Identification of Important Cultivars Mango Alphonso



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Identification of Important Cultivars

  • Mango

  1. Alphonso: 

Also known as Hapoos, it’s easily one of the most beloved varieties in India and abroad. This variety grows in Maharashtra, Gujarat and Karnataka. Its firm yet fibreless pulp ensures a smooth creamy mango while still maintaining its integrity when cut. TSS is 160 Brix & 0.4-0.5% acidity. It is moderately resistant to hoppers & wind. Keeping quality is very good.

  1. Dashehari: 

One of the most popular variety of North India. It is a mid season mango. Fruits are medium sized with pleasant flavor. Sweet, firm & fibreless pulp. Stone is thin & keeping quality is good. TSS is 20.04%. Its pulp is sweet and succulent.

  1. Langra: 

It is a biennial bearer & mid season variety. Its flesh is mildly fibrous and with a distinct turpentine taste. Flesh is firm & lemon yellow in colour. Langra also has a short season, lasting only from mid-July to the end of the month. TSS is 9.35%. Just as Dashehari mangeos have a mother tree in Malihabad, a langra mother tree exists in Varanasi. This langra tree is believed to spawn many of India’s other mango varieties. The tree’s original owner was lame, and thus was born the name, “langra.”

  1. Kesar: 

Popular in Saurashtra region of Gujarat. It is an irregular bearer. Fruits are medium sized with sweet & fibreless flesh. It has excellent sugar: acid blend. Fruits ripen to attractive apricot yellow colour with red blush. TSS is 16%. It has good processing quality.

  1. Neelam: 

It is a high yielding variety growing throughout India and Pakistan. Hyderabad in particular is famous for this variety. Neelam comes to the markets in May and last until the end of June. It has a regular bearing habit but it is a late season mango. Fruits are medium sized with good flavor. Flesh is yellow & fibreless. Keeping quality is good.

  1. Totapuri: 

Its small green appearance and beak at the end of the fruit resembles a parrot, hence its name (as “tota” means “parrot” in Hindi). Unlike other cultivars, it’s acceptable to eat the skin of this variety. It is a regular & heavy bearing mango. It has a typical flavor & flat taste. Flesh is fibreless.

  1. Banganapalli :

Another fibreless cultivar grown in the South. This mango is Andhra Pradesh’s prime variety. It is an early maturing variety of south India. Its fruits are large sized, weighing on an average 350-400 g. It is a moderately juicy, yellow variety. The pulp is fibreless & yellow. It has a good keeping quality.

  1. Saroli/Bombay Green

A popular variety in North India and Pakistan. It is an early maturing variety of North India. Its fruits are medium sized, weighing about 250 g each. Fruits have strong & pleasant flavor. Pulp is soft & sweet.

  1. Chausa: 

Its name was given by Sher Shah Suri, the Sultan of the Muslim Suri Empire from 1540 to 1545. Because the chausa variety was his favorite, it’s hailed as “the king of mangos.” Today it grows in the North and throughout Pakistan in early June throughout the end of August. It is late maturing variety. Fruits are large, weighing about 350 g each. Fruit are bright yellow with soft & sweet pulp.

  1. Fazli:

  A mango originating in Bihar and West Bengal. It is a late maturing (Aug) mango. Fruits are large with firm to soft flesh. Flavor is pleasant & pulp is sweet & fibreless. Keeping quality is good.

  1. Amrapali:

Year of Release: 1979 (Institute Variety Release Committee)

Parentage: Dashehari x Neelum

Average Yield: 15-20 kg per tree (10th year).

Characterstics:

Distinctly dwarf, highly regular and precocious. Fruits regular for harvest by the 3rd week of July in northern India. Fruit size small to medium (120 to 160g) and fibreless. It has high TSS (22.8 ºBrix) and b-caratene content (16,830 µg/100g pulp). Suitable for blending mango pulp. Ideal for high density planting (1,600 plants per ha).



  1. Mallika:

Year of Release: 1971 (Institute Variety Release Committee)

Parentage: Neelum x Dashehari

Average Yield: 18-20 kg per tree (10th year)

Characterstics:

World’s first mango hybrid released for commercial cultivation. Regular in bearing with semi-vigorous growth habit. Size of the fruit large (307g), good taste (TSS 24 ºBrix), fibreless with good flavor. Fruits ready for harvest by the 3rd week of July in northern India. Suitable for processing and export. It has become a major commercial export variety of KN, AP & W.B.





