Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology Lecture



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Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology Lecture
An Overview of Anatomy

  • Anatomy - The study of the structure of the human body

    • ana- = apart; -tomy = to cut

    • Subdivisions:

      • Gross vs Microscopic

      • Systemic vs Regional

      • Developmental vs Functional

      • Physiology - The study of body function



An Overview of Anatomy

  • Branches of anatomy:

    • Gross (macroscopic) vs Microscopic

      • Gross Anatomy – visible with little or no visual aid

        • Surface anatomy – without dissection and with little, or no, visual aid

      • Microscopic Anatomy – can only be seen through extreme magnification

        • Histology – the study of tissues

        • Cytology – the study of cells

    • Regional vs Systemic

      • Regional Anatomy – anatomical structures in a region

        • The blood and lymphatic vessels of the lower leg

      • Systemic Anatomy – anatomical structures of an organ system

        • Alimentary canal: oral cavity  pharynx  esophagus  stomach  duodenum  jejunum  ileum  cecum  ascending colon  transverse colon  descending colon  sigmoid colon  rectum



Hierarchical Organization of Structure
Levels of organization of the body:

>> Chemical

>> Cellular

>> Tissue

>> Organ

>> System

>> Organism


Chemical Level – atomic & molecular level

  • CHNOPS (or SPONCH)

    • Four most common elements: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen

    • Six essential elements: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur (CHNOPS) plus potassium and calcium = 99% of human body mass

  • Molecules:

    • H2O, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and nucleic acids

    • All of these molecules are organic (except water because it does not contain carbon)



Cellular - Smallest living unit of the body

  • A cell is the basic unit of both structure and function in a living being, smallest unit capable of carrying out the processes associated with life.

  • Examples:

    • Hepatocytes (liver cells)

    • Adipocytes (fat cells)

    • Leukocytes (immune cells)

    • Keratinocytes (skin cells)

    • Chondrocytes (cartilage cells)

    • Erythrocytes (red blood cells)





More Examples of Body Cells:



Tissue - A group of cells performing a common function

  • A tissue is a group of cells & the materials surrounding them that have a common function or provide a similar service for the body.

  • There are 4 primary tissue types in the human body: epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous


Organ – Two or more tissue types

  • Two or more types of basic tissues organized together to perform a particular function or functions

  • Example: Stomach

    • Inside of stomach lined with epithelial tissue

    • Wall of stomach contains smooth muscle tissue

    • Nervous tissue in stomach controls muscle contraction and gland secretion

    • Connective tissue proper binds all the above tissues together





System – Groups of organs

  • Groups of organs that perform related functions and interact to accomplish a common activity essential to survival of the whole body.




Organism – A living entity

  • Various body systems structurally and functionally linked together as an entity separate from the external world. One living individual.


Systemic Anatomy

  • The Integumentary System - Forms external body covering, protects deeper tissues from injury, synthesizes vitamin D, site of cutaneous receptors (pain, pressure, etc.) and sweat and oil glands




  • The Skeletal System - Protects and supports body organs, provides a framework for muscles, blood cells formed within bones, stores minerals




  • The Muscular System - Allows manipulation of environment, locomotion, facial expression, maintains posture, produces heat




  • The Nervous System - Fast-acting control system, responds to internal and external changes




  • The Endocrine System - Glands secrete hormones that regulate growth, reproduction, and metabolism




  • The Cardiovascular System - Blood vessels transport blood, carries oxygen and carbon dioxide, also carries nutrients and wastes, heart pumps blood through blood vessels




  • The Lymphatic System - Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels, disposes of debris in the lymphatic system, houses white blood cells (lymphocytes), mounts attack against foreign substances in the body




  • The Respiratory System - Keeps blood supplied with oxygen, removes carbon dioxide, gas exchange occurs through walls of air sacs in the lungs




  • The Digestive System - Breaks down food into absorbable units, indigestible foodstuffs eliminated as feces




  • The Urinary System - Eliminates nitrogenous wastes, regulates water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance




  • Reproductive System - Overall function is to produce offspring, testes produce sperm and male sex hormones, ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones, mammary glands produce milk



Gross Anatomy

  • Anatomical position – a common visual reference point

    • Person stands erect with feet together and eyes forward

    • Palms face anteriorly with the thumbs pointed away from the body

Regional Terminology

  • Regional terms name the specific body areas.

