The overall vision of the Government’s water supply and sanitation sector reform program, to which this project contributes, include:
Capacity strengthening and institutional development, particularly targeted towards the Ayil Okmotus and DDWSWD to strengthen their function, and also other stakeholder groups, including the next generation of engineers and managers;
Strengthening of the regulatory framework and governance, including training of central institutions responsible for sector policy-making, planning/oversight, regulation, and service delivery;
Implementation of pilot projects to demonstrate the opportunities for aggregation in the provision of services and technical support to local operators;
Promotion of modern methods, and technology in the sector; and
Scaling-up and accelerating rural and small town infrastructure development, including systematic rural sanitation/hygiene interventions and investments in sanitation at school facilities.
The SRWSSDP supports the Government’s reform program, providing financing for: (i) water supply investments in target rural communities, including investments in potential aggregation models, (ii) sanitation investments in schools, kindergartens and other eligible social facilities in the same villages, (iii) institutional strengthening, and (iv) project management. It is intended to leverage infrastructure investments to strengthen key sector institutions (DDWSWD, Ayil Okmotus, and others) and the implementation capacities of leading institutions responsible for delivering all aspects of water and wastewater and sanitation services (Ayil Okmotus, oblast and rayon administrations, CDWUUs, design firms, contractors and others such as consultants and interested NGOs).
Selection of Priority Sub-Projects
A list of priority sub-projects, covering village clusters, for water supply investments was proposed by the Government during project preparation. This list was presented by the DDWSWD, the lead sector agency, and was discussed and agreed with ARIS (the project implementing agency for this component). To prioritize investment needs, a multi-criteria assessment was applied, which included consideration of the following:
Current state of existing system (for example age, level of deterioration, coverage etc.);
Public health issues (incidents of water borne diseases); and
Readiness of the local Government authorities and community organizations to participate in the project and to adopt modern systems for water supply operations (including installation of meters and introduction of cost reflective tariffs – based on consumption).
Furthermore, due to practical considerations and to enable a concentrated level of effort for increased efficiency and development impact, it was decided to restrict the project interventions predominantly to two Oblasts – Chui in the North and Osh in the South. Four sub-projects in Issyk-Kul were also included in order to rectify technical issues and complete some outstanding unfinished works from the RWSSP-2. The prioritization process further separated the sub-projects into Phase 1 – priorities which includes 14 subprojects (6 in Chui, 6 in Osh and 2 in Issyk-Kul), and Phase 2 – which includes a further 5 subprojects (2 in Chui, 1 in Osh and 2 in Issyk-Kul). The list of priority sub-projects, with basic data is included in Table A2.1.
Table A2.1 List of Priority Sub-Projects – Phase 1 and 2 (Osh, Chui and Isyk-Kul Oblasts)
Note: * Population figures were as presented by DDWSWD through official correspondence with the Bank, based on National Statistics Committee data, 2015.
The list of 20 priority subprojects, covers around 49 villages in 23 Ayil Okmotus – with total population of around 154,449 people. Using costs from RWSSP-2, total investment requirements for water supply infrastructure in the 20 sub-projects, was estimated to be in excess of US$32.0 million, which is beyond the existing allocation for this component under the project (US$21.1 million). It was therefore agreed during preparation that proposed subproject investment areas will focus on Phase I areas only to fit within the available financing limitations. As the engineering designs progress for Phase I and detailed cost estimates become available, further consideration will be given to implementing other sub-projects under Phase II – if funds are available. Furthermore, if additional financing becomes available the project design will be adjusted to consider Phase II investments and / or for scaling up into other areas.
Phase I priority investment areas were reviewed in detail during the project preparation process. It was confirmed, that each area has urgent needs for drinking water supply facilities. Existing systems (where available), are deteriorated and have exceeded their technical and economic design life span (often constructed in 1950’s and 60’s). As a result, the coverage (on average networks cover less than 20 percent of the population and access is provided mostly through communal standpipes) and quality of services (<12 hrs / day supply of untreated water) is extremely poor. During consultations, community representatives voiced their concerns regarding access to clean drinking water, referring to high incidents of water borne diseases within the community, and hardships associated with collecting water from stand pipes, distribution trucks and irrigation canals / drains – especially during the winter seasons when snow and freezing conditions are common (this task is typically borne by women and children). A strong willingness by the Ayil Okmotus, CDWUU’s and community representatives, to participate in the project was observed and consultations included topics such as the adoption of modern practices for water services and operations (for example introduction of cost reflective tariffs for metered consumption rates).
A description of the first six Phase 1 project areas, for which detailed studies have commenced is included in Appendix A of this Annex.
Detailed Component Description
The project development objective (PDO) is to assist the Kyrgyz Republic to (i) improve access and quality of water supply and sanitation services in target rural communities, and (ii) strengthen capacity of institutions in the water supply and sanitation sector. This objective will be achieved through implementation of activities defined under four components:
Component 1: Water Supply Investments
Component 2: Sanitation Development
Component 3: Institutional Strengthening
Component 4: Project Management
Further details of the activities to be financed under each component are provided below.
Component 1 Water Supply Investments (US$21.1 million)
This component will address the needs for rehabilitation of existing and/or construction of new water supply systems in the target areas benefitting up to 100,000 people. The component will finance goods, works and services (including engineering design and construction supervision) and will include civil and electrical / mechanical installations, for water supply production (bore holes, well fields, intakes etc., disinfection, and pumping as required), transmission and distribution (networks, storage, meters etc.) to households in the project areas. This component will also finance preparatory activities including detailed engineering designs for scaling up investments under the program.