  1. PKM 1 (1981) :

It is a clonal selection from hybrid, Chinnaswarnarekha and Neelum. It is a regular bearer. It is suitable for long distance transport. Each fruit weighs 250300 g. It has a long, narrow with prominent beak.

  1. PKM 2(1990) :

It is a hybrid between Neelum and Mulgoa. It yields higher than Neelum and Mulgoa with other attributes like large size fruits (681.3 g compared to 286.0g in Neelum and 471.3 g in Mulgoa), high pulp content (67.5% compared to 64.4% in Neelum and 53.3% in Mulgoa), abundant juice, pleasant flavour, good keeping quality, very sweet taste, high total soluble solids/acid ratio (128.36 compared to 109.01 in Neelum and 64.29 in Mulgoa). The fruit comes to harvest during May (Mid season).

  1. PAIYUR 1(1992) :

This is a clonal selection from Neelum variety of mango from Karukkanchavadi village of Kaveripattinam, Dharmapuri district. Trees are dwarf and suitable for high density planting (400 trees/ha as against the recommended 100 tress/ha). Orchard management practices including harvesting are easy to perform because of short stature of the trees. This is a regular bearer. Fruits are medium long, ovate with yellow skin. Fruits have excellent taste with good keeping quality. Fruits are medium in size with an average weight of 150g - 200g.

  1. Arka Anmol:

It is derived from the parentage Alphonso x Janardhan Pasand. It is a semi-vigorous type, regular bearing and is amenable for HDP. It is a late season variety, fruits coming to harvest during second to third week of June. Fruits are oblong in shape, medium sized, weighing on an average about 300-330g.  Fruits on maturity will be dull green in colour, attaining uniform golden yellow colour on ripening. Skin is thin and smooth. Pulp is orange coloured, firm and free from fiber and spongy tissue with good sugar-acid blend. TSS is around 19° Brix. Keeping quality is good.

  1. Arka Neelkiran:

It is the progeny from the cross Alphonso x Neelum. It is a late season variety, fruits come to harvest during last week of June. Tree is semi-vigorous in nature. Fruit is elliptic in shape, medium sized weighing on an average about 270-280g. Fruits on ripening get golden yellow blush. Skin is smooth, medium thick. Pulp is deep yellow in colour and firm. It is free from fiber and spongy tissue. Keeping quality is good.

  1. Pusa Lalima :

Year of Release: 2011 (through Institute Variety Release Committee).

Parentage: Dashehari x Sensation.

Average Yield: 50-60 kg per trees.

Characteristics:

Regular bearer, semi-vigorous and are suitable for closer planting. Fruits are attractive in shape and having red peel and orange pulp. The fruit (209 g) having attractive red peel colour and higher pulp content (70.1%) Pulp with medium total soluble solids (19.7%), vitamin C (34.7 mg/100 g pulp) and high b-carotene content (13,028 µg/100 g pulp). It has good flavor with shelf life (5 to 6 days) at room temperature. It is suitable for domestic market as well as international market.



  1. Pusa Shreshth:

Year of Release: 2011 (Institute Variety Release Committee)

Parentage: Amrapali x Sensation.

Average Yield: 20-22 kg per tree.

Characteristics:

It is unique hybrid having regularity in bearing, attractive elongated shape, red peel and orange pulp. Plants are semi-vigorous and suitable for closer planting (6m x 6m). Fruit medium sized (228g) with higher pulp content (71.9%). The total soluble solids are 20.3%, vitamin C (40.3mg/100g pulp) and b-carotene content (10,964 ug/100g pulp). It has pleasant flavor with shelf life (7 to 8 days) at room temperature.



  1. Pusa Arunima:

Year of Release: 2002 (SVRC, Delhi)

Parentage: Amrapali x Sensation

Average Yield: 15-20 kg per tree (10th year).

Characteristics:

Regular bearer, semi-vigorous and suitable for closer planting (6 m x 6 m). Fruits medium to large in size (230 to 250 g) with attractive red peel and medium TSS (19.5 ºBrix). It is suitable for both domestic and international markets, with long shelf-life (10 to 12 days) at room temperature after ripening.



