Ion Channels Na+-K

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Exercise 1

Subject: Basis of neurophysiology

  1. Functional Morphology of the Cell

  2. Membrane Physiology

    1. Membrane Permeability and Transport of Substances Through the Cell Membrane

    2. Ion Channels

    3. Na+-K+ ATPase

    4. Secondary Active Transport

  3. Resting Membrane Potentials of Nerves

  4. Nerve cells morphology

  5. Basic Functions of the Nervous System

  6. Supporting Cells of Nervous Tissue

  7. Measuring the Membrane Potential

Exercise 2

Subject: Neurophysiology II

  1. Nerve Action Potential

    1. Electrotonic Potentials, Local Response and Firing Level (Threshold)

    2. Latent Period

    3. Action Potential

    4. All-or-None“ Law

    5. Ionic Basis of Action Potential

    6. Changes in Excitability During Electrotonic Potentials and the Action Potential

  2. Propagation of the Action Potential

    1. Contiguous Conduction

    2. Saltatory Conduction

    3. Orthodromic and Antidromic Conduction

  3. Properties of Mixed Nerves

  4. Nerve Fiber Types & Function

  5. Synaptic Transmission

    1. Types of Synapses

    2. Functional Anatomy

    3. Events in Synaptic Transmission

    4. Excitatory and Inhibitory Synapses

    5. Inhibition & Facilitation at Synapses

    6. Special Characteristics of Synaptic Transmission

      1. Synaptic Fatigue

      2. Synaptic Delay

      3. One-Way Conduction

      4. Summation and Occlusion

      5. Effect of Hypoxia and Drugs on Synaptic Transmission

    7. Synaptic Plasticity and Learning

Exercise 3

Subject: Muscles

  1. Types of Muscles

  2. Skeletal Muscles

    1. Morphology

      1. Organization of Skeletal Muscle

      2. Thick- and Thin-Filament composition

    2. Neuromuscular Transmission

    3. Electrical Phenomena and Ionic Fluxes

    4. Contractile Responses

      1. Sliding Mechanism of Contraction

      2. Molecular Basis of Contraction (Excitation-Contraction Coupling)

      3. Length-Tension Relationship

      4. Force-Velocity Relationship

      5. Types of Contraction

      6. Summation of Contractions

    5. Energy Sources and Metabolism

    6. Fatigue

    7. Fiber Types

    8. Motor Units

    9. Remodeling of Muscle to Match Function

      1. Hypertrophy

      2. Atrophy

      3. Denervation

  3. Smooth Muscles

    1. Morphology

    2. Types of Smooth Muscles

    3. Molecular Basis of Contraction

    4. Self-generated Electrical Activity in Smooth Muscle

Exercise 4

Subject: Sensory Physiology

  1. Stimulus, adequate stimulus, transduction.

  2. Sensory Receptors

  3. Transduction of sensory stimuli

  4. Generation of Impulses in Different Nerves

  5. Adaptation

  6. The Labeled Line Law

  7. "Coding" of Sensory Information

  8. Sensory Units, Receptive Fields, Recruitment of Sensory Units

  9. Lateral Inhibition

  10. Sensory Neurons

  11. Sensory Pathways (Dorsal Column-Medial Lemniscal and Anterolateral Pathway)

  12. Somatosensory Cortex

  13. Mechanoreception

  14. Thermoreception

  15. Pain

Exercise 5

Subject: The Central Nervous System

  1. Three Classes of Neurons

  2. Function of the Cerebrospinal Fluid System

  • Blood-Brain Barrier

  1. Glial Cells

  2. Cerebral Cortex

  • Plasticity

  • Language

  • Broca’s and Wernicke’s Areas

  1. Interbrain (Hypothalamus and Thalamus)

  2. Memory and Learning

  • Short term memory

  • Long term memory

  1. Basic function and pattern of EEG

  2. Sleep

Exercise 6

Subject: Control of Posture and Movement

  1. Muscle Receptors (Muscle Spindle, Golgi Tendon Organ)

  2. Spinal Reflexes:

    1. The Stretch Reflex

    2. The Inverse Stretch Reflex

    3. Other Reflexes

  3. Control of voluntary movement

    1. Cortical Motor Areas

    2. The Corticospinal Tract (Pyramidal Tract)

    3. The Cerebellum and its Motor Functions

    4. Basal Ganglia

  4. Spatial Orientation

  5. Semicircular Canals, Utricle, Saccule

  6. Vestibular Function, Responses to Rotational and Linear Acceleration, Nystagmus

Exercise 7
Subject: Special Senses: Vision, Hearing, Equilibrium, Smell and Taste

