Human Anatomy 26-211 Summary Tables of Origins, Insertions and Actions of Selected Head, Trunk and Limb Muscles Head and Neck Muscles



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Human Anatomy 26-211

Summary Tables of Origins, Insertions and Actions of Selected Head, Trunk and Limb Muscles

Head and Neck Muscles:

Muscles Moving the Head



Name of Muscle

Origin

Insertion

Action


Semispinalis capitis







Extends and rotates head

Splenius capitis







Extends, rotates and flexes laterally the head

Sternocleidomastoid

Manubrium and clavicle

Mastoid process and superior nuchal line of occipital bone

Simultaneous contraction of both heads of muscle – flexion of head

Individual contraction – rotates and flexes head to opposite side of contracting muscle


Muscles of Facial Expression


Name of Muscle

Action


Buccinator

Compresses (pulls inward) cheeks (as in whistling and kissing)

Depressor labii inferioris

Depresses lower lip (as in frowning and pouting)

Levator labii superioris

Elevates upper lip as (as in sneering, but also smiling)

Occipitofrontalis

Elevates eyebrows, wrinkles skin of forehead, draws scalp anteriorly

Orbicularis oculi

Closes eye by depressing upper eyelid and elevating lower eyelid

Orbicularis oris

Closes lip, protrudes and purses lips (as in kissing)

Platysma

Depresses mandible, depresses lower lip back and down

Zygomaticus

Retracts and elevates upper lip and corner of mouth (as in smiling)

Muscles of Mastication

Name of Muscle

Origin

Insertion

Action


Temporalis

Temporal lines on parietal and frontal bones

Coronoid process of mandible

Elevates and retracts mandible for biting and chewing,

Masseter

Zygomatic arch

Lateral side of mandible

Elevates and protracts mandible

Hyoid Muscles


Name of Muscle

Origin

Insertion

Action


Digastric

Mastoid process (posterior belly)

Mandible near midline (anterior belly) via sling on hyoid

Opens mouth when hyoid is fixed by other muscles, retracts mandible and elevates hyoid

Geniohyoid







Protracts and elevates hyoid, depresses mandible

Mylohyoid

Sternohyoid




Omohyoid








Elevates floor of mouth and hyoid
Depresses hyoid
Depress hyoid; fixes hyoid during opening of mouth



Trunk Muscles:

Muscles Acting on the Vertebral Column


Name of Muscle

Action


Iliocostalis

Extends and flexes laterally vertebral column

Longissimus

Extends and flexes laterally vertebral column

Spinalis

Extends vertebral column

Semispinalis

Extends neck and vertebral column

Interspinales

Extends back and neck

Multifidus

Extends and rotates vertebral column

Muscles of the Thorax


Name of Muscle

Action


Diaphragm

Depresses floor of thoracic cavity for inspiration

External intercostals

Elevates ribs for inspiration

Internal intercostals

Depresses ribs for expiration

Muscles of the Abdominal Wall

Name of Muscle

Action


External abdominal oblique

Compression of abdomen, flexion and rotation of vertebral column

Internal abdominal oblique

Compression of abdomen, flexion and rotation of vertebral column

Transversus abdominis

Compression of abdomen

Rectus abdominis

Compression of abdomen and flexion of vertebral column


Upper Limb Muscles:

Muscles that Act upon the Scapula


Name of Muscle

Action


Pectoralis minor

Depression and protraction of scapula

Serratus anterior

Depression, protraction and rotation of scapula

Rhomboideus

Elevation, retraction and rotation of scapula

Levator scapulae

Elevation and rotation of scapula

Trapezius

Superior fibers – elevation of scapula

Middle fibers – retraction of scapula

Inferior fibers – depression of scapula

Muscles Acting on the Arm


Name of Muscle

Origin

Insertion

Action


Deltoid







Abduction, flexion, extension and rotation of arm

Pectoralis major

Sternum, clavicle and ribs

Intertubercular groove of humerus

Flexion, medial rotation and adduction of arm

Latissimus dorsi







Extension, medial rotation and adduction of arm

Teres major







Extension of shoulder and adduction and rotation of arm

Supraspinatus (S)

Supraspinous fossa of scapula

Greater tubercle of humerus

Abduction of arm

Infraspinatus (I)

Infraspinous fossa of scapula

Greater tubercle of humerus

Lateral rotation of arm

Teres minor (T)

Lateral edge of scapula

Greater tubercle of humerus

Lateral rotation of arm

Subscapularis (S)

Subscapular fossa

Lesser tubercle of humerus

Medial rotation of arm

Muscles Acting on the Forearm


Name of Muscle


Origin

Insertion

Action


Biceps brachii

Short head: coracoid process of scapula

Long head: supraglenoid tubercle of scapula



Radial tuberosity

of radius



Flexion and supination of forearm

Brachialis







Flexion of forearm

Brachioradialis







Flexion of forearm

Triceps brachii

Scapula and humerus

Olecranon of ulna

Extension of forearm

Pronator teres







Pronation of forearm

Supinator







Supination of forearm

Muscles of Forearm Acting on Wrist, Hand and Fingers


Name of Muscle

Action


Flexor carpi radialis

Flexion and abduction of hand

Flexor carpi ulnaris

Flexion and adduction of hand

Flexor digitorum

Flexion of digits

Extensor carpi radialis

Extension and abduction of hand

Extensor carpi ulnaris

Extension and adduction of hand

Extensor digitorum

Extension of digits

Muscles Acting on the Thigh


Name of Muscle

Origin

Insertion

Action


Iliopsoas







Flexion of hip

Gluteus maximus

Ilium, sacrum and coccyx

Posterior side of femur

Extension, abduction, and lateral rotation of hip

Gluteus medius

Ilium

Greater trochanter of femur

Abduction of thigh at hip and medial rotation of hip

Gluteus minimus

Ilium

Greater trochanter of femur

Abduction of thigh at hip and medial rotation of hip

Muscles of the Thigh



Name of Muscle

Origin

Insertion

Action

Quadriceps femoris group

  • Rectus femoris

  • Vastus intermedius

  • Vastus lateralis

  • Vastus medialis




Ilium, greater trochanter of femur and shaft of femur

Tibial tuberosity of tibia

Rectus femoris:

Extension of knee and flexes thigh

All Vastus muscles extend the knee



Sartorius







Flexion of hip and knee and lateral rotation of thigh

Adductors







Adduction of thigh

Hamstrings

  • Biceps femoris

  • Semimembranosus

  • Semitendinosus






Biceps femoris extends thigh; flexes leg and laterally rotates leg

Semimembranosus and semitendinosus extend thigh, flexes leg and medially rotates leg

Muscles Acting on Leg, Ankle and Foot



Name of Muscle

Origin

Insertion

Action

Gastrocnemius

Lateral and medial condyles of femur

Calcaneus with soleus via Achilles tendon

Flexion of foot

Soleus







Flexion of foot

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