  1. Pusa Peetamber:

Year of Release: 2001 (through Institute Variety Release Committee).

Parentage: Amrapali x Lal Sundari

Average Yield: 20-25 kg per tree.

Characteristics:

It is regular bearer, semi-vigorous and suitable for closer planting (278 plants/ha). Fruits are having attractive oblong shape, bright yellow peel. It is moderately resistant to mango malformation and major insect pests of mango. The fruits weight about 213 g with attractive yellow peel colour with higher juicy pulp (73.6%). It has medium total soluble solids (18.8%), rich in vitamin C (39.8 mg/100 g pulp) and b-carotene content (11,737 µg/100g pulp). It has appealing flavour with shelf life.


Exotic cultiver

  1. Kent:

In Florida 1944. Direct descendant of the Brooks cultivar, derived from the Sandersha seedling. The fruit is a regular oval shape, with plump cheeks, greenish-yellow color with red shoulder. Very rich and sweet with fiber-free flesh.

  1. Tommy Atkins:

Mango cultivar developed and grown for commercial export. The fruit is a regular oval, medium to large sized, yellowish-orange with deep red to purple blush, thicker skinned, juicy but firm with medium fiber.

  1. Haden:

Originated from Mulgoa seedling, Bombay, India. The fruit is a regular oval, large, yellow almost entirely washed over with an orange-red color, mild in flavor with a small amount of fiber.

  1. Keitt:

Indian strain thought to have originated, like the Haden, from a seedling of Mulgoa 1945, Homestead, Florida. The fruit is a large, ovate tapering with slight nose-like protuberance above its tip. Green to orange-yellow as it ripens; firm flesh with a piney sweetness and minimal fiber surrounding the seed area. A late fruiting mango, often available into fall.

Gujarat Realease Cultiver

  1. Sonpari (Alphonso x Baneshan):

Sonpari is heavy yielder and regular in bearing. The fruits are obliquely oval in shape like Baneshan, big in size weighing 360–550g. Fruit skin is smooth & become golden yellow in colour on ripening. The pulp is firm & fibreless, average pulp content of 75-77%. Taste is excellent and resembles to that of Alphonso and very good for table purpose. The TSS is more than19.5% with lower acidity 0.18% and higher total sugars 14.46%. The keeping quality is very good and fruits remain in good condition for more than 10 days at room temperature. The fruits mature in second week of June. The trees are free from mango malformation, shoot borer and mealy bug. The fruits are free from spongy tissue disorder. The fruit skin is very thin and hence preferred by fruit fly to lay eggs. Therefore, to avoid the fruit fly damage, place Nauroji Fruit Fly Traps @ 15/ ha in the orchard.


  1. Neeleshwari (Neelam x Dashehari ):

Fruit size is medium weighing about 228g with prominent sinus. The skin color on ripening turns apricot yellow while pulp colour becomes yellow. The thin smooth skin adheres to moderately firm textured flesh. The non-fibrous juicy pulp suited for table as well as juice purpose and has moderate keeping quality. The TSS is more than 19.00% with moderate acidity 0.21% and higher total sugars 13.90%.

  1. Neelphonso (Neelam x Alphonso):

This hybrid is moderate regular in bearing but have late bearing tendency. There is a great potentiality to exploit this hybrid as a source of off-season mango because the fruits from late flushes of flowering ripen even during September when no other mango variety can be seen. The fruit availability period is more than 50-60 days due to multiple flowering flushes. The oval oblique shaped fruits of Neelphonso are medium in size weighing about 200g. The skin color on ripening becomes apricot yellow while the pulp becomes orange yellow. Due to thick, smooth skin the fruits do not get damaged by rain. The fruits are free from spongy tissue disorder and are moderate resistant against fruit fly. The pulp texture firm, non-fibrous, highly suited for table and juice purpose with excellent keeping quality. The TSS is more than 21.5% with lower acidity 0.18% and higher total sugars 14.42%.

