International Style (architecture)



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1932 MOMA exhibition[edit]


The exhibition Modern Architecture - International Exhibition opened on February 9, 1932, at the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), in the Heckscher Building at Fifth Avenue and 56th Street in New York. Beyond a foyer and office, the exhibition was divided into six rooms: the "Modern Architects" section began in the entrance room, featuring a model of William Lescaze's Chrystie-Forsyth Street Housing Development in New York. From there visitors moved to the centrally placed Room A, featuring a model of a mid-rise housing development for Evanston, Illinois, by Chicago architect brothers Monroe Bengt Bowman and Irving Bowman,[7] as well as a model and photos of Walter Gropius's Bauhaus building in Dessau. In the largest exhibition space, Room C, were works by Le Corbusier, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, J.J.P. Oud and Frank Lloyd Wright (including a project for a house on the Mesa in Denver, 1932). Room B was a section titled "Housing", presenting “the need for a new domestic environment” as it had been identified by historian and critic Lewis Mumford. In Room D were works by Raymond Hood (including "Apartment Tower in the Country" and the McGraw-Hill building) and Richard Neutra. In Room E was a section titled "The extent of modern architecture", added at the last minute,[4] which included the works of thirty seven modern architects from fifteen countries who were said to be influenced by the works of Europeans of the 1920s. Among these works was shown Alvar Aalto's Turun Sanomat newspaper offices building in Turku, Finland.

After remaining on show for six weeks, the exhibition then toured the USA - the first such “travelling-exhibition” of architecture in the US - for six years.[8] As it is stated by Riley, in his 1992 book The International Style: Exhibition 15 and The Museum of Modern Art: "(I)ronically the (exhibition) catalogue, and to some extent, the book The International Style, published at the same time of the exhibition, have supplanted the actual historical event."[9]



The following architects and buildings were selected by Hitchcock and Johnson for display at the exhibition Modern Architecture - International Exhibition:

Architect

Building

Location

Date

Jacobus Oud

Workers Houses (house blocks Kiefhoek)

Rotterdam, The Netherlands

1924–1927

Otto Eisler

Double House

Brno, Czechoslovakia

1926

Walter Gropius

Bauhaus School

Dessau, Germany

1926

City Employment Office

Dessau, Germany

1928

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe

Apartment House, Weissenhof Estate

Stuttgart, Germany

1927

German pavilion at the Barcelona Expo

Barcelona, Spain

1929

Tugendhat House

Brno, Czechoslovakia

1930

Le Corbusier (Pierre Jeanneret)

Villa Stein

Garches, France

1927

Villa Savoye

Poissy-Sur-Seine, France

1930

Carlos de Beistegui Champs-Élysées Penthouse

Paris, France

1931

Erich Mendelsohn

Schocken Department Store

Chemnitz, Germany

1928–1930

Frederick John Kiesler

Film Guild Cinema

New York City, USA

1929

Raymond Hood

McGraw-Hill building

New York City, USA

1931

George Howe & William Lescaze

PSFS Building

Philadelphia, USA

1932

Monroe Bengt Bowman & Irving Bowman

Lux apartment block

Evanston, USA

1931

Richard Neutra

Lovell House

Los Angeles, USA

1929

Otto Haesler

Rothenberg Siedlung

Kassel, Germany

1930

Karl Schneider

Kunstverein

Hamburg, Germany

1930

Alvar Aalto

Turun Sanomat building

Turku, Finland

1930
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