    • Axial region – the main axis of the body (head, trunk)

    • Appendicular region – the limbs (arms, legs)

  • Use the figures and your textbook to define the following regions:

    • Oral –

    • Orbital –

    • Occipital –

    • Cervical –

    • Thoracic –

    • Axillary –

    • Brachial –

    • Antecubital –

    • Antebrachial –

    • Abdominal –

    • Lumbar –

    • Pubic –

    • Inguinal –

    • Gluteal –

    • Femoral –

    • Patellar –

    • Popliteal –

    • Sural –

    • Calcaneal –

    • Digital –





Directional Terminology

  • Orientation and Directional terminology

    • Refers to the body in anatomical position

    • Standardized terms of directions are paired

  • Be able to define:

    • Superior

    • Inferior

    • Anterior

    • Posterior

    • Ventral

    • Dorsal

    • Medial

    • Lateral

    • Proximal

    • Distal

    • Superficial

    • Deep

    • Ipsilateral

    • Contralateral



Orientation and Directional Terms



Body Planes

  • Coronal (frontal) plane - Lies vertically and divides the body into anterior and posterior parts

  • Sagittal plane – Lies vertically and divides the body into left and right divisions; may or may not be symmetrical

    • Midsagittal (median) plane – A specific sagittal plane that directly on the midline and divides body into symmetrical left and right divisions

    • Parasagittal (non-median) plane – Any sagittal plane other than the midsagittal plane that divides the body into non-symmetrical left and right divisions

  • Transverse (horizontal) plane - runs horizontally and divides body into superior and inferior parts



Body Cavities

  • Dorsal body cavity

    • Cranial cavity

      • Brain

    • Vertebral cavity

      • Spinal cord

  • Ventral body cavity

    • Thoracic cavity

      • Two pleural cavities

        • Left pleural cavity

        • Right pleural cavity

      • Mediastinum

        • contains the heart surrounded by the pericardial sac

    • Abdominopelvic cavity

      • Abdominal cavity

        • contains the liver, stomach, kidneys, and other organs

      • Pelvic cavity:

        • contains the bladder, some reproductive organs, and rectum



Serous Cavities and Membranes

  • Serous cavities – the slit-like space within a body cavity lined by serous membranes

  • There are three enclosed serous cavities with no openings to the external surface of the body

  • The serous membrane (serosa) that lines the cavities is either parietal or visceral

    • A parietal serosa covers the wall of the cavity (parietal = wall)

    • A visceral serosa covers the organs within the cavity (visceral = organs)

Serous Cavities and Membranes

  • The pericardial cavity surrounds the heart

    • Serous membranes

      • Parietal pericardium

      • Visceral pericardium



Serous Cavities and Membranes

  • Pleural cavities surround the lungs

    • Serous membranes

      • Parietal pleura

      • Visceral pleura





  • Peritoneal cavity surrounds abdominopelvic viscera

    • Serous membranes

      • Parietal peritoneum

      • Visceral peritoneum


Other Body Cavities

  • Nasal cavity – lined with mucous membrane

  • Orbital cavities - house the eyeballs

  • Middle ear cavities - house the tiny ear ossicles

  • Synovial cavities – also known as joint cavities



Abdominal Regions

  • Abdominal regions divide the abdomen into nine regions



Abdominal Quadrants

  • Abdominal quadrants divide the abdomen into four quadrants

    • Right upper and left upper quadrants

    • Right lower and left lower quadrants




Directory: rfofi -> 2304%20Katie%20Notes
2304%20Katie%20Notes -> Biol 2304 cns & Spinal Cord Central Nervous System
2304%20Katie%20Notes -> Biol 2304 Special Senses General Senses
2304%20Katie%20Notes -> Biol 2304 Peripheral Nervous System pns functions Provides vital links to the body and outside world
2304%20Katie%20Notes -> Biol 2304 Vasculature and Circulation Circulatory System Three basic components: Heart
2304%20Katie%20Notes -> Biol 2304 Skeleton and Articulations Reminder: Refer back to your Common Course Objectives
rfofi -> Bio2305 The Central Nervous System Functions Sensory input
2304%20Katie%20Notes -> Biol 2304 Lymphatic and Immune Systems The Lymphatic System Functions
2304%20Katie%20Notes -> Biol 2304 Respiratory System The Respiratory System Functions: Respiration
2304%20Katie%20Notes -> 206 bones grouped into two principal divisions


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