  1. Vision:

    1. Visible Light

    2. Physical Principles of Optics and Image Formation

    3. Structure of the Eye

    4. Refractive Errors (Myopia, Hyperopia, Presbiopia), Correction

    5. Accommodation

    6. The Near Response (Accommodation Reflex)

    7. Visual Acuity, the Snellen Charts Design

    8. Characteristics of the Fovea Centralis and Peripheral Retina

    9. Photochemistry of Vision

    10. Dark and Light Adaptation

    11. ScoSubject and PhoSubject Vision

    12. Colour Vision

    13. Visual Pathways

  2. Hearing and Equilibrium:

    1. Sound Waves

    2. External, Middle and Inner Ear

    3. Cochlea, Organ of Corti

    4. Sound Transmission and Amplification

    5. Sound Transduction (Excitation of the Hair Cells)

    6. Vestibular Apparatus (Semicircular Ducts and Otholit Organs)

    7. Detection of Angular and Linear Acceleration

  3. Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

    1. Location and Structure of the Olfactory Receptors

    2. Olfaction Characteristics

    3. Basic Types of Taste Sensations

    4. Distribution of Sensitivity for the Four Taste Qualities

    5. Taste Buds

    6. Taste Transduction

Exercise 8

Subject: The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

  1. General Organisation and Functions of ANS

  2. Autonomic Nerve Pathway

  3. Dual Innervation

  4. Effects of ANS on Various Organs

  • Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Dominance

  1. Anatomic Organisation of Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Divisions

  2. Adrenal Medulla

  3. Chemical Transmission at Autonomic Junctions

  • Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulatots Present Within the ANS

  1. Structure of the Membrane Receptors

  • Inositol Triphosphate and Diacylglycerol as Second Messengers

  1. The Influence of Drugs on the ANS

  2. Central Control of Autonomic Functions

  3. Comparison of the Autonomic Nervous System and Somatic Nervous System

Exercise 9

Quarterly Quiz: exercises 1-8
Exercise 10
Subject: Electrical Activity of the Heart

  1. Membrane Resting Potential in Contractile and Autorhytmic Cells

  2. Pacemaker potential

  3. Anantomy considerations of Cardiac Conduction System

  4. Action Potential in Autorhythmic and Contractile Cells

  5. Transmission of the Cardiac Impulse through the Heart

  6. The Conduction System of the Heart

  7. Excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac contractile cells

Exercise 11
Subject: Electrocardiography

  1. Spread of Cardiac Excitation

  • Recording of depolaryzation vs repolaryzation waves

  1. Bipolar and Unipolar Leads

  • Limb leads (standart and augmented)

