Norway. Indigenous peoples. EMRIP report on the role of languages and culture.
Information on the role of languages and culture in the promotion and protection of the rights and identity of indigenous peoples
There are several measures and legal provisions to promote and protect the rights and identity of the indigenous people in Norway.
In both international and national legal framework the protection of indigenous peoples`s culture” covers both the material and the immaterial basis for the indigenous peoples culture.
We could mention the following examples in our national legal framework with provisions regarding the material basis for the Sami culture:
The Act relating to legal relations and management of land and natural resources in the county of Finnmark (The Finnmark Act)
The Planning and Building Act
The Mineral Act
The Reindeer Herding Act
However, in our contribution to the study we have decided to focus on the role of indigenous people’s immaterial culture.
The Government’s general cultural policy and Sami cultural policy are underpinned by the same principles. Art and culture enrich society and are essential to people’s quality of life, sense of community, history, identity and development. Furthermore, investment in the cultural sector will also benefit other policy areas such as industrial and commercial development, employment, social and cultural inclusion, health, learning and creativity.
The language is an important pillar in Sami culture. It is crucial to secure and strengthen the Sami languages in order to preserve and develop Sami culture.
2.The Role of Languages
The Sami languages
Sami languages are spoken in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia. There are ten different Sami dialects, or languages, and the language boundaries extend across the national borders. A survey conducted by the Sami Trade and Development Centre in 2002 for the Sami Language Council estimates that approximately 25,000 people speak Sami languages in Norway. About half of these speak, read and write Sami, while the rest have an oral competence in the language. It is hard to provide an exact picture of how the languages are distributed, but North Sami is the most widespread of the Sami languages in Norway. In the case of Lule and South Sami, it is estimated that under a thousand people speak these languages, and only a small minority of people speak East Sami/Skolte Sami and Pite Sami in Norway today.
Central international documents
Norway has ratified a number of international conventions on minorities and indigenous peoples which include provisions on the protection of languages. The ILO Convention No. 169 states for instance in Article 28 that «Measures shall be taken to preserve and promote the development and practice of the indigenous languages of the peoples concerned». Also the UN International Covenant on Civil and Political Right provides guidance for Norway’s work on Sami languages. Moreover, the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples contains provisions on language.
Norway ratified The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (the Charter) in 1993. Part II of the Charter stipulates a number of important objectives and principles regarding the states’ obligations to ensure that minority languages are protected. Part III of the Charter contains more comprehensive and detailed rules that put concrete constraints on the authorities in different fields, for instance, education, the health service and public administration. For Norway, part III of the Charter applies in relation to North Sami.
In the national legislation and embedded in The Norwegian Constitution, Section 110a, is a state obligation to provide the right conditions to ensure that the Sami people can ”preserve and develop its language, culture and way of life”. Among other things, this resulted in a new chapter in the Sami Act of 12 June 1987 concerning Sami language (Chapter 3).The language provisions came into force on 1 January 1992.
The Sami Act, section 1-5 affirms that Sami and Norwegian are languages of equal worth. They shall be accorded equal status pursuant to the provisions of chapter 3 of the Sami Act. Some of the provisions are limited to the administrative district for Sami language, however others do not have such geographic limitations. Some provisions are particularly aimed at the municipalities, while others also apply to the state and regional authorities. For instance, the Act states that laws and regulations that are of particular interest to all, or just some of the Sami population, must be translated into Sami.
The language provisions of the Sami Act provide citizens with language rights in their meeting with the public authorities. This applies to the translation of regulations, announcements and forms into Sami; as well as the right to receive replies from the authorities in Sami; the extended right to use Sami in contact with the legal system and health and welfare services; the right to individual church services; the right to take absence of leave to study Sami; and the right to Sami education.
The administrative district for Sami language includes; the Municipality of Karasjok; Kautokeino; Nesseby; Porsanger and Tana in Finnmark County; Kåfjord and Lavangen in Troms County; Tysfjord in Nordland County; and Snåsa in Nord-Trøndelag County. The Municipality of Røyrvik in Nord-Trøndelag County has submitted a request to the government to be included in the administrative district for Sami language.
The Sami Act and the Education Act form the legal basis for Sami education (see 2.9. The role of the Sami languages and culture in the education system). Other central laws include the Kindergarten Act which determines the municipality’s responsibility to make specific arrangements for Sami children. The Courts Act refers to the provisions in the Sami Act regarding the use of the Sami languages. The Place Names Act ensures that Sami place names are pursuant to national laws, international agreements and conventions (see 3.1.8).
