Instructions: After you complete the theory review, compare your answers to the correct answers below.
1. Why is it important for you to understand the growth, structure, and composition of hair?
(Answers will vary but may include the idea that a cosmetologist who understands how and why hair grows will have a better understanding of hair care, including such topics as normal and abnormal hair loss, what creates natural color, and what constitutes an unhealthy scalp condition. Knowledge of all of these things will help a cosmetologist advise clients more effectively.)
3. What are the three main layers of the hair shaft?
4. Describe the cuticle layer. (It consists of an overlapping layer of transparent, scale-like cells that look like shingles on a roof.)
5. What does a healthy cuticle layer protect? (It protects the hair from penetration and prevents damage to hair fibers.)
6. Why must oxidation haircolors, permanent waving solutions, and chemical hair relaxers have an alkaline pH? (They must have an alkaline pH to penetrate the cuticle layer, swell the cuticle, and cause it to lift and expose the cortex.)
7. Which layer of the hair is the cortex? (The middle layer)
8. Name three different hair properties for which the cortex is responsible:
a) (Pigment or natural color)
9. In what layer of the hair do changes involving oxidation haircolor, wet setting, thermal styling, permanent waving, and chemical hair relaxing take place? (The cortex)
10. List some good sources of amino acids.
(Proteins in meat, fish, and dairy products and food combinations such as peanut butter and bread, rice and beans, and beans and corn are all good sources of amino acids.)
11. Hair is a living thing.
Explain your answer. (When the hair shaft emerges from the scalp, the cells of the hair are completely keratinized and are no longer living.)
12. List the main elements that make up human hair and their percentage in normal hair.
13. What are the three types of side bonds that cross-link polypeptide chains?
a) (Hydrogen bonds)
b) (Salt bonds)
c) (Disulfide bonds)
14. How are a hair’s strong chemical side bonds broken? (By permanent waves and chemical hair relaxers that alter the shape of hair or by boiling water and high-temperature thermal styling tools)
15. How is gray hair different from other hair colors? (Gray hair is missing the melanin pigment that gives hair color; otherwise, it has the same structure as pigmented hair.)
16. Describe vellus hair. (Short, fine, and downy; not pigmented and almost never has a medulla)
17. On adults, vellus hair is usually found on what part(s) of the body? (Forehead, eyelids, and bald scalp, as well as nearly all other parts of the body except the palms and the soles of the feet).
18. Describe terminal hair. (Long, soft hair; coarser than vellus hair, usually contains a medulla, and is pigmented—except for gray hair)
19. Where is terminal hair found on the body? (scalp, legs, arms, and bodies of males and females).
20. How frequently does the average hair growth cycle take to repeat itself? __(Four to five years)_____________________________________________
21. Describe why bald and balding men and women are emotionally affected by their hair loss.
(Research has shown that people negatively stereotype bald and balding men, considering them less attractive, assertive, successful, and likeable. They also perceive them as being older than their true age. These negative impressions are harmful to men who are experiencing hair loss, particularly if they have lower self-esteem).
22. By the age of 35, what percentage of men and women show some degree of hair loss? ___(Almost 40%)__
23. What is alopecia areata? (It is an autoimmune disease that causes a person’s immune system to attack the hair follicles; the white blood cells stop the hair growth phase.)
24. What are the only two products that have been proven to stimulate hair growth and approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)? (Minoxidil and finasteride)
25. Why are pregnant women warned against having any contact with the oral prescription medication used to treat hair loss in men? (Because it has shown a high potential for causing birth defects; pregnant women should not even touch a finasteride tablet.)
26. Describe surgical treatments for hair loss.
(Hair transplant is a process that consists of removing small sections of hair, including the follicle, papilla, and bulb, and transplanting them into the bald area.)
27. What nonmedical options can a hairstylist offer to counter hair loss? (Wigs, toupees, hair weavings, and hair extensions)
28. Summarize the different possible causes of hair loss.
(Age, genetics, hormonal changes, autoimmune disorders, pregnancy, and medical treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation treatments. Gender also plays a role as men are more likely to experience hair loss than women, although women are affected, too.)
29. What is an example of hypertrichosis? (A mustache or light beard on a woman). What are possible treatments? (Electrolysis, photoepilation, laser hair removal, shaving, tweezing, electronic tweezers, depilatories, epilators, threading, and sugaring.)
30. How many pounds of dead skin does the average person shed each year? ___(9 pounds)___
31. What is the difference between dry scalp and dandruff? (Dry scalp is dry, and the flakes are much smaller and less noticeable; dandruff occurs with an oily scalp and the flakes are larger.)
37. What does tinea barbae affect? (The coarse hairs in the mustache and beard areas of the neck and scalp)
38. List the ways head lice are transmitted from an infected person to a noninfected person. (Through contact with infested hats, combs, brushes, and other personal articles.)
39. As a cosmetologist, what are two ways you can help prevent the spread of infectious conditions?
(First, by being able to recognize an infectious condition or disorder and not performing a service on that client. Second, by properly practicing state board–approved cleaning and disinfection procedures.)
40. What special tools does a cosmetologist need to perform a hair analysis?
(None. sA cosmetologist uses his or her powers of observation, relying on the senses of sight, touch, hearing, and smell, to perform a hair analysis.)
41. Explain the connection between hair analysis and retailing.
(You will not be able to recommend appropriate, effective products and services to your client until you perform a complete analysis of his or her hair. Once you have done this, you will be able to make valuable recommendations on products they may use at home. This in turn encourages clients to return for future services and fosters their trust in your skill.)
42. List and define the four most important factors to consider in hair analysis.
a) (Texture—the thickness or diameter of the individual hair strand)
b) (Porosity—the ability of the hair to absorb moisture)
c) (Elasticity—the ability of the hair to stretch and return to its original length without breaking)
d) (Density—measures the individual hair strands on one square inch)
43. What are the classifications of hair texture?
44. Which hair texture has the largest diameter? (Coarse hair)
45. Which hair texture is the most common and is the standard? (Medium hair)
46. Which hair texture has the smallest diameter and is more fragile? (Fine hair)
47. Which hair texture usually requires extra processing when applying a product like haircolor? (Coarse hair)
48. What are the classifications of hair density?
a) (Low or thin)
c) (High or thick/dense)
49. What is the degree of porosity directly related to? (the condition of the cuticle layer)Why? (Healthy hair with a compact cuticle layer is naturally resistant to penetration; porous hair has a raised cuticle layer that easily absorbs water.)
50. Describe how to check porosity. (On dry hair, take a strand of several hairs from four different areas of the head. Hold the strand securely with one hand while sliding the thumb and forefinger of the other hand from the end to the scalp.)
51. In a porosity check, what does it mean if the hair feels smooth? (the cuticle is compact, dense, and hard, and is considered resistant).
52. In a porosity check, what does it mean if you can feel a slight roughness? (the hair is considered porous).
53. In a porosity check, what does it mean if the hair feels very rough or dry or breaks? (it is considered highly porous and may have been overprocessed).
54. What does hair elasticity indicate? (the strength of the side bonds that hold the hair’s individual fibers in place).
55. What are the characteristics of oily hair and scalp? (a greasy buildup on the scalp and an oily coating on the hair).