  • Precardial leads

  1. Theoretical basis of Electrocardiogram

  • Waves:P,Q,R,S,T

  • Segments: PQ, TP

  • Itervals: PQ, ST

  1. Characteristics of the Normal Electrocardiogram

  2. The Mean Electrical Axis of the Heart

1st Quarterly QUIZ RE-TAKE

Exercise 12

Subject: The Heart as a Pump

  1. Cardiovascular System Overview

  2. Functional Anatomy of Cardiac Muscle

  3. Excitation-Contraction Coupling in the Cardiac Muscle

  4. Cardiac Output and Its Control

    1. Cardiac Output, Stroke Volume, Ejection Fraction, Cardiac Index

    2. Measurement of Cardiac Output – Fick Principle

    3. Relation of Tension to Lenght in Cardiac Muscle (The Frank-Starling Law)

    4. Control of Cardiac Output

  5. The Cardiac Cycle

  6. Pressure-Volume Relationship

  7. Heart Sounds

Exercise 13
Subject: Circulation: Dynamics of Blood and Lymph Flow

  1. Blood Vessels

  2. Biophysical Considerations

    1. Velocity and Flow of the Bloodstream

    2. Pressure and Flow

    3. Poiseuille’s Law

    4. Resistance to Flow

    5. Laminar and Turbulent Flow

    6. Critical Closing Pressure

    7. Laplace‘s Law

  3. Arterial Pressure

    1. Systolic Pressure

    2. Diastolic Pressure

    3. Pulse Pressure

    4. Mean Pressure

  4. Blood Pressure Measurement in Humans

  5. Microcirculation

    1. Vasoactive Role of Capillary Endothelium

    2. Passive Role of Capillary Endothelium

      1. Diffusion

      2. Filtration

  6. Lymphatic Circulation

Exercise 14

Subject: Cardiovascular Regulatory Mechanisms

  1. General overview of blood pressure regulation

  2. Autoregulation (Myogenic and Metabolic)

  3. Substances Secreted by the Endothelium

  4. Systemic Regulation by Hormones

  5. Cardiac Innervation

  6. Innervation of the Blood Vessels

  7. Systemic Regulation by the Nervous System:

  • Baroreceptors

  • Left-Ventricular Receptors, Bezold-Jarisch Reflex

  • Atrial Stretch Receptors, Bainbridge’s Reflex

  • Pulmonary Receptors

  • Effect of Chemoreceptor Stimulation

Exercise 15

Subject: Circulation through Special Regions

  1. Coronary Circulation

    1. Anatomic Considerations

    2. Factors Affecting the Coronary Flow (Mechanical, Chemical and Neural)

  2. Pulmonary Circulation

    1. Anatomic Considerations

    2. Effect of Gravity and Ventilation

    3. Regulation of Pulmonary Blood Flow

  3. Cerebral Circulation

    1. Anatomic Considerations

    2. The Blood-Brain Barrier

    3. Regulation of the Cerebral Blood Flow

  4. Splanchic Circulation

    1. Intestinal Circulation

    2. Hepatic Circulation

  5. Cutaneous Circulation

  6. Placental and Fetal Circulation

Exercise 16

Subject: Quarterly Quiz (Exercises 10-15)

Exercise 17

Subject: Respiration

  1. Overview of the Respiratory System

  2. Anatomy of the Lungs

  3. Mechanics of Respiration

    1. Inspiration and Expiration

    2. Respiratory Muscles

    3. Compliance of the Lungs and the Chest Wall

    4. Alveolar Surface Tension and Surfactant

    5. Differences in Ventilation and Blood Flow in Different Parts of the Lungs

    6. Dead Space and Uneven Ventilation

  4. Gas Exchange in the Lungs

    1. Composition of Alveolar Air – Its Relation to Atmospheric Air

    2. Diffusion Across the Respiratory Membrane

  5. Pulmonary Volumes and Capacities

Exercise 18

Subject: Regulation of Respiration

  1. Neural Control of Breathing

    1. Respiratory Center

    2. Pontine and Vagal Influences

    3. Receptors in the Airways and Lungs

  2. Chemical Control of Breathing

    1. Peripheral Chemoreceptors

    2. Chemoreceptors in the Brain Stem

    3. Ventilatory Responses to:

      1. Changes in Acid-Base Balance

      2. CO2

      3. Oxygen Lack

2nd Quarterly QUIZ RE-TAKE
Exercise 19
Subject: The Kidneys

  1. Functions of the Kidneys

  2. Functional Anatomy

    1. General Organization

    2. The Nephron

    3. Blood Vessels

    4. Innervation of the Renal Vessels

  3. Renal Circulation

    1. Renal Blood Flow (RPF, ERPF, RBF)

    2. Regulation of the Renal Blood Flow

  4. Glomerular Filtration

    1. Determinants of Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)

    2. Control of GFR

  5. Mechanisms of Tubular Reabsorption and Secretion

  6. Water Excretion

    1. Countercurrent Multiplers and Countercurrent Exchangers

    2. Role of Urea

    3. Role of ADH

  7. Micturition

Exercise 20

Subject: The Body Fluid Compartments and Acid-Base Balance

  1. Fluid Intake and Output

  2. The Body Fluid Compartments

  3. Constituents of Extracellular and Intracellular Fluids

  4. Osmotic Equilibrium between Intracellular and Extracellular Fluids

  5. Regulation of Acid-Base Balance

    1. Principal Buffers of Body Fluids

      1. The Bicarbonate Buffer System

      2. The Phosphate Buffer System

      3. The Protein Buffer System

      4. The Hemoglobin Buffer System

    2. Respiratory Regulation of Acid-Base Balance

    3. Renal Regulation of Acid-Base Balance

      1. Secretion of Hydrogen Ions and Reabsorption of Bicarbonate Ions by the Renal Tubule

    4. Clinical Evaluation of Acid-Base Status

Exercise 21

Subject: The Blood

  1. Blood Composition

  2. Red Blood Cells

  3. Hemoglobin

  4. Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide in the Blood and Body Fluids

  5. Iron Metabolism

  6. Blood Types

    1. The ABO System

      1. A and B Antigens

      2. Agglutinins

    2. Rh Blood Types

Exercise 22

Subject: The Blood II: Immunity and Hemostasis

  1. White Blood Cells

    1. Granulocytes

    2. Monocytes

    3. Lymphocytes

  2. Immunity

    1. Cytokines

    2. The Complement System

    3. Innate Immunity

    4. Acquired Immunity

    5. Memory“ Cells

    6. Antigen Recognition and Presentation

    7. Types of T Cells

    8. Immunoglobulins

  3. Platelets

  4. Hemostasis

    1. Events in Hemostasis

    2. Mechanism of Blood Coagulation

    3. Lysis of Blood Clots

    4. Anticlotting Mechanisms

    5. Anticoagulants

Exercise 23

Subject: Quarterly Quiz (Exercises 17-22)