  1. Neeleshan Gujarat (Neelam x Baneshan):

The average weight of fruits is about 318g with higher pulp content of 76%. On ripening the skin become cadmium yellow while the pulp becomes attractive golden yellow in colour. The fruit skin is thin, smooth, moderate adhering to pulp with firm non-fibrous texture. Fruit TSS is 16-17% with moderate acidity 0.21% and total sugars 13.09%. The fruits are suited for table purpose and have very good keeping quality of more than 10 days after ripening.

  1. Amrutang

High yielder and resemble to ‘ Kesar’ variety, Fruit (180 g) having length 10.50 cm and width 7.50 cm and higher pulp content 81 % and pulp stone ratio 10.83:1.00, yield 80-100 kg per tree.

  • Banana

  1. Nendran (AAB) :

It is a popular variety in Kerala where it is relished as a fruit as well as used for processing. Commercial cultivation of Nendran has picked up rapidly in Tamil Nadu in the recent past. Nendran is known to display considerable diversity in plant stature, pseudo stem colour, presence or absence of male axis, bunch size, etc. Bunch has 5-6 hands weighing about 12-15 kg. Fruits have a distinct neck with thick green skin turning buff yellow on ripening. Fruits remain as starchy even on ripening. Nendran is highly susceptible to Banana Bract Mosaic Virus (BBMV), nematodes and borers.


  1. Grand Naine:

This is a commercial variety. It is a tall mutant of Dwarf cavendish. It has well spaced hands, fingers of biggest size & heavy bunches. Height 6-8 ft. The bunches are 25-30 kg with uniform long fingers throughout the bunch.

  1. Ney Poovan (AB) :

Ney Poovan is the choicest diploid cultivar, which is under commercial mono cultivation on a large scale especially in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. In Kerala it is grown in backyards and now shifting to large-scale cultivation. Ney Poovan is a slender plant bearing bunches of 15-30 kg after 12-14 months. Dark green fruits turn golden yellow with a very good keeping quality. Fruit is highly fragrant, tasty, powdery and firm. Ney Poovan is tolerant to leaf spot but susceptible to Fusarium wilt and banana bract mosaic virus.

  1. Dwarf Cavendish:

It is the leading commercial cultivar contributing to 58% of the total production owing to its high yield, ability to withstand strong winds, short crop cycle, high economic returns /unit area.

  1. Gross Michel:

Gross Michel bananas were the market leader before Panama Wilt disease became a serious pest in the early 20th century. Now it is susceptible to panama wilt.

  1. Goldfinger (FHIA-1):

A rapid growing, mostly green plant producing a wonderful tasting, slightly sub-acid, refreshing fruit that gets 6-8 inches long or better. It is a very disease resistant, wind & cool tolerant plant that is easy to grow. In our area the ripening fruit does not get dark yellow, instead gives only a slight color change when mature so check it often when close to harvesting. Height 10-12 ft.

  1. Poovan (Mysore AAB) :

It is a leading commercial cultivar grown throughout the country. Tamil Nadu is the leading producer of Poovan cultivar owing to its climatic and marginal soil condition. Poovan is also commercially cultivated for leaf industry throughout Tamil Nadu and in certain parts of Kerala. Fruit is slightly acidic, firm and has typical sour-sweet aroma. Fruits turn to attractive golden yellow on ripening. Medium sized bunch, closely packed fruits, good keeping quality and resistant to fruit cracking is its plus points. But it is highly susceptible to Banana Bract Mosaic Viral (BBMV) disease and Banana Streak Virus, (BSV), which cause considerable reduction in yield.

  1. Monthan (ABB) :

It is a widely cultivated variety for processing. Monthan is a fairly tall and robust plant bearing bunches of 18-20 kg after 12 months. Fruits are bold, stocky, knobbed and pale green in colour. The skin is usually green. The new prolific 'Monthan' type clones of economic value namely 'Kanchi Vazhai' and 'Chakkia' are recently becoming popular in Tamil Nadu. Apart from its culinary use of fruits, pseudo stem core is a highly relished vegetable with many medicinal properties. Monthan is also cultivated for production of leaves in Trichy and Tanjore districts of Tamil Nadu. It has many desirable qualities like immunity to Banana Bunchy Top Virus (BBTV) diseases, salt tolerance and normal bunch mass even under marginal condition, but it is highly susceptible to Fusarium wilt disease.