The water supply systems proposed to be financed under the project reflect careful consideration of several important design philosophy and implementation principals, including the objective of achieving equitable access and quality of services within the project areas; individual metering for each connection (and introduction of consumption-based billing), consideration of full life-cycle costs including assessment of water sources, consideration of climatic factors and resilience, and the capacity support requirements of the operator. Community and local governments will be involved in identifying priority investments in their respective areas through public consultations and meetings. Female beneficiaries and women’s groups will be encouraged to participate in order to reflect women’s voices in identifying investments of significance to them. The communities will continue to be involved in monitoring the quality of civil works through community monitoring processes. Costs associated with implementation of resettlement activities (as per RPF procedures) will be financed under component 1 through the central Government’s contribution to the project.
While the project is required to follow regulatory design standards for the water supply systems (for example SNiPs and addendum to SNiPs – as appropriate), a number of key design philosophy and implementation principles have been defined during preparation. These include:
Equitable Access and Quality of Services within the Project Areas. Where technically and economically feasible, the project will seek to cover all project areas through individual metered connections. The use of public standpipes will be minimized due to operational difficulties and challenges in maintenance. Furthermore, the system design will include zoning with bulk meters, pressure and flow control valves (where applicable, especially for gravity systems) to ensure equitable distribution of water between up- and down-stream village clusters.
Technology Choices and Life-Cycle Costs. The system design will consider a range of materials, equipment and technology options available and associated costs to ensure that the infrastructure and equipment can be adequately serviced and maintained and are resilient and robust. The capital and operating/maintenance costs will be reviewed in the process to ensure that solutions offered consider the full life cycle costs and are, therefore, cost effective to operate and maintain.
Water Source Options Assessment. The design process should review and assess water source alternatives and not just seek to simply replicate existing systems. This review should consider the costs and benefits associated with water source alternatives, including potential water security constraints (for example variable seasonal flows), water quality requirements, operating costs, and associated capital infrastructure costs for production, transmission and distribution.
Engineering Design and Construction Supervision. Due to the scale of some of the infrastructure works and considering lessons from RWSSP-2, international expertise will be engaged through the project to support design review, construction supervision and contract management.
Two other important elements related to the technical designs and implementation of activities under this component are as follows:
Operating Models. The default water service operator is the CDWUU, who will enter into a contract for service provision with the Ayil Okmotus. However, additional institutional models will be assessed, including the potential to create aggregated service delivery models that include more than one Ayil Okmotu, where viable, which will be piloted and demonstrated through the project. This analysis will be informed by the outputs of the ADB-financed Water Sector Reform TA, which is reviewing institutional mechanisms for water service delivery. Institutional support activities will be defined under component 3 to provide backstopping and support for rural water supply operators to help enable sustainable service delivery.
Community Contributions. The SRWSSDP will not have a mechanism for mandatory community contribution (in previous projects, communities were expected to contribute 5 percent of the capital investment costs). However, community members will be responsible for the cost of the household connection. These costs will exclude the water meter, which will be provided by the project, but include all other materials and labor for connection to the individual yards/houses. Community members may also consider allocating any already collected contributions to a fund for future maintenance or towards the costs of connections. The matter will be addressed through the community consultation process and support under component 3.
Fourteen sub-projects (Phase I) have been identified and prioritized for financing under SRWSSDP, serving around 100,000 people in 35 villages. For each sub-project a concept-level design has been prepared, and Bank specialists and a representative of the Government have assessed and verified the existing conditions and proposed concepts. Detailed engineering designs and preparation of bidding documents have commenced for sub-projects, with total value of around US$7.0 million (25 percent of the total project costs). Advance procurement activities are expected to start prior to project effectiveness to ensure readiness for implementation. The first packages will include:
Rehabilitation and Construction of Water Supply System, Kyrgyz-Ata, Osh Oblast (covering 3 villages, serving around 16,202 people)
Rehabilitation and Construction of Water Supply System, Togotoi, Osh Oblast (covering one village, serving 2,267 people)
Rehabilitation and Construction of Water Supply System, Sultan, Chui Oblast (covering 9 villages, serving 8,479 people)
Detailed engineering designs and preparation of tender documents for four sub-projects in Osh oblast
Detailed engineering designs and preparation of tender documents for five sub-projects in Chui oblast
Cost estimates have been prepared by the Government and reviewed by the Bank. The estimates are based on a comparison of market rates from RWSSP-2 and include provisions for escalation and contingencies. The proposed contract packaging considers potential technical and procurement risks, geographical constraints, and where possible seeks to increase efficiency through economies of scale (by grouping similar investments into larger packages). Moreover, the procurement packaging and implementation timeframes were reviewed from a technical perspective and it was confirmed that the approach incorporates lessons learned though the experience of RWSSP-2 and is considered achievable within the project duration. A summary of the Phase 1 sub-projects with cost estimates is presented in Table A2.2. The remaining funds under this component will be allocated towards other related activities, including engineering design, construction supervision and contract management.
Table A2.2 Priority Sub-Projects – Phase 1 (Osh and Chui Oblasts) – with Planning Estimates
Name of a Sub-Project
Number of Villages
Cost Estimate (US$)
Sub-total (Villages, Pop. & Civil Works)
^ Kyrgyz-Ata, Togotoi and Sultan were selected as the first subprojects for technical investigations and engineering designs – financed from ECAPDev TF.
*Includes estimated costs for rectification of technical issues and completion of unfinished works from RWSSP-2.
An implementation schedule for the infrastructure works financed under component 1 is presented below.
Figure A2.3: Component 1 – Water Supply Investments – Implementation Plan
Component 2 Sanitation Development (US$3.0 million)
The sanitation development component will build upon and scale up the successful implementation experience of RWSSP-2. It will finance physical investments for improving sanitation facilities in schools (and other social facilities), which will be complemented by hygiene education programs. In addition, SRWSSDP will extend beyond the targeted sanitation interventions at schools - by providing focused technical assistance to support improved sanitation at the household level. This component seeks to enhance the Government’s strategy and to further promote the rural sanitation agenda. The overall approach will be guided by the experience of the Water and Sanitation Program’s ‘Scaling-up Rural Sanitation’ (SURS). An initiative which generated a wealth of guidance material, documented successful experiences in some 13 countries, and provides recommendations for the implementation of rural sanitation programs. The programmatic framework will be designed to focus on the following areas: (a) strengthening the enabling environment; (b) changing and sustaining improved sanitation behaviors; (c) building markets and industry for improved sanitation; and (d) accelerating access for women, girls, the poor and vulnerable groups.