Exercise 24

Subject: Endocrinology I

  1. Coordination of Body Functions by Chemical Messengers

  2. Chemical Structure of Hormones

  3. Hormone Secretion, Transport and Clearance from the Blood

  4. Mechanism of Action of Hormones

  5. The Hypothalamic Control of Pituitary Secretion

  6. The Pituitary Hormones:

    1. Growth Hormone

    2. ADH and Oxitocin

    3. MSH

  7. The Pancreas Hormones:

    1. Insulin

    2. Glucagon

  8. Leptin

Exercise 25

Subject: Endocrinology II

  1. The Thyroid Gland

    1. Iodine Metabolism

    2. The Thyroid Hormones

  2. ACTH

  3. Adrenocortical Hormones:

    1. Mineralocorticoids (Aldosterone)

    2. Glucocorticoids (Cortisol)

    3. Adrenal Androgens

  4. The Renin-Angiotensin System

3rd Quarterly QUIZ RE-TAKE

Exercise 26

Subject: Endocrinology III

  1. Hormonal Control of Calcium Metabolism

    1. Vitamin D

    2. PTH

    3. Calcitonin

  2. The Gonads:

    1. The Male Reproductive System

      1. Endocrine Function of the Testes

    2. The Female Reproductive System

      1. Ovarian Cycle

      2. Uterine Cycle

      3. Ovarian Hormones

Exercise 27

Subject: Exercise Physiology

  1. Muscle Fiber Types

  2. Strenght, Power and Endurance of Muscles

  3. Muscle Metabolic Systems in Exercise:

    1. Phosphocreatine-Creatine System

    2. Glycogen-Lactic Acid System

    3. Aerobic System

  4. Recovery of the Aerobic System After Exercise

    1. Oxygen Debt

    2. Recovery of Muscle Glycogen

  5. Muscle Fatigue

  6. Effect of Training on Muscle Performance

  7. Respiration in Exercise

  8. Cardiovascular System in Exercise

  9. Body Heat in Exercise

  10. Body Fluids and Salt in Exercise

Exercise 28

Subject: Quarterly Quiz (Exercises 24-27)

Exercise 29

Subject: Gastrointestinal Physiology

  1. Characteristics of the Gastrointestinal Wall

  2. Functional Types of Movements in the Gastrointestinal Tract

  3. Mastication (Chewing)

  4. Swallowing

  5. Defecation

  6. Vomiting

  7. Gastrointestinal Hormones

  8. Gases in the Gastrointestinal Tract

Exercise 30

Subject: Gastrointestinal Physiology II

  1. Secretion of Saliva

    1. Characteristics of Saliva

    2. Regulation of Salivary Secretion

  2. Gastric Secretion

    1. Characteristics of the Gastric Secretions

    2. Regulation of Gastric Secretion

    3. Mucsal Barrier

  3. Exocrine Pancreatic Secretion

    1. Composition of Pancreatic Juice

    2. Regulation of Pancreatic Secretion

  4. Liver and Biliary System

    1. Anatomic Considerations

    2. Functions of the Liver

    3. Biliary Secretion

      1. Storage and Concentration of Bile in the Gallbladder

      2. Characteristics of Bile

      3. Emptying of the Gallbladder

      4. Function of the Bile Salts in Fat Digestion and Absorption

      5. Enterohepatic Circulation of the Bile Salts

4th Quarterly QUIZ RE-TAKE

Curriculum of Human Physiology

at the Department of Physiology Medical University of Białystok


Basis of neurophysiology

Neurophysiology II


Sensory Physiology

The Central Nervous System

Control of Posture and Movement

Special Senses

The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

Quiz I (Exercises 1-8)

Electrical Activity of the Heart

Electrocardiography; re-take of the 1st quiz

The Heart as a Pump

Circulation: Dynamics of Blood and Lymph Flow

Cardiovascular Regulatory Mechanisms

Circulation Through Special Regions

Quiz II (Exercises 10-15)


Regulation of Respiration; re-take of the 2nd quiz

The Kidneys

The Body Fluid Compartments and Acid-Base Balance

The Blood

The Blood II: Immunity and Hemostasis

Quiz III (Exercises 17-22)

Endocrinology I

Endocrinology II; re-take of the 3rd quizz

Endocrinology III

Exercise Physiology; Quiz IV (Exercises 24-27)

Gastrointestinal Physiology

Gastrointestinal Physiology II

Re-take of the 4th quiz


  1. Ganong W.F.: Review of Medical Physiology, Lange Medical Book, 21st ed., 2003, ISBN 0071402365

  2. Guyton A.C.: Textbook of Medical Physiology, Saunders, 10th ed., 2000, ISBN 072168677

Additional books recommended:

  1. Berne R.M., Levy M.N.: Physiology, Mosby, 5th ed., 2004, ISBN 0-323-02225-1

  2. Hansen J.: Netter`s Atlas of Human Physiology, 2002, ISBN 1929007019

  3. Bullock J.: Physiology, NMS Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 4-th ed., 2004, ISBN 0683306030

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