali Khamenei

expressed deep condolence over the sad demise of the Grand

Ayatullah Muhammad Reza Gulpaygani.
He was one of the pillars of the Islamic Revolution and The Islamic

Republic, said the leader in a statement.

During the oppressive rule of the former regime and in confronting

the bitter incidents which occurred in the years after the

banishment from Iran of Imam Khumayni (1963), there was some

occasions when the voice of this great personality was the only

threatening voice against the former regime, which raised from the

Qum theological seminary and gave enthusiasm to the Islamic

After the victory of the Islamic Revolution, he had an active

contribution in managing the general affairs of the revolution, said

the statement adding that he unequivocally supported the Islamic

Republic system and its exalted leadership. He was respected and

honoured by the late Imam Khumayni.
The departure of this divine scholar was a grave and irreparable

loss, the statement added.

The statement also said that the grand Ayatullah was

Marja'-e-Taqlid for 32 years, and a teacher at the Qum theological

seminary for about 72 years while keeping on learning and teaching

Fiqh (Jurisprudence) for about 85 years.

He was the first person to establish modern theological seminary and

the first great institute for Quranic studies in Qum. He was the first

person to prepare a table of contents of Fiqh and Hadith (Tradition)

by using modern technology and knowledge.

He founded hundreds of schools, mosques and Islamic propagation

centres in Iran and other countries and brought up thousands of


Go back...


Ayatullah Sayyid Husain Burojirdi

Ayatullah Seyyid Husain Burujardi, was

born in Burujard in 1292 AH. He was a

student of masters like Akhund

Khurasani and Aqa Zia Iraqi. FIQH was

his special interest, and in order to

master it fully, he studied FIQH of all

the Islamic schools of thought. While

citing the Traditions of Masoomeen (AS)

to support any of his deductions, Seyyid

Husain Burujardi is known to have

brought so many new aspects to light.

He also had a keen insight in the

science of RIJAL. Shaheed Mutahhari

and Ayatullah Shaikh Husain Muntadhar

are among his numerous worthy

He revived the hawzah of Qum in 1364/1945, after the death in

1935 of its founder, Shaykh Abdul Karim Ha'iri. When Sayyid Abul

Hassan Isfahani died in 1365/1946, majority of Shi'as accepted

Ayatullah Sayyid Husain Burojirdi as Marja'-e-Taqlid.

He was the first Marja' to look beyond Iraq and Iran. He sent Sayyid

Muhaqqiqi to Hamburg, Germany, Aqa-e-Shari'at to Karachi,

Pakistan, Al-Faqihi to Madinah and Sayyid Musa Sadr to Lebenon. A

firm believer in Islamic unity, he established cordial relations with

Shaykh Mahmud Shaltut, the grand Shaykh of Al-Azhar.
Shaykh Mahmud Shaltut and Ayatullah Sayyid Husain Burojirdi

established "The house for bringing Muslim sects nearer" in Cairo.

Shaykh Mahmud Shaltut issued his famous fatwa accepting the

Shi'a faith as one of the recognised sects of Islam; and Ayatullah

Sayyid Husain Burojirdi vehemently opposed those who attacked the

Khulafa' in their speeches and writings.

Ayatullah Sayyid Husain Burojirdi passively opposed the Pahlawi

regime's so called agrarian reforms, which he named agrarian

destruction, which it turned out to be.
He died in Qum on 13th Shawaal 1381 AH. at the ripe age of 90.

Go back...


Usman ibn Sayeed

Usman ibn Sayeed (260 A.D. - 304 A.H.) . He was the holder of the

office in the time of Imam Ali an-Naqi and Imam Hasan al-Askari and

both these Imams considered him as their private secretary and

treasurer, and they both considered him thoroughly reliable. What

he said on their behalf was the same as if they had said it. At times

Imam Hasan al-askari addressed him in public as the "agent for the

property of Allah". For which property he was to give a receipt

when he accepted it on behalf of the Imam. Upon the death of

Imam Hasan al-Askari, he acted as the chief deputy of Imam Mahdi

(a.t.f.s.) This office he served till his death in Baghdad in 304 A.H.

His grave is a the Shari-al-Maydan, in the mosque near the city

gate. In 408 A.H. there was an entrance to the tomb room from a

small door in the prayer niche of the mosque, but thirty-two years

later this wall was destroyed and the tomb was left in the open

court where it could be visited by anyone.

Go back...


Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Usman

Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Usman (304 A.H.- 305 A.H.) He was

designated by the written will of his father to succeed him as the

representative of Imam Mahdi. He had a vast collection of books on

Law which he had inherited from his father, and which his father had

received from Imams.
During the period that he served as the chief deputy, he took an

oath that the Master of the Age was present among the pilgrims of

Mecca every year and he sees them although they fail to see him.
As a sign of Abu Ja'far's supernatural intuition it is related that one

of his friends found him inscribing a verse of the Quran on a slab of

a stone, and in the margins he was cutting the names of the

Imams. His friends asked him what he was doing. "It is for my

grave", he said, and then he told this man when he expected to

die. To others he expressed the same opinion, and the traditions

that his prediction proved to be true. After he had served the

Imams for about fifty years, he died in the year 305 A.H. He was

buried bodies the grave of his mother, on the roadside at the Kufa

Gate, at the place where his house stood.

Go back...


Abul Qasim Husain ibn Ruh
Abul Qasim Husain ibn Ruh (305 A.H. - 326 A.H.). Abu Ja'far's

daughter, Umme Kulsum, has related as follows "Husain ibn Ruh was

my father's agent for many years. He looked after the property and

conveyed his secret messages to those concerned. He was most

zealous in the service of my father, who trusted him implicitly."
Although her father had another friend and loyal patron, Abu Ja'far

ibn Ahmad, he saw fit to choose Abul Qasim Husain ibn Ruh to be his

successor, and his appointment was very welcome. He was

esteemed by everyone and was acknowledged as a most learned

man. He died in the year 326 A.H., and his grave is near the house

of Ali ibn Ahmad Nubakhti, at a point beyond the Shawk bridge and

towards the city gate at Baghdad.

Go back...


Abul Hasan ali-ibn Muhammad Samarri

Abul Hasan ali-ibn Muhammad Samarri (326 A.H. - 329 A.H.) He was

the last legate and succeeded Abul Qasim Husain ibn Ruh. When he

was asked about his successor, he said, "God now wills otherwise

and the duration of such a period is known only to Him."

A few days before he died, he had received a letter from the Imam

al-Mahdi. He died in 329 A.H. and his grave is one the Sharia

Khalbakhi near the canal Nagrabi.
1   2   3

The database is protected by copyright © 2016
send message

    Main page