Specific activities to be financed under this component are presented in further details below. They are designed within the framework discussed above, focusing on behavior change and demand creation – as a first step in the process. In addition, through this component technical assistance will be provided to support the Government to address other strategic issues associated with the enabling environment, markets and industry, to accelerate access and sustainability. This will include the preparation of a comprehensive rural sanitation strategy – which will guide future institutional and infrastructure support activities and priorities.
This component will finance goods, works and services to support sanitation development in target rural communities. It will include, retrofitting of existing sanitary facilities in all schools and kindergartens (and if funds remain other eligible public buildings) within the project areas (for example health clinics). The retrofitting works for sanitation facilities will build upon the successful implementation models and experience developed through the RWSSP-2. Standard designs will be prepared in consultation with the Ministry of Education and applied (and adapted as required) where possible to public schools and kindergartens within project areas. The planning costs allocated for this activity is around US$30,000 per school or US$1,380,000 in total for Phase I project areas. This will cover more around 46 schools, servicing around 16,000 students. These works will complement the water supply investments and together will contribute to improved development outcomes (including public health).
Project activities will also include capacity building and institutional strengthening, especially for the Department on Proliferation of Diseases and State Sanitary Epidemiology Surveillance (SES Department) at the rayon level. A needs assessment will be carried out to identify requirements for this Department to fulfill their mandate with regard to drinking water quality testing and certification. Thereafter the project will provide support through supply of equipment (for example, sampling and laboratory testing equipment, computers, software, etc.) and through training to develop and enhance skills/human capacity according to the needs assessment. The CDWUUs and Ayil Okmotus will also be trained on sampling techniques and water-quality issues more broadly, such that monitoring systems are put in place as part of their Standard Operating Procedures.
The component will also support the development and implementation of a communication strategy and Water Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) educational campaigns to promote improved health and hygiene practices, including specific materials related to water quality/disinfection safety and menstrual hygiene. The sanitation and hygiene education programs will be introduced through the school system and through public campaigns to support improved knowledge, attitudes, and practices within the project areas. As women carry the primary responsibility in securing water for household’s needs, as well as advancing hygiene practices at home, the communication strategy will specifically target women and women’s groups to convey the messages.
The WASH educational campaigns include a number of interactive exercises designed specifically to enhance participation of school children. This includes for example activities like “Glow Germ” to show hand contamination, the formation of student “WASH committees”, and using older students (“youth leaders”) to train younger ones. Schools also compete with each other for “stars” in the “Three Stars” approach – better sanitation means more stars. Parents will also be involved in improving hygiene and sanitation in the schools; for example, they provide additional resources for handwashing and for cleaning sanitation facilities. WASH committees are formed at the village level to assess WASH conditions and to plan improvements, including in schools.
A modified Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation (PHAST) method adapted to suit the Kyrgyz context, was used during implementation of sanitation and hygiene promotion activities under RWSSP-2. The end of project evaluations concluded that such activities were successful but could be further enhanced to expand and deepen impacts at the household level. As such, during initial phases of the project, the existing methodologies and materials will be reviewed and compared with other approaches and lessons drawn from case studies of international best practice for rural sanitation. This will include a review of “sanitation marketing” and community lead total sanitation (CLTS) (or “total sanitation”, which combines CLTS and sanitation marketing) concepts. Technical support will be provided by the Bank in the process, in order to optimize the methods used for this third phase of the program. After the methodology and materials are refined, the project will carry out sanitation and hygiene promotion activities within the target rural communities to support behavioral change and demand generation.
Sustainability of proposed interventions will be supported through the institutionalization of the programs both within the relevant departs of Ministry of Health and Ministry of Education. The training of Village Health Committees is already institutionalized, and depends to a large extent on the Republican Center for Health Promotion. The Center has provided resource materials for sanitation and hygiene education to RWSSP-2 and will be involved in the method / materials updating process, along with the process of training teachers as trainers. SRWSSDP will train two teachers per school as trainers, and they in turn will train other teachers, who train students, who form WASH clubs etc. Staff from Center and from the SES at the rayon level will be involved in training. Furthermore, education topics will be introduced into each school’s teaching materials, along with technical support to ensure consumables (soap etc) are included in the school’s operating budgets.
A summary of key activities identified for the implementation of WASH promotion in target areas is provided below.
Activity 1: Analysis of Methodologies, Approaches and Designs
Review and revise current sanitation and hygiene methodologies and training materials / guidelines, including WASH in schools, PHAST18 or other participatory approaches for communities, including menstrual hygiene topics.
Review and revise communications strategies, methods and key messages.
Develop standard designs for on-site sanitation facilities at the household level.
Review fecal sludge management practices and facilities for selected villages and recommend improvements.
Activity 2: Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion in Target Communities
Select and hire social mobilization specialists/consultants for training of trainers (ToT) of village health committees (VHC), Ayil Okmotus and community representatives, using updated Community Handbooks;
Water quality (including transport and storage where appropriate)
Handwashing and hygiene including use of toilets and disposal of children’s and infants’ feces
How to improve sanitation facilities
Pilot and refine revised methodologies and materials.
Train VHC and Ayl Okmoto members as trainers, using updated methodologies;
Support and monitor community mobilization and WASH knowledge and practices (including toilet facilities improvement and fecal sludge management) in villages.
