MAIN PRINCIPLES OF APPLICATION OF THE HUNGARIAN STANDARD CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONS (HSCO93)
(according to the modifications in force from 1st January, 1997)
Objectives and characteristics of the application of HSCO–93
The economic and social transition in Hungary required the modernisation of multipurpose statistical classifications and nomenclatures. Revision of the Hungarian Standard Classification of Occupations (HSCO) which was used in its earlier form from 1975 belongs to this group, too.
The principles and the structure of the modernised system of classification of occupations (further on: HSCO) is in line with the system of the current international occupational classification, ISCO–88 (Rev. 3.). One of the main aims of ISCO is to serve as a model for the development of national occupational classifications. It does not mean, however, that ISCO–88 could replace national classifications of occupations, since national classifications of individual countries should reflect the structure of the national labour market.
The modernised system, HSCO–93 – following professional inter-departmental co-ordination, testing, and after the transition period of 1993 – came into force on 1st January, 1994.
Modifications and completion resulting from the revision and carried out in 1996 did not concern the principles and structure of the new classification system and did not brake up major groups and sub-major groups which are important in respect of statistical evaluation and international comparability. The number of classified occupations changed in a small degree. According to the modifications in force the revised system contains 632 occupations.
The main characteristics of the system are as follows:
HSCO–93 complies with the classification system of ISCO–88. HSCO–93 adopted major groups of the current international classification (ISCO–88) without any remarkable modification. Sub-major groups (second digit) are developed also in a way – in certain cases by reduction – that groups of ISCO–88 could be formed of them. (Correspondence tables between ISCO–88 and HSCO–93 can be elaborated in deeper detail but in these cases we have to reckon with methodological problems.) But at further levels of aggregation it was possible and it was necessary to take into consideration particular characteristics and demands of the Hungarian national economy. Moreover, it seemed to be reasonable to assert the claim to continuity and comparability to the previous nomenclature. Thus, it is not surprising that there are details in the Hungarian classification which deviate from the recommendations of the ISCO–88 to a certain extent – and these deviations mostly mean more detailed breaking down. Greater specification is glaring in particular on the fourth level which contains the itemised list of occupations;
it takes into consideration that the circle of users in a market economy is much greater and more differentiated than it was in the preceding social system, and for that reason it forms „the common denominator”, it tries to satisfy all of the requirements at least on a minimal level;
the system of HSCO–93 is open, that is to say it provides opportunity for users to complete the codes with further divisions at the fifth and sixth digit in accordance with their own requirements.
Within the four-digit decimal system the first digit stands for major group of occupations, the second one for sub-major group, the third one for minor group and the fourth one for the occupation itself. (In the table modified data are marked by bold, italics numbers.) Classifications of HSCO–93 are presented below:
Design and structure of HSCO–93
Legislators, senior government officials, leaders of interest groups and managers of firms
HSCO–93 is an open occupational nomenclature, it can be completed by users. Due to this principle users have the opportunity to make their own registering system more perfect and more clearly arranged. Besides the four digits, the way of application of possible further digits are determined by the given demands and conditions of users. (In these cases factors like size, scope of activity, type of registering system of the organisation and especially the computerised registering system already working or being under development play important roles obviously.)
Since occupations of HSCO–93 at the fourth digit are basically „collective” occupations (most of them consist of more than one occupation), it is obvious that these occupations can be detailed further on by users according to their own interests and aims. For this purpose they can use the publication entitled „Content description of the occupations of HSCO–93”, too, in which description of more than 4000 jobs can be found. An alphabetical list also helps users to find a certain sphere of activity. Considering that individual occupations can be divided into even more than ten duties (because of their complex character) it is practical to set apart two digits for the specification of duties (e. g. the fifth and sixth digits).
Further digits can be used for marking the level of skill and duty of the person pursuing a given occupation. Though HSCO–93 provides direction regarding that e.g. occupations of major groups 5–8 require skilled or semi-skilled qualification and occupations of major group 9 can be executed without any qualification, it does not prescribe exact qualification level by individual occupations. For that reason users can indicate the skill level belonging to a given occupation (skilled, semi-skilled or unskilled job) at further digits of occupations. Further specifications are also possible regarding the complexity of the set of tasks. Besides, in case of managerial occupations of major group 1 – especially in case of managers of small organisational units and product line managers – the size of the organisational unit and other main characteristics of the occupation can be indicated, too.
Moreover, users have opportunity – using further digits – to give the level, branch, specialisation of education, skill, qualification acquired through courses, knowledge of foreign languages, and so on.