Horse evolution



Download 273.27 Kb.
Page6/7
Date16.05.2018
Size273.27 Kb.
1   2   3   4   5   6   7
(Hypohippus (Drymohippus) nevadensis); p. 427, fig. 3 (Parahippus (?) mourningi)
Merriam, J.C. 1914. Correlation between the Tertiary of the Great Basion and that of the marginal, marine province in California. Science, N.S., 15(1035):644, no fig. (Protohippus coalingensis)
Merriam, J.C. 1915a. New horses from the Miocene and Pliocene of California. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bull. Dept. Geol. Sci. 9(4):49‑50, fig. 1 (Merychippus sumani); p. 50‑52, fig. 2,3 (Merychippus intermontanus); p. 52, figs. 4a,b,c (Protohippus tehonensis); p. 55‑56, figs. 8a,b,c (Pliohippus fairbanksi); p. 54‑55, figs. 5‑7 (Hipparion mohavense callodonte)
Merriam, J.C. 1915b. Tertiary vertebrate faunas of the North Coalinga Region of California, a contribution to the study of palaeontologic correlation in the Great Basin and Pacific Coast Provinces. Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., N.S. 22(3):3a,b,c,d. (Merychippus californicus)
Merriam, J.C. 1915c. New species of the Hipparion group from the Pacific Coast and Great Basin provinces of North America. Univ. Calif. Publ., Bull. Dept. Geol. Sci. 9(1):6, fig. 4 (Hipparion condoni); p. 1‑2, fig. 1 (Hipparion gidleyi); p. 5 (Neohipparion platystyle); p. 3, fig. 2 (Neohipparion molle); p. 3‑4, fig. 3 (Neohipparion leptode)
Merriam, J.C. 1915d. Vertebrate fauna of the Orindan and Siestan beds in middle California. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bull. Dept. Geol. Sci., 7(19):375‑6, figs. 1a,b,c (Neohipparion sp.)(this is the original ref; see 1915c)
Merriam, J.C. 1916a. Relationship of Equus to Pliohippus suggested by characters of a new species from the Pliocene of California. Univ. Cal. Publ. Bull. Dept. Geol. Sci., 9(18):525‑534, figs. 2, 13 (Pliohippus proversus)
Merriam, J.C. 1916b. Mammalian remains from the Chanac Formation of the Tejon Hills, California. Univ. Calif. Publ., Bull. Dept. Geol. Sci. 10(8):118‑124, figs. 1a,b,c (Hipparion gratum tehonense)
Merriam, J.C. 1916c. Mammalian remains from a late Tertiary formation at Ironside, Oregon. Univ. Calif. Publ., Bull. Dept. Geol. Sci., 19(9):131‑133, figs. 1a,b,c (Hipparion anthonyi).
Merriam, J.C. 1918. New Mammalia from the Idaho Formation. Univ. Calif. Publ., Bull. Dept. Geol. Sci. 10:523‑530.
Mones, A. 1982. An equivocal nomenclature: What means hypsodonty? Palaeontol. Zeitschrift 56:107-111.
Moody, P.A. 1970. Introduction to Evolution, 3rd ed. Harper & Row, New York.
Mooser, O., and W.W. Dalquest. 1975. Pleistocene mammals from Aguascalientes, Mexico. Jour. Mamm. 56(4):781‑820.
Moreau, R.E. 1955. Ecological changes in the Palaearctic region since the Pliocene. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 125:253-295.
Morlan, r.E. and J. Cinq-Mars. 1982. Ancient Beringians: human occupation in the late Pleistocene of Alaska and the Yukon Territory, in D.M. Hopkins, J.V. Matthews Jr., C.E. Schweger, and S.B. Young, eds., Paleoecology of Beringia. Academic Press, New York, 489 pp.
Morris, W.J. 1968. A new early Tertiary Perissodactyl, Hyracotherium seekinsi, from Baja California. Los Angeles Co. Mus. Nat. Hist. Contrib. Sci. 151:1-11.
Nehring, A. 1883. Uber neue bei Westeregeln gemachte Fossilfunde, sowie uber die Vorgeschichte des Pferdes in Europa. S.B. Ges. naturf. Fr. Berlin.
Nelson, G., and N. Platnick. 1981. Systematics and Biogeography: Cladistics and Vicariance. Columbia University Press, New York.
Nelson, G., and D.E. Rosen, eds. 1981. Vicariance Biogeography: A Critique. Columbia University Press, New York.
Neville, C., N.D. Opdyke, E.H. Lindsay, and N.M. Johnson. 1979. Magnetic stratigraphy of Pliocene deposits of the Glenns Ferry Formation, Idaho, and its implications for North American mammalian biostratigraphy. Amer. Jour. Sci. 279:503-526.
Nicholson, T.D., B. Schaeffer, T. Galusha, M.C. McKenna, M.F. Skinner, B.E. Taylor, and R.H. Tedford. 1975. The fossil mammal collections of the American Museum of Natural History. Curator 18:18-38.
Novacek, M.J. 1982. The skull of leptictid insectivores and the higher-level classification of Eutherian mammals. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 183:1-112.