Activity 3: Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion in Schools/Pre-schools in Target Villages
Select schools, pre-schools, health care facilities or other institutions for sanitation facilities upgrades (a demand driven process guided by ARIS and Ayil Okmotus);
Select and hire consultant for training (Training of Trainers) of school/kindergarten educational staff in WASH In Schools and/or health care staff in sanitation and hygiene promotion;
Pilot and refine revised methodologies and training and promotional materials;
Train all teachers (schools, kindergartens and preschools) and health care staff in sanitation and hygiene promotion (WASH, WASH in schools, including menstrual hygiene management where appropriate);
Monitor, support and evaluate delivery of hygiene modules by teachers or staff of WASH in schools and health care facilities;
Support to SES and/or local authorities for water quality testing and monitoring.
Activity 4: Communication Campaign
Prepare Terms of Reference (for media / communications consultant);
Select and hire media / communications consultant to develop materials for social media, television, radio, newspapers and other relevant channels;
Develop communication plan (ARIS with media consultant):
Identify and establish target audience, key messages and communication channels;
Implement campaign, broadcast programs over TV/radio and social media;
Monitor implementation and revise strategy and messages as necessary.
Activity 5: Monitoring & Evaluation and Reporting
Establish project baseline (baseline survey, includes WASH Knowledge, Attitude and Practices) (prior to project implementation);
Review knowledge, attitudes, skills and behaviors in target schools, kindergartens, health care facilities and communities:
Establish state of sanitation facilities at kindergartens, schools, preschools, health care facilities and other relevant institutions
Monitor implementation progress for all components against the schedule (on a regular basis over the year);
Compare to progress to project schedule
Identify needed corrective actions and implement them to correct problems;
Revise activities as needed
Identify achievements and outcomes of the components, including communications campaign (at project completion);
Impact Assessment (after project completion);
Review knowledge, attitudes, skills and behaviors in target schools, kindergartens, health care facilities and communities:
Establish state of sanitation facilities at kindergartens, schools, preschools, health care facilities and other relevant institutions
Lessons learned, practices and innovations.
Component 2 will finance strategic activities at the national and local levels which aim to enhance the Government’s strategy for sanitation development in rural areas. This will include the development of standard designs, including guidelines for construction and operations, for household latrines and septic systems for rural areas and technical assistance (TA) to support Ayil Okmotus in target areas - to put in place systems for safe septic sludge removal and treatment / disposal. The TA will include support for planning processes, considering environmental, economic and social criteria along with supply chain considerations, pricing / payment modalities, and a review of regulatory constraints and enabling conditions at the local and central levels.
This component will be implemented directly by ARIS, who will contract individuals (or NGO’s as appropriate) for design and supervision of works, conduct social assessments, carry out the specialized technical assistance and to implement education and communications programs. Small works contracts will be used for implementation of the facility upgrades / retrofitting.
Component 3 will finance goods and services to strengthen sector institutional capacity at the national and local levels. This component has been designed to build upon substantial outputs prepared under RWSSP-2, and to complement on-going technical assistance financed by the Asian Development Bank, which includes the design of institutional structures and mechanism to support sustainable service delivery in rural areas. As such, activities under component 3, specifically at the national level will remain flexible in order to support the Government to address emerging needs, fill analytical and knowledge gaps and provide technical assistance to support the implementation of the reforms.
Activities under this component are further organized under two separate sub-components as follows:
Sub-component 3.1: National Level (US$0.7 million) activities will include technical assistance for drafting legal/normative acts to clarify roles and responsibilities (including asset transfer and ownership issues) under a delegated management framework, improved financial and service regulation, and technical support for the establishment of new institutional models for water service delivery (for example piloting of an aggregated approach). This sub-component may also finance focused studies on identified areas of need (for example, the sustainability of disinfection systems), sector financing and investment plans, augmentation and institutionalization of the management information system/data base, and an institutional support plan for DDWSWD, including assessment of existing capacity, preparation of an implementation plan (road map), and capacity building/training activities.
Sub-component 3.2: Local Level (US$1.8 million) activities will include capacity building for local authorities (Ayil Okmotus) and CDWUUs responsible for water service delivery in the project areas. This will include topics and support for tariff setting, billing and collection systems, operations and maintenance training (for example, disinfection), water quality testing, customer relations, complaints mechanisms, human resources, and commercial management. Adapting and building upon the experience of RWSSP-2, the project will also support the preparation of service contract agreements, to clarify and formalize respective responsibilities of the operator (CDWUUs) and asset owner (Ayil Okmotus) and to support governance of service performance, tariffs and financing mechanisms. This sub-component will also finance beneficiary satisfaction surveys and the impact evaluations and support mechanisms to improve citizen engagement, feedback, and consumer recourse. It will include training and knowledge exchange visits with RWSSP-2 participants, and will finance start-up support packages for the operator (for example, spare connection materials, meters, testing equipment, and tools) to assist with the transition to operations (post construction). Local level institutional support will also seek to strengthen DDWSWD capacity at the rayon level, focusing sector monitoring and technical support for complex operational and maintenance issues.
Institutional strengthening activities at both the national and local level, will also consider the potential role of private sector, and where appropriate seek to promote and enhance private sector participation for efficient and sustainable service delivery.
A number of important factors for sustainability of service delivery, considered through this component, include:
Start-up Support for Operator. During preparation, it was agreed that the project will finance start-up support activities for the operators. This will include provision of basic operation and maintenance equipment (computers, spare parts and materials, tools etc), as a startup support package financed under component 3. Furthermore, the works contractors may have a 2-3 month operational support BoQ line item within their contract, to allow for a smooth operational transition of the new infrastructure. The project (under component 3) will also support the installation of new procedures for meter reading, billing and collection – along with mechanisms to receive and respond to complaints. Water meters for household connections will also be provided by the project. Providing upfront support during the early phases of operations will help to improve service delivery, willingness to pay and long term sustainability.