Legislation on health regulates the relationship between the activities of the health services, practitioners and users of the health services. From a legal point of view, the stipulation in connection with health refers to the right to comprehendible information independent of the limitations of the language provisions. It is vital to have services in the Sami languages in order to perform correct and essential examinations and treatments, cf. the Patients’ Rights Act.
The principal objective of the Government’s policy on the Sami languages is to provide the right conditions to ensure that the Sami people in Norway can safeguard their languages.
In White Paper No. 28 (2007-2008) on Sami politics, the Government has expressed that the Sami languages shall be living languages. Sami languages shall be actively used in all areas of society, and the use of Sami language in public places and official and public contexts shall be enhanced. Furthermore, the report to the Storting states that the challenges of Sami policy regarding language and culture must be solved by strengthening the public authorities’ responsibility, and role, in relation to the Sami users within core welfare areas such as health, care and education. This presupposes an active policy that will introduce a Sami speaking and cultural perspective within the public services.
In White Paper No. 35 (2007-2008) the Government has made a basic outline for the shaping of a complete language policy. The report states that securing of the Sami languages’ future also lies within the highest realms of political responsibility concerning languages. In addition to being a central challenge for Sami policy, the work on Sami languages is therefore also a general challenge for language policies.
The Sami languages, and in particular the smaller Sami languages, are in a more vulnerable position than the national Norwegian language. The possibility of becoming extinct is a real threat for the smaller Sami languages. In an international context even North Sami is characterised as an endangered language. To prevent languages from becoming extinct a much stronger, goal oriented and systematic commitment is needed. The language report states that the Government will work on paving the way for a new Sami language policy with a strategic and complete perspective on the Sami languages and community.
The Ministry of Culture bears general responsibility for this policy. With operational support from the Language Council1 as a professional body, this Ministry has a coordinating and driving force role for language policy in relation to the other ministries.
The Language Council will no longer work with Norwegian language only, but rather with languages in Norway in general. This means that the Council will have some responsibilities for minority languages and in principle for Sami languages as well. As it comes to Sami languages however, it is important to underline that Sámediggi (the Sami Parliament), according to law is working to protect and further develop Sami languages in Norway. (See also 2.7 Sámediggi (The Sami Parliament) and its work on Sami languages.)
Action Plan for Sami Languages
In White Paper No. 28 (2007-2008) to the Storting it was ascertained that the situation for Sami languages is severe. The Government therefore proposed an Action Plan for Sami Languages in 2009. The Action Plan was drawn up in dialogue with Sámediggi. One important goal is to increase the number of users of Sami languages. The Action Plan for Sami Languages particularly focuses on increasing the use of Sami languages in areas where Sami languages have a weak position. An important instrument in this respect is to strengthen arenas for the use of Sami languages.
The Action Plan particularly focuses on the Lule Sami and South Sami languages. In the Action Plan period, the Government will facilitate stronger efforts for Sami languages in different areas of society; particularly in training, education, and public service and care provision, as well as the use and visibility of Sami languages in public contexts. One prerequisite for a secure future for Sami languages is promotion of the languages' status and thereby make them visible.
The Action Plan consists of three components:
Learn – which focuses on strengthening tuition in and about the North, Lule and South Sami languages in kindergarten, strengthening arenas for the use of Sami and improving the opportunities for parents to learn Sami. Recruitment to education in Sami languages is an important focus area.
Use – which focuses on increasing public service provision in Sami, including strengthening competence in Sami language and culture in public agencies and services, developing language technology and increasing information on Sami languages for Sami users.
See – which focuses on raising the visibility of Sami languages in public contexts. Use of Sami languages in media, film, literature and online are key factors here. As are road signs in Sami.
The Action Plan has duration of five years. Annual reports will be prepared on the achievement of the Action Plan's objectives and the implementation of its measures. The first report, Action Plan for Sami Languages – status 2010 and further efforts 2011, was presented in February 2011.
Responsibility for preserving the Sami languages
All public services have a responsibility to consider the needs of Sami language users within their sphere of work in accordance with the principal of sector responsibility. All public authorities who come under the language provisions of chapter 3 of the Sami Act are obliged to guarantee that the regulations of the Sami Act are followed.
Language is crucial for the general development of Sami culture, enterprise and community.
Sámediggi (The Sami Parliament) and its work on Sami languages
Sámediggi shall work on the protection and further development of the Sami languages in Norway. Subsidies to municipalities/regional authorities under the language provisions of the Sami Act are paid out annually pertaining to certain criteria. The funds shall cover extra incurred costs that the municipalities endure as bilingual municipalities. Sámediggi shall have control of how the funds are used and the municipalities/regional authorities must report to Sámediggi each year.
