Incisors for cutting Canines for grasping food that fights back Molariform

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Digestive System Design

Big fleshy lips are great with a sub-terminal sucking mouth

Little or none: Quite common

Jaw Teeth

Incisors for cutting

Canines for grasping food that fights back

Molariform for grinding mollusks

Cardiform or Villiform for invertebrates (depends on how rowdy they are)

None for planktivores

Some fish may rely completely on pharyngeal teeth!

Pharyngeal Teeth

Crushing for mollusks or coral

Tearing for plants

Graspers for pulling prey into the stomach
Gill Rakers: keeps the food from escaping through the gills.

Long comb-like for plankton eaters

medium for omnivores

short for carnivores that eat big stuff.

None in planktivores or detritivores

J-shaped in omnivores

straight in fish that eat other fish

Marine with a saltwater bypass for marine fish

gizzard-like for some fish that eat detritus

Short (1X body length) = carnivore

Medium (2X) = herbivore /omnivore

Long (5-13) = detritivore/ planktivore

Stomach Chemistry: Grinds up and liquefies the food. Produces hydrochloric acid and a protein-digesting enzyme called pepsin. Function, makes big bits into little bits.
Intestine: Neutralizes the acids
Exocrine Pancreas: Adds digestive enzymes including amylase (breaks down carbohydrates), lipases (break down fats), and trypsin (another enzyme for proteins). These enzymes break food down into individual molecules that can be absorbed by the intestine.
Liver: Produces bile and stores it in the gall bladder. The gal bladder releases it into the intestine when the fish needs to digest food high in fat. Bile acts like detergent and breaks the fats into microscopic droplets for absorption.

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