Tariffs. Modern practices of applying consumption based, cost reflective tariffs will be introduced through the project. The tariffs should be calculated considering full operating and maintenance costs, and include a reserve for asset replacement over time. The project will also carefully consider the communities “ability to pay” and requirements for lifeline tariffs for low income / very low consuming customers and will support the preparation of a connection subsidy strategy targeted the poorest and most vulnerable residents in the project areas. The project will support the development of the tariff setting procedure, and in addition to the CDWUU’s will involve the Local Council members (the approval authority) and the Anti-monopoly committee (who ultimately review and provide their no-objection).
Roles and Responsibilities of Asset Holder and Operators. As noted in the Governments Water Supply Strategy, there is a need to ensure clarity of roles and responsibilities between the asset holder (Ayil Okmotus) and the operator. In particular, this concerns the costs for asset maintenance, replacement and possible future expansion. The project will support this definition of functions and associated budgeting implications through component 3 activities.
Education and Consultation Programs. Community was closely consulted during project preparation, and will further participate during implementation. For sustainability of the system in particular, the project will provide an education topic which includes knowledge attitudes and practices for drinking water. In particular, the community members should be aware that the drinking water system is not be used for irrigation purposes and likewise there are health issues associated with using water from the irrigation canals for drinking. The range of education and consultation topics will be prepared and included in the Project Operating Manual.
Component 3 will be implemented directly by ARIS, who will contract specialized consultants (individuals or firms as appropriate) for a number of activities. The social mobilization and education and communications programs will be carried out by ARIS directly. Activities to be financed under sub-component 3.1 will be demand driven and remain flexible in order to adapt to emerging needs of the DDWSWD. Specifically, they will be refined after completion of the ADB sector reform technical services contract. At this time TA outputs will be released with recommendations related to sector reforms and institutional strengthening requirements to support sustainable service delivery in the rural water supply in sanitation sector. The Bank will closely coordinate with ADB and other donors to ensure complementary and efficient support is provided. Further details about the ADB TA and the aggregated approach to water service delivery are provided in Appendix B.
Component 4 Project Management (US$1.4 million): This component will support implementation of (i) contracting of local experts to assist the implementation unit and participating Ayil Okmotus in the implementation of the project’s activities; (ii) the maintenance of the Monitoring and Evaluation System (M&E), to continuously monitor and evaluate the performance and results of the project; (iii) the project-related operating costs of the implementing unit including consulting fees and in-country travel expenditures; (iv) project operating costs including contributions towards the cost of backstopping assistance by ARIS staff (the so-called administrative pool of ARIS); and (v) an annual audit of project accounts.
Appendix A: Description of Project Areas
Sub-project 1: Kyrgyz-Ata Aiyl Okmotu, Osh Oblast
Area description: Kyrgyz-Ata Aiyl Okmotu is located in Nookat rayon of Osh Oblast and consists of 3 villages plus 3 residential areas (zhilmassiv). Zhilmassivs are not large with first two having 5-6 households and the third one having 500 people residing in it. Total population of Kyrgyz-Ata Ayil Okmotu is estimated at 16,202 people. The villages in the sub-project area are: Kotormo, Borko, Kyrgyz-Ata, Ak-Bulak. The sub-project area is located close to Nookat rayon center and have 1 hospital, 1 maternity house, 7 schools, 5 kindergartens, 3 polyclinics and 3 FAPs. It was reported that 3 polyclinics have no access to water supply.
Main sources of income are from agriculture, livestock and retail trade. Due to location of the sub-project to Osh city the area has potential for private entrepreneurships development, particularly in terms of agricultural processing. There is one juice extraction plant, mineral water enterprise operating. Management of Kyrgyz-Ata sub-project area is very pro-active, initiating construction of various recreational facilities and 2 new schools, as well as new borehole that supplies water for two villages. As of today, the management of Ayil Okmotu has developed several plans on development of the area, including construction of mini hydro power station, and alternative sources for water supply from ground water and surface water.
There are cases of water-borne diseases, such as typhoid and hepatitis. Based on assessment carried out by the Department of Water Supply and Sanitation and ARIS, Kyrgyz-Ata is considered ready in terms of ownership and accountability for the project interventions.
Water supply system description: The system once built in soviet times has deteriorated significantly. The existing distribution networks is about 12 km and water mains are laid along 1-2 central streets in 3 villages. About 20 percent of population access the water supply system through individual connections. Most of pipes are asbestos, ceramics or steel and the network has a lot of leakages that the village administration tries to repair on ad hoc basis.
The current source of water supply is Kyrgyz-Ata river with 2 km of water main (supplied 24 hours a day) and piped water from newly drilled borehole, funded by private sponsorship during pre-election campaign. Both sources do not have any disinfection arrangements nor particularly in line with the standards, and are more of an urgent measure to access water. Technical person de-facto in charge of maintaining the sources and network is a licensed specialist and is ready to lead CDWUU when the project starts.
Sub-project 2: Togotoi (Kashka-Jol) Aiyl Okmotu, Osh Oblast
Area description: Located on the eastern part of Osh Oblast in Kara-Kulja rayon, Togotoi includes 1 village with population of 2,267. This is one of most remote sub-projects in Phase I. Nearly all of the inhabitants are involved in cattle-breeding and farming. Residents complain of poor water infrastructure, bad roads, and high unemployment. There are 1 FAP, 1 school, 1 kindergarten and 1 hospital for 10 beds in Togotoi.
Water supply system description: Only 10 households have household connections, others get water from 22 standpipes along the streets. In 2008-2013 the whole village had to rely on trucked water or water from irrigation canal due to breakage of formerly existed borehole. In 2014 the village managed to attract sponsorship to develop a borehole, which is sufficient for 5 hours of supply per day. However, as the network system is old and deteriorated, leakages are very common. Irrigation canals within the village are available, which puts less risks of drinking water supply to be used for irrigation purposes after the project completion. Current collection rate is around 80 percent and existing tariff is a flat rate of 100 KGS/household.