  1. Robusta (AAA) :

It is a semi-tall variety, grown mostly in Tamil Nadu and some parts of Karnataka for table purpose. Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra. It is a high yielding and produces bunch of large size with well developed fruits. Dark green fruits turn bright yellow upon ripening depending on ripening conditions. Fruit is very sweet with a good aroma. Bunch weighs about 25-30 kg. Requires propping. Fruit has a poor keeping quality leading to a quick breakdown of pulp after ripening, hence not suited for long distance transportation. Robusta is highly susceptible to Sigatoka leaf spot disease in humid tropics.

  1. Rasthali (Silk AAB) :

It is a medium tall variety commercially grown in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Karnataka and Bihar. Its unique fruit quality has made Rasthali popular and a highly prized cultivar for table purpose. Fruits are yellowish green throughout their development, but turn pale yellow to golden yellow after ripening. Fruit is very tasty with a good aroma. Longer crop duration, severe susceptibility to Fusarium wilt, requirement of bunch cover to protect fruits from sun cracking and formation of hard lumps in fruits make crop production more expensive.

  1. Red Banana (AAA) :

Red banana is the most relished and highly prized variety of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Its commercial cultivation is prominent in Kanyakumari and Tirunelveli districts of Tamil Nadu. It is also popular in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and to some extent in Western and Central India. In Bihar and other regions, it is popular as Lal Velchi while in Karnataka as Chandra Bale. The colour of the pseudostem, petiole, midrib and fruit rind is purplish red. It is a robust plant with bunches weighing 20-30 kg under good management practices. Fruits are sweet, orange yellow coloured and with a pleasant aroma. It is highly susceptible to bunchy top, fusarium wilt and nematodes.

  1. Karpuravalli (ABB) :

It is a popular variety grown for table purpose in medium rich soils. Its commercial cultivation is spread over in Central and Southern districts of Tamil Nadu and Kerala. In Bihar, cultivation is in patches under the name 'Kanthali'. Karpuravalli is a tall, robust plant well suited to marginal lands and soils, produced under low input conditions. It is also the sweetest among Indian bananas. Karpuravalli is occasionally seeded depending on the seasonal variability. Its ash coated golden yellow and sweet fruits have good keeping quality. Karpuravalli is highly susceptible to wilt disease, tolerant to leaf spot disease and well suited for drought, salt affected areas and for low input conditions.

  1. Pisang Raja: 

A wonderful Indian variety with a yellow-orange flesh and sweet delectable flavor.

  1. CO 1(1984) :

It was evolved through multiple crossing i.e. Ladan x Musa balbisiana x Kadali. It is akin to hill banana Virupakshi (AAB). It is suitable for growing in the plains as well as in the hills up to 1220m. The crop duration is 14 to 15 months. The mean bunch weight is 10.57kg with seven hands per bunch and a total of 83 fruits per bunch.

  • Sapota

  1. Kalipatti:

State: Maharashtra, Gujarat & North Karnataka.

Popular table purpose variety, leaves broad, thick and green in colour, fruits oblong/round, borne in single, fruit quality high with soft sweet pulp, main picking season winter. Fully grown tree yields 350-400 fruits/tree.



  1. Cricket Ball:

State: Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh. It is a table purpose variety. Fruits large sized, round, sweet with granular pulp.

  1. Pilipatti:

State: Maharashtra, Gujarat.

Suitable for high density plantation, fruits oval with rough surface, pulp gritty, medium sweet, average fruit wt. 400-450g.



  1. Guthi:

State: Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu.

Tree medium in height conical in shape. Fruit elliptical, small, brown, Pulp less juicy, soft, gritty, brown in colour, with slight aroma.



  1. Kirtibarathi:

State: Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu.

It is cultivated for table as well as for processing purpose. Very small egg shaped fruit with four to six ridges on the rind, skin is rough, medium thick with buff colour, pulp very sweet when fully ripe. Ideal for transporting to distant markets.



  1. CO 1(1972) :

It is a hybrid clone of the cross between Cricket Ball and Oval. The fruit shape is long oval, medium sized with total soluble solids of 18°Brix. Each fruit weighs about 125g. A yield of 175 to 200kg per tree can be obtained per year. The fruit is bigger than Oval and sweeter than Cricket Ball. The flesh is granular in texture and reddish brown in color.



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