Sámediggi in Norway has a language council which acts an advisory body for the Sámediggi Council on language issues. The language council has members from the North Sami, Lule Sami and South Sami regions.
Ten Sami language centres received subsidies from Sámediggi in 2009. The function of the language centres is to revitalise, preserve and strengthen the Sami languages and culture. Incorporated within the work tasks is the development and strengthening of educational measures for the Sami languages, culture and business enterprises, as well as the distribution of information on Sami culture. The language centres arrange courses in everything from Sami play language for children, Sami education for municipal staff to duodji (handicraft) courses. The language centres are also meeting places for the Sami community in the area, thus they are important institutions for promoting and developing the Sami language.
Sámediggi awards subsidies to Sami kindergartens that by statute are built on the Sami language and culture. Sámediggi also offers subsidies for language training to certain children in Norwegian kindergartens.
Sami-speaking women who are resident outside the administrative district of Sami language, report poor health. A study (University of Tromsø) in 2011 shows that 50 % of the Sami-speaking women feel that they have poor health. Studies also show that the Sami-speaking women are seeking less help for their mental problems than the Sami women who have Norwegian language as their mothertongue. This may be associated with the communication problems in the consultation with the doctor.
The visibility of the Sami languages is crucial to enhance language and cultural identity. In this respect, it is important that the diversity of the Sami language becomes more visible to the public so that North Sami speakers, Lule Sami speakers and South Sami speakers can meet their language in as many situations as possible. In a report from the Children’s Ombudsman called: «The Right to Participate for Sami Children & Youths» young people say that language plays a significant role in the formation of a positive identity - and that the mass media does far too little when it comes to directing information towards Sami youths.
Stronger visibility of the Sami languages in public domains will improve the interest and need to take the language back or to cultivate and develop it. Stronger visibility will also be an important stimulus for the local Sami communities to work on enhancing the Sami language in their areas. Sami literature, Sami theatre and Sami films play a vital role in language identity and language awareness. Moreover, Sami literature can play a substantial role in advancing good usage of the Sami language, improving the individual reader’s Sami language skills and developing the reader’s identification with the language.
The role of the Sami languages and culture in the education system
Kindergartens for Sami children
The municipalities are responsible for ensuring that kindergartens for Sami children in Sami districts are based on Sami language and culture. In other municipalities, steps shall be taken to enable Sami children to secure and develop their language and their culture. The Kindergarten Act states that the kindergartens must take account of children’s social, ethnic and cultural background, including the language and culture of Sami children. The legislation relates to the ILO’s Convention No. 169.
The Framework Plan for the Content and Tasks of Kindergartens states that kindergartens for Sami children in Sami districts must be an integrated part of Sami society and must demonstrate the diversity, vigour and variety of Sami society. Sami statutes must include the aim of strengthening children’s identity as Sami people through use of Sami language, and by teaching children about Sami culture, ways of life and society. In kindergartens with Sami children outside the Sami districts, parents and children are entitled to expect staff to be familiar with Sami culture, and to emphasise it as part of the kindergarten’s programme.
Sámediggi has special grants to establish informative material and information to and about Sami kindergartens.
Primary, lower, and upper secondary education
The Education Act
As a general rule, Sami pupils are entitled to compulsory and upper secondary education in their own language.
The Education Act states that in Sami districts all children at the primary and lower secondary level have the right to receive their education both in Sami and through the medium of Sami.
Outside Sami districts, if at least ten pupils in a municipality wish to receive instruction in and through the medium of Sami, they have the right to such education as long as there remain at least six pupils in the group. The municipality may decide to offer Sami instruction at one or more of the schools in the municipality.
The municipality may issue regulations stipulating that all children at the primary and lower secondary level in Sami districts shall receive instruction in Sami. Outside Sami districts, Sami children at the primary and lower secondary level have the right to receive Sami instruction. The Ministry may issue regulations concerning alternative forms of such instruction when it cannot be provided by suitable teachers at the school attended by the children.
The School Information System (GSI) – Statistics for primary and lower secondary education states the numbers of pupils:
Education through the medium of Sami
Sami as first language
Pupils taught North Sami as first language are reduced from 989 in 2001 - 2002 to 895 pupils in 2011 - 2012. There were 34 pupils taught Lule Sami as first language in 2001-2002; today there are 25. The corresponding numbers for South Sami were 1 in 2001-2002 and include 20 pupils today.
Sami pupils in upper secondary education and training have the right to receive Sami instruction. The Ministry may issue regulations concerning alternative forms of such
instruction when it cannot be provided by suitable teachers at the school attended by the pupils.
The Ministry may issue regulations stipulating that certain schools shall provide instruction in or through the medium of Sami or in specific Sami subjects in upper secondary education within certain courses or for certain groups. The county authority may also decide to offer such instruction.
“Samiske Tall forteller 4” [Sami figures relate]3 states the number of pupils in upper secondary education with Sami as first language:
2008 - 2009
2009 - 2010
2010 - 2011
The Education Act states that pupils who have a right to learn Sami, have a right to alternative training when the Sami instruction cannot be given by qualified teachers at their schools. An example of alternative training is distance education.
In the Action Plan for Sami Languages there are several measures related to Sami education. One of the measures is to develop the possibilities for distant education because a number of municipalities collaborate on Sami education with the assistance of distant learning. The county governors and the Directorate for Education and Training are developing better structures and possibilities for distant education. The county governors have established a network for teachers who offer distant learning and instruction. There are plans to developed this further, and regional meetings for teachers should be held in conjunction with the university colleges.
Curriculum and curricula guides
There are developed special curricula for Sami pupils – in Sami languages, duodji (Sami handicrafts) and other subjects. These plans are used for education in Sami districts and for pupils who receive Sami education outside Sami districts. Pupils may e.g. receive education in Sami language as first or second language. Sámediggi is responsible to develop the curricula in the Sami subjects.
Curricula guides are developed to assist the organising of Sami and Norwegian instruction so that pupils are given the education that they are entitled to, pursuant to the applicable laws and regulations, and to help teachers in their instruction.
Collaboration with Sweden on Sami education
A working group has made a report proposing different means for collaboration with Sweden on Sami education. Cross-border collaboration is vital, particularly when it comes to education, development of teaching materials in South and Lule Sami, and teacher training. The proposals from the working group are now being discussed.
Higher education institutions are necessary to support all measures taken by the state to improve and strengthen Sami languages in the Norwegian society. There are several higher education institutions that contribute in this effort: The University of Tromsø, The University of Nordland, Nord-Trøndelag University College and Finnmark University College. The Sami University College’s primary purpose is to strengthen and disseminate the research base for Sami languages and culture.
All the mentioned institutions are cornerstones in fulfilling the important national effort to strengthen Sami languages. A national plan for Sami preschool education is being deveolped, and a national plan for Sami teacher education is decided. The Ministry of Education and Research finances different research projects related to Sami languages.
In order to attract and recruit students to the Sami higher education student programs we have a national strategy that will last from 2011 - 2014. The strategy is put in place in order to serve and protect the interests of the Sami. All the institutions have a great variety of programs directed to the purpose of the Sami that live in different regions.
Challenges - follow up
The Norwegian authorities are aware of challenges according to the education of Sami pupils; that gradually less pupils choose to learn Sami languages, and that the Sami pupils have more lessons than majority pupils outside the Sami districts.
The authorities find it very important that all pupils receive the tuition they are entitled to. Supervision performed by the county governors has therefore been strengthened. So far the supervision has been performed in quite few counties and municipalities, and it is not yet possible to draw conclusions.
3.The Role of Culture
Two approaches in the Norwegian Government’s Sami cultural policy4
Awareness of the Sami people’s own culture has increased the last decades and a distinct Sami cultural policy has developed from the mid 1980s. Greater emphasis has been put on the importance of Sámediggi’s (the Sami Parliament) responsibility and authority in developing Sami culture and Sami cultural policy.
Article 110a of the Norwegian Constitution deals with the Norwegian State’s responsibilities vis-à-vis the Sami people:
"It is the responsibility of the authorities of the State to create conditions enabling the Sami people to preserve and develop their language, culture and way of life."
There are two approaches in the Norwegian Government’s Sami cultural policy. One is to strenghten Sami culture through allocations to Sámediggi. The other is that Sami culture is a part of the cultural diversity in Norway.
In 2005 the coalition government alternative formed by the Labour Party, the Socialist Left Party and the Centre Party went to the polls promising implementation of a cultural initiative by 2014. The Cultural Initiative consists of 17 priority areas in the Government’s cultural policy up to 2014. The Government is implementing its Cultural Initiative through targeted measures and a general increase in allocations in the government budget to art, culture and voluntary activity.The Cultural Initiative states that Sami culture shall be preserved and developed further. The allocation to Sámediggi shall be increased and the Sami languages shall be strengthened.
Strengthen Sami culture through allocations to Sámediggi
A new grant scheme for Sami art and culture was established in 2002. Most allocations from The Ministry of Culture to Sami art and culture, formerly allocated from different budget chapters, were gathered in one annual block grant that is administered by Sámediggi.
In 2012 the block grant is NOK 70 million. Sámediggi distributes the allocation to Sami institutions, initiatives and purposes, for instance museums, meeting places, music, festivals, theatre, library service, literature and schemes for artists and culture workers.
The Norwegian Government has noticed that arts and culture have a high priority in Sámediggi’s policy.
Sami culture as part of the cultural diversity in Norway
It is a basic principle that national cultural policy should reflect the cultural diversity in Norway. In addition to financially enable Sámediggi to develop and promote Sami culture, the Government must take the Sami perspective into account in the national cultural policy. All inhabitants should have the opportunity to know and experience Sami arts and culture, and thus develop an understanding of Sami culture in Norway.
The Sami perspective is for instance taken care of through funding of national institutions, arts- and culture institutions and allocations to artists. The Sami Archives are organised as a department of the National Archival Services of Norway. The National Library of Norway is responsible for a Sami bibliography, a catalogue of literature in Sami and Norwegian, and other languages when the topic is relevant to Sami matters. Sami cultural buildings have been realised through support from the central Government, for instance East Sami Museum in Neiden (Finnmark County) and Center for Northern Peoples in Kåfjord (Troms County).
The Arts Council Norway manages the Norwegian Culture Fund, an annual appropriation from the Storting with the aim to stimulate literary and artistic activities, preserving cultural heritage and making cultural life accessible to all. Sami organisations and artists can apply for grants from the Norwegian Culture Fund as well as from schemes administered by Sámediggi.
Freedom of the press and a vibrant media sector are fundamental preconditions for freedom of speech, rule of law and democracy. This holds true also for the Sami community. The government is responsible for facilitating freedom of speech and democratic participation for the Sami as for the population in general.
Its presence and visibility in papers, broadcasting and film strengthens Sami culture and language.
A support scheme for Sami newspapers was established in 1978. Support totalling NOK 23 million will be granted in 2012. The purpose of the grant is to facilitate democratic debate, the formation of opinions and language development in the Sami community. The grant is managed by the Norwegian Media Authority, an administrative body under the Ministry of Culture.
The Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation (NRK) is a licence fee funded, state-owned, public broadcasting service. According to NRK’s mandate, NRK shall contribute to strengthen the Norwegian and Sami languages, identities and cultures, and broadcast regularly programmes for children and young people in Sami. NRK Sápmi is a separate organisation unit producing programmes for the Sami population.
The licence conditions of the Norwegian commercial public service broadcasters Radio Norge (radio) and P4 (radio) specify that programming must include a wide range of programmes suitable for both larger and smaller audiences, including the Sami population and other minorities. The Radio Norge licence has undertaken an obligation to broadcast at least two daily newscasts in Sami.
The Norwegian Media Authority monitors the public service broadcasters’ obligations.
The Norwegian Film Institute is the Government’s civil executive body for the film sector and its advisor in questions of film policy. Among the The Norwegian Film Institute’s tasks is to provide support for Norwegian films, television series and electronic games. The Norwegian and Sami languages enjoy equal status with respect to grant schemes managed by the Norwegian Film Institute.
The Sami International Film Centre was founded in 2007 and has received state subsidies since 2009. The objectives of the funding are to support the development and production of short films and documentaries and to upgrade the skills and initiatives of children and young people.
Sami place names and signs in Sami
The Place Names Act regulates the spelling and the use of place names (geographical names) by public institutions. The purpose of the Act is to safeguard place names as a part of the Norwegian cultural heritage, to determine a standardized, practical and usable spelling of the places names, and to promote knowledge and active use of the names.
Article 9 of the Act regulates that Sami and Kven names in use by the local population shall be used by public authorities on maps, signs, in registers etc. Using Sami place names on signs (place name signs and road signs) is vital to ensuring that the Sami language and the presence of Sami people and culture is kept vital and visible.
The Sami Act: http://www.regjeringen.no/en/doc/laws/Acts/the-sami-act-.html?id=449701
The Education Act: http://www.regjeringen.no/upload/KD/Vedlegg/Grunnskole/Education_Act_Norway_september2010.pdf
Action Plan for Sami Languages: http://www.regjeringen.no/upload/FAD/Vedlegg/SAMI/HP_2009_samisk_sprak_engelsk.pdf
Norway’s fifth periodical report on the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages: http://www.regjeringen.no/upload/FAD/Vedlegg/SAMI/Minoritetssprakpakten_norges_5_rapport_EN.pdf