Sub-project 3: Otuz-Adyr Aiyl Okmotu, Osh Oblast
Area description: Otuz-Adyr aiyl okmotu is located in Kara-Suu rayon of Osh Oblast, one of the highest density rate area in the country. It has 10 villages spread at some distance from each other. Populated by some 20,512 residents, Otuz-Adyr is located approximately 10 kilometers to the east of the Osh city. There are 10 villages under this sub-project, and 3 additional residential areas (Osmon, Zhivprom, Osh) that will be dependent on the future water supply system. Ethnic composition of Otyz-Adyr is as follows: ethnic Kyrgyz, Uzbeks; other ethnic minority groups - Russians, Tartars, Tajiks, Kazakhs. According to Ayil Okmotu officials, main problems of the residents are: a) lack of drinkable water; b) poor quality infrastructure (roads and pavements, street lights); c) high unemployment.
Water supply system description: Water supply system was constructed in 1957 in only 3 (Otuz Adyr, Karadobo, and Kozhon Bak) out of 13 villages. After the water intake structure stopped operating few years ago, the water-borne diseases rate had increased. In 2015 the village administration managed to mobilize KGS 2 million from private sponsorships to implement drainage cleaning / rehabilitation at intake structure, but unfortunately these works have not improved situation significantly. The population is served by untreated water in the system.
The three villages have 34 km of the internal network, (only 2 main streets in each of the village, covering about 10 percent of the subproject population, mainly through the individual yard connections) and water is available for about 4 h/day in each village. In the center of Otuz-Adyr there are a number of household yard connection, the rest of population have to buy trucked water at 20-40 KGS per 40L container. Some of the villages, like Chook, are located at 3 km away from the nearest standpipe. Tariffs are low – KGS 40 per household per month.
Sub-project 4: Gulbaar village, Keremet Aiyl Okmotu, Aravan Rayon, Osh Oblast
Area description: Keremet Ayil Okmotu is located 25 km away from Osh city in Aravan rayon of Osh Oblast. It has 6 villages with the population of 9,170 people. Gulbar is the largest village with population around 8,025. There are 4 schools, 1 kindergarten, 1 FAP, 1 kindergarten for disabled children.
Water supply system description: Even though the village is in the vicinity of Osh city, the situation with water situation is dire. The existing source for drinking water is the irrigation canal Ak-Buura that passes through Osh city. When the irrigation water supply is stopped for maintenance and during winter season, the population has to collect water another canal and/or buy trucked water at the cost of KGS 20 per 40 liters container. In winter, the remaining water in the canal is often frozen and population uses snow melt water. No standpipes exist as there is no water supply system operating. The water-borne diseases rate is one of the highest in the country with outbreak of typhoid epidemic in 1997 with 270 infected. Gulbaar village is located downstream of other villages (for example Toloikon) with their pit latrines and other polluting sources that may be discharged into Ak-Buura canal. The Ayil Okmotu brings 3m3 of water once in two days to social facilities, like schools and kindergarten – sourced from a borehole drilled for cement factory some 3 km away from the village.
Sub-project 5: Achyk-Suu village, Kashka-Suu Ayil Okmotu, Chon-Alai Rayon, Osh Oblast
Area description: Achyk-Suu village is the remotest village in the project and one of the remotest and poorest in the country, located near the border with Tajikistan close to Pamir Mountains. It is located about 400 km from Osh city at the altitude of 3,146 m above sea level. The area has harsh continental climate, with average summer temperature of +12C and the absolute minimum in winter as low as minus 45C. The frost line (or freezing depth), in this areas is around 220 cm – which has implications for the trench designs for the water pipelines and construction / maintenance costs. There are 6 villages in this Ayil Okmotu with total population of about 9,030 people. Achyk-Suu village has population around 2,412 people, 509 households and is located at highest altitude among other 5 villages. The village has such social infrastructure assets including a school, kindergarten and rural health post. Because of harsh climate, the population depends on livestock production, however the access to markets is a challenge.
Water supply system description: Achyk-Suu has an extremely poor situation in water supply. In Soviet times a borehole and a number of public standpipes in the village were placed to serve the population. As reported by the villagers, however, the water quality tests at that time found high concentration of salt, and the water supply pipes deteriorated and are no longer functional. Since then, villagers were using water from the open stream coming from the mountains and had to travel 5-10 km to collect water. At present, there are no formal services for trucked water, or water storage facilities. In 2012, Aga Khan Foundation supported the village by installing spring catchment collector and transmission pipe with diameter of 63 mm, located at the distance of about 3 km upstream of the village. Later, in 2014, Arab charity foundation “Assalam” financed 1.5 km of distribution pipe of 63 mm diameter and 4 public standpipes (distance between the standpipes is 150-500 m – there are no household connections). The standpipes supply water to upper part of the village, but due to air in the system do not operate reliably. Furthermore, the source freezes during the long winter period and thus the system does not operate for around 5 months of the year. There is no water disinfection, and no reservoirs for storage.
Sub-project 6: Sary-Tash village, Sary-Tash Ayil Okmotu, Alai Rayon, Osh Oblast
Area description: Sary-Tash village is located about 320 km south-east from Osh, at the altitude of 3,250 meters above sea level. Population is 2,158 people, and 563 households in the village. The remoteness, socio-economic conditions, harsh climate and poor soil are very similar to Achyk-Suu village. Social facilities include: school, kindergarten, hospital and rural health post.
Water supply system description: There is no water supply system servicing this area. In Soviet times the settlement was formed, not as a residential area, but as a temporary base for road maintenance department with a few houses and a few families living there to support construction of roads in Gorno-Badahshan area (Pamir) in Tajikistan. For this reason, there were no investments in water supply infrastructure. At present, the local population has to travel 4 km to get water from a water source (open stream). People spend on average 2 hours per day collecting water. The local kindergarten management, with their own resources, attempted to drill a borehole to supply water to the kindergarten, but the exercise failed.
Sub-project 7: Sultan Ibraimov Aiyl Okmotu, Chui Oblast
Area description: The Ibraimov sub-project is located in the Chui rayon of Chui Obast approximately 12 kilometers to the south of Tokmok city, and includes 9 villages from 3 aiyl okmotus (Ibraimov, Burin, Ak-Beshim). Total number of population is about 8,469 inhabitants. Main sources of income are farming and cattle-breeding. Some villagers are employed in various factories in Tokmok area. Shortage of water and management of scare resources (arable land, pastures) is a main problem of residents as reported during the field visit.
Water supply system description: Existing water supply system is fed from the river infiltration gallery and spring catchment 2.5 km up stream. Existing network covers 70 percent of the villages, the remaining (including new settlement areas) do not have any network access. The proportion of household connections is about 60 percent within the areas of network coverage. Fee collection rate is 60-70 percent at a tariff of 100 KGS/household. Despite of existing network, water supply is irregular and does not supply water to the whole network. The original design capacity of the system was 60 l/sec, but actual capacity is estimated to be around 20 l/sec.
Ibraimov a/o has 6 villages within its boundary (Koshoi, Kara-Oi, Kyzyl-Asker, Lenin, Taldy-Bulak, Kalinovka). As of today, 5 first villages are included into the sub-project, as the 6th village Kalinovka has independent water source. However, the quality and regularity of water supplied are questionable and this village may wish to get connected to the sub-project in future. Transmission main is about 7 km and mainly goes through private agricultural lands. Alternative alignment can be considered to minimize impact on land acquisition.
There are several social facilities in the three Ayil Okmotus (i) Ibraimov – 4 schools, 5 FAPs (if Kalinovka village is considered, then there is additional 1 kindergarten and 1 school) ; (ii) Burana – 1 school, 1 FAP; Ak-beshim – 1 school, 1 FAP. Based on preliminary assessment the proposed project should include the recovery of the water sources; spring catchment and river infiltration gallery, replacement of transmission main with pressure breakers, construction of new reservoirs 2x200 m3 and rehabilitation of the existing reservoir for 500 m3. The works should also include rehabilitation of the existing distribution network in all the villages and about 30 km of new water supply network to cover new housing areas.
Sub-project 8: Kurama Aiyl Okmotu, Chui Oblast
Area description: It is located on the western edge of Chui Oblast near Kyrgyz-Kazakh border, with a population of around 8,479 and consists of 1 village Panfilovka. Main ethnic groups are: Kyrgyz; Russians, and some Ukrainian, Kazakh, and others minority groups. There four villages (Panfilov, Orto-Aryk, Jayilma, Efironos). Majority of residents live off cattle-breeding and farming. A limited number of villagers are employed by a Chinese factory. Main problems of residents are: high unemployment, poor municipal services (shortage of drinkable water, heating, poor quality roads).
Water supply system description: Subproject consists of 1 village served by 4 individual boreholes, located in 4 different locations within the village. There is no reservoir; the supply is directly pumped from the borehole into the network. The length of the water supply network is about 50 km, and it covers about 75 percent of the housing area. The covered households predominantly have individual yard or house connections. Due to the deteriorated state of the network, only 1-2 boreholes are in use due to frequent burst cases. In reality, water is available for about 3 hours for about 50 percent of the network. No any formal measurement of the individual consumption or supply in the system is available due to lack of metering. The tariff is 100 KGS/hh/month and fee collection rate is not very high due to poor services.
Sub-project 9: Kun-Tuu village, Sokuluk Rayon, Chui Oblast
Area and water supply description: The social facilities in the villages include: schools (with indoor flush toilets), kindergartens and a rural hospital. The water supply system covers villages of Kun Tuu and Shalta. There are 2 old wells serving the villages, with capacity of pumps of 110 m3/h and 65m3/h. There are two reservoirs of 500 m3 capacity. Part of the Shalta village is also fed by the spring catchment. The existing network covers about 50-60% of the residential area of villages. The transmission main was partly replaced 2 years ago (grant from Arab charity foundation) and is made of PVC, diameter 140 mm (length of the replaced part is about 2 km). The diameters in the network varies between 200 and 100 mm. Length of the transmission pipe in Kun-Tuu is 4 km, in Shalta - 3km. Length of the distribution network in Kun Tuu is 48 km, in Shalta - 28 km. The distribution system is aging and deteriorated, with significant water losses. As such the quality of services is low, with water supplied at intermittent intervals (<12 hours/day).
Sub-project 10: Alekseevka village, Jayil Rayon, Chui Oblast
Water supply description: 6 streets of the village are served by Kara Balta urban water supply utility, the rest and main part of the village is supplied by 3 boreholes owned by the Ayil Okmotu (depth is 120-150 m; pumps capacity is 120-140 m3/h). The length of the network is 37 km, with diameter of pipes 100-150 mm. Almost 20% of the village water supply network is not operational. During winter period, pumps operate 24 h/day, during summer, they operate only in the morning and in the evening. There is no reservoir in the system. The social facilitates include: school, kindergarten and a rural hospital, water supply expenses for these facilities are covered by Ayil Okmotu. Simialr to the above, the existing network pipes are aging and deteriorated, and there are significant water losses. As such the quality of services is low.
Sub-project 11: Kyzyl-Tuu village, Sokuluk Rayon, Chui Oblast
Water supply description: The villages under the Aiyl Okmotu include: Kyzyl-Tuu, Kara-Sakal, Novoe and Malovodnoe. Kyzyl-Tuu, Novoe and Kara-Sakal villages are fed from the same water supply system. The main water source is spring catchment in Kyzyl-Tuu village. The length of the transmission line for Kyzyl-Tuu spring catchment is 11 km (including 3.6 km to the reservoir/ sedimentation tank), of 150mm diameter. The length of the distribution network in the village is about 25 km, of 100mm diameter. The operating borehole in the village supplies water from 8.00 hrs to 20.00 hrs every day. There are three reservoirs of 500 m3 capacity each. There are also another 2 boreholes, with the pumps of 65 m3/h located in Kuyzyl-Tuu. One more spring catchment for Kara-Sakal with capacity of 10 l/sec supplying water through only 1 km of distribution network in the village. Novoe village is fed from the spring catchment in Shalta village, leading to some disputes over the water supply between these villages. Malovodnoe village has its own water supply system with wells, pumps and reservoir that is not operating. The transmission main form the source is 12.3 km of diameters 100-150 mm, and 15 km of distribution network. The pumps operate 24 h/day, but there are still water shortages faced by consumers.
Sub-project 12: Tolok village, Moskva Rayon, Chui Oblast
Water supply description: The village has well with the depth of 310 m, with the pump of 65 m3/h at the depth of 70 m, and elevated water tower of 25 m3. The length of the water supply network is 15 km, with pipes varying between 100 and 150 mm diameter. About 30% of households live in newly settled area, with no access to the water supply network. The pump operates 20 h/day and supplies water directly to the village with no reservoir. There are no public standpipes in the village, and due to low pressures in the system, only 50% of the households connected to the network are supplied with water. People in this area rely on collecting water from other parts of the system and storing water at home.
Sub-project 13: Darkhan village Jeti-Oguz Rayon, Issyk-Kul Oblast
Water supply description: This village was one of the RWSSP-1 projects. The water supply system is fed from the river drain site. Out of 5 collection manholes only 3 operate, as reported. 1.5 km of the transmission line feeds reservoir. There are eight 63 mm diameter pipes supplying directly 8 main streets and 22 km of distribution network. Only 350 households (about 30%) have individual connections and 70% of people in this village access water through public standpipes – many of which are now not operational. In addition, there are new residential areas, developed after the completion of the RWSP-1. The water supply system in this village requires investments to rehabilitate the collection / production system, rectify design issues in the distribution network (i.e installation of primary and secondary distribution pipes), and network expansion to cover unserved areas.
Sub-project 14: Chelpek village, Ak-Suu Rayon, Issyk-Kul Oblast
Water supply description: Chelpek village was rehabilitated under the RWSP-1, and due to certain shortages in water supply services was accepted for rectification in RWSP-2. Under RWSP-2 the detailed design was prepared in 2 stages: first, production, transmission and storage and rehabilitation/reconstruction of distribution network, including the network extension. At the time, the project did not have sufficient funds to cover implementation of both phases and tried to find joint solutions with the Chelpek village to provide essential works for the system to operate. By the end of RWSP-2 the village had new source, transmission main of 225 mm diameter, with online booster pump at 90 m3/h, and steel reservoirs (700 m3 x 2). However, the CDWUU and Ayil Okmotu did not manage to complete implementation of the second phase – which is focused on improving the distribution system. To ensure sustainability of the investments and improved quality of services, an allocation has been included for this village towards improving the network distributions and household connections.
Appendix B: Aggregation Approach for Water Service Delivery
The ADB financed Technical Assistance program (ADB Regional TA 8375) amongst other tasks, seeks to understand achievable economies of scale that might result from different forms of aggregation19. The aggregation process may in some cases involve changes to legislation (whilst other forms of aggregation may not) and the introduction of new regulations and processes.
The delivery of water services requires a mix of routine and specialist skills. While routine skills might be available even in highly decentralized service provision, the more specialist skills are less likely to be locally available. This is because highly decentralized systems as in the Kyrgyz Republic, will not have an ongoing demand for such skills, nor will they have financial resources to support the costs of such specialists. In general larger, aggregated, service providers have the need for, and financial resources to support specialist skills and thus can benefit from overall improvements in professional capacity.
Aggregation of service provision often creates the requirement to reform mechanisms for oversight of the service provider. When services are provided at the local level, they are often overseen at the local level and local politicians often have a role in tariff approvals. The aggregation of service provision inevitably raises the question of whether such oversight functions (for example monitoring/tariff setting) should still be carried out at the local level, or whether they should be carried out at the same level as the aggregated service provision. Whichever approach is selected it is important to note that an aggregated entity can harmonize tariff and service levels, but it can also maintain differentiated tariffs and service levels at the different villages and towns.
The local Government authorities should be ready to accept (and understand) the changes that will result from any proposal on aggregation and as such it is good practice for a pre-aggregation study to be carried out to decide the optimum process, and form of ownership and governance of the resulting body, including operational and management assumptions. The obligation to aggregate will rest with local government - Ayil Okmotus and town councils, as asset owners and the entities legally responsible for the delivery of water supply and sanitation services. Introducing this new approach would require:
Consultations with various towns and rural villages to understanding their challenges and constraints; including a comprehensive needs assessment;
Development and update of the “national” financial model through which different scenarios can be analyzed; and
Preparation of implementation plans with budget, milestones, allocations of responsibilities and financing.
While legal responsibility for service provision rests with the Ayil Okmotu, at present, in most cases, CDWUUs are the actual providers. There are likely to be legal limits to what kind of institutional arrangements (such as aggregation) can be imposed. Given their NGO status, CDWUUs cannot be dissolved by law. Considering this therefore options for incentivizing aggregation need to be developed, coupled with efforts to create an enabling environment which makes aggregation attractive.
Potential examples of implementing aggregated or cooperative organizations which have as their objective to increase the sustainability of water supply services may be “piloted” under the project. Pilots present an opportunity to “showcase” best practice, create interest from other Ayil Okmotus, rayons and oblasts, and provide opportunities for improving through practical learning and experience.