Novacek, M.J., A. Wyss, and M.C. McKenna. 1988. The major grouops of eutherian mammals, in M.J. Benton, ed., The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods, Vol. 2: Mammals. Systematics Association Special Volume no. 35B, Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 31-71.
Olson, E.C. 1966. Community evolution and the origin of mammals. Ecology 47:291-302.
Opdyke, N.D. 1990. Magnetic stratigraphy of Cenozoic terrestrial sediments and mammalian dispersal. Jour. Geol., 98:621-637.
Osborn, H.F. 1902. Dolichocephaly and brachycephaly in the lower mammals. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 16:77-89.
Osborn, H.F. 1908. From the Greeks to Darwin: An Outline of the Development of the Evolution Idea. MacMillan & Co., New York.
Osborn, H.F. 1910. The Age of Mammals: In Europe, Asia, and North America. MacMillan & Co., New York.
Osborn, H.F. 1904. New Oligocene horses. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 20 (13):170 (Mesohippus montanensis); 173, fig. 4, pl.v, C. (M. obliquidens); 173‑4, fig. 5 (M. eulophus); 167‑179, figs. 1‑8, pl. v., and pp. 174‑175, pl. v., D (Mesohippus meteulophus); 175‑6, fig. 6, Pl. v, E. (Mesohippus brachystylus); 177, pl. v, H (Mesohippus validus); p. 178, fig. 8, pl. v, G. (M. gidleyi); 178‑9, no fig (Miohippus crassicuspis); p. 76, pl. 6.5, 9.7, 25.1, 36.1, text‑fig. 52 (Parahippus pristinus)
Osborn, H.F. 1912. Craniometry of the Equidae. Mem. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., new ser., 1(33):57-100.
Osborn, H.F. 1915. [no title; description of Kalobatippus gen. Nov.], in E.D. Cope and W.D. Matthew, eds., Hitherto Unpublished Plates of Tertiary Mammalia and Permian Vertebrata, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Monograph Ser. 2, plate CVIII.
Osborn, H.F. 1917. The Origin and Evolution of Life: On the Theory of Action, Reaction and Interaction of Energy. Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York.
Osborn, H.F. 1918. Equidae of the Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene of North America: iconographic type revision. Mem. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., New Ser., 2:1-217. (Mesohippus trigonostylus, p. 47, plate 2,5,6; text‑fig. 27); p. 61, plate 5.1 (Miohippus primus); p. 62, plats 3.8, 4.6, 4.8, 5.2, text‑figs. 40, 41 (Miohippus quartus); 65, plate 3.6, text‑fig 45 (Miohippus equinanus); 66, plates 3.7, 4.l‑4, 4.9, text‑figs. 46‑7 (Miohippus gemmarosae); p. 71, plates 5.7, 39.17, 39.20, 40, 51.1, 51.4; text‑fig. 50 (Kalobatippus

agatensis); p. 79, pl. 38, 39.9, 39.13, text‑fig. 56 (Parahippus pawniensis); p. 83, pl. 8.1, 9.1, 36.2‑3, text‑fig. 58 (Parahippus coloradensis); p. 105, pl. 13.4, 41.1, 45.1‑3, 46.1, 52.1, text‑fig. 79 (Merychippus isonesus); p. 114, pl. 20.1, 39.6, 44.2, 47.1, 49.2, 54.2, text‑fig. 90 (Merychippus eoplacidus); p. 117, pl. 11.3, 15.6, 15.7, 20.3, 54.1, text‑fig. 91 (Merychippus proparvulus); p. 117, pl. 20.2, 44.3, 47.3, 50.4, 50.8, 54.3, text‑fig. 92 (Merychippus eohipparion); p.125, pl. 10.1, 17.7, text‑fig. 99 (Merychippus republicanus); p. 126, pl. 17.6, text‑fig. 100 (Merychippus patruus); p. 139, pl. 25.7, 34.3, text‑fig. 112 (Protohippus proplacidus); p. 144, p.ate 22.1, text‑fig. 116, 116a (Protohippus perditus); p. 160, pl. 26.4, 28.4, text‑fig. 128 (Pliohippus nobilis); p. 162, pl. 28.3, 29, 30.1, 30.2, text‑fig. 129 (Pliohippus leidyanus); p. 183, text‑fig. 146 (Hipparion coloradense)
Osborn, H.F. 1934. Aristogenesis, the creative principle in the origin of species. Amer. Nat. 68:193-235.
Osborn, H.F., and J.L. Wortman. 1895. Perissodactyls of the Lower Miocene White River Beds. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 7(12):355, fig. 4 (Mesohippus intermedius)
Osborn, H.F. and W.D. Matthew. 1909. Cenozoic mammal horizons of western North America. U.S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 361:1-138.
Owen, R. 1840a. Description of the fossil remains of a mammal, a bird, and a serpent, from the London Clay. Proc. Geol. Soc. London 3:162-166.
Owen, R. 1840b. The Zoology of the Voyage of the H.M.S. Beagle, Part 1: Mammalia. Smith Elder & Co., London
Owen, R. 1848. Description of teeth and portions of jaws of two extinct anthracotheroid quadrapeds (Hyopotamus vectianus and H. bovinus) discovered by the Marchioness of Hastings in the Eocene deposits on the N.W. coast of the Isle of Wight, with an attempt to develop Cuvier’s idea of the classification of pachyderms by the number of their toes. Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London 4:104-141.
Owen, R. 1868. On the Anatomy of Vertebrates. Vol. 3, Mammals. Longmans, Green & Co., London.
Owen-Smith, N. 1985. Niche separation among African ungulates, in E.S. Vrba, ed., Species and Speciation. Transvaal Museum Monograph no. 4, Praetoria, pp. 167-171.
Patterson, B. and R. Pascual. 1972. The fossil mammal fauna of South America, in A. Keast, F.C. Erk and B. Glass, eds., Evolution, Mammals, and Southern Continents. State Univ. New York Press, Albany.
Peterson, O.A. 1907. The Miocene beds of western Nebraska and eastern Wyoming and their vertebrate faunae. Ann. Carneg. Mus., 4(11):57‑60, pl. xix. (Parahippus nebrascensis).
Pirlot, P.L. 1952. Les canines chez Hipparion et L’apparition D’un caractère sexual secondaire des mammifères. Bull. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), 2nd Ser. 24:419-422.
Pirlot, P.L. 1956. Les formes européennes du genre Hipparion. Mem. y Com. Inst. Geol. Barcelona 14:1‑222.
Plotnick, R.E. 1986. A fractal model for the distribution of stratigraphic hiatuses. Jour. Geol. 94:885-890.
Pomel, A. 1853. Catalogue methodique et descriptif des Vertebres fossiles du bassin hydrographique superieur de la Loire. Paris.
Pomel, A. 1897. Monographies des Vertebres fossiles de l'Algerie. 10. Les Equides. Publ. Serv. Carte Geol. Algerie, Alger.
Prat, F. 1980. Les Equidés Villafranchiens en France, genre Equus. Cahiers du Quaternaire, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. No. 2:1‑290.
Pratt, A.E. 1990. Taphonomy of the large vertebrate fauna from the thomas Farm locality (Miocene, Hemingfordian), Gilchrist County, Florida. Bull. Florida Mus. Nat. Hist., Biol. Sci. 35:35-130.
Prothero, D.M., E.M. Manning, and M. Fischer. 1989. The phylogeny of ungulates, in M.E. Benton, ed., The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods, Vol. 2, Mammals. Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 201-234.
Prothero, D.R. and N. Shubin 1989. The evolution of mid‑Oligocene horses, in D.R. Prothero and R.M. Schoch, eds., The Evolution of Perissodactyls. Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 142-175.
Prothero, D.R. and R.M. Schoch. 1989. Classification of the Perissodactyla, in D.R. Prothero and R.M. Schoch, eds., The Evolution of Perissodactyls. Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 504-529.
Prout, H.A. 1847. Description of a fossil maxillary bone of a Palaeotherium from near White River. Amer. Jour. Sci. 3:248-50.
Qiu, Z., W. Huang, and Z. Guo. 1987. The Chinese hipparionine fossils. Palaeont. Sinica, Ser. C, 25:1-250.
Quinn, J.H. 1955. Miocene Equidae of the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain. Univ. Tex. Bur. Econ. Geol. Publ. 5516:1-102.
Quinn, J.H. 1957. Pleistocene Equidae of Texas. University of Texas Bureau of Economic Geology Rept. Invest. no. 33:1‑51.
Radinsky, L.B. 1966. The adaptive radiation of the phenacodontid condylarths and the origin of the Perissodactyla. Evolution 20(3):408‑417.
Radinsky, L.B. 1969. The early evolution of the Perissodactyla. Evolution 23:308-326.
Radinsky, L.B. 1976. Oldest horse brains: more advanced than previously realized. Science 194:626-627.
Radinsky, L.B. 1978. Evolution of brain size in carnivores and ungulates. Amer. Nat. 112:815-831.
Radinsky, L.B. 1983. Allometry and reorganization in horse skull proportions. Science 221:1189-1191.
Radinsky, L.B. 1984. Ontogeny and phylogeny in horse skull evolution. Evolution, 38:1-15.
Rau, R.E. 1986. The quagga and its kin. Sagittarius 1(2):8-10.
Raup, D.M. 1975. Taxonomic survivorship curves and Van Valen’s law. Paleobiology 1:82-96.
Reichenau, W. von. 1903. Über einen Unterkiefer von Equus stenonis Cocchi aus dem Pliopleistocan von Mosbach. Notizblatt des Grossh. Geologischen Landesanstalt zu Darmstadt, 4(24):48-54.
Reichenau, W. von. 1915. Beitrage zur naheren Kenntnis fossiler Pferde aus deutschem Pleistozan. Abh. geol. Landesanst. Darmstadt. 7:1.
Renders, E. 1984. The gait of Hipparion sp. From fossil footprints in Laetoli, Tanzania. Nature 308:179-181.
Renders, E., and P.Y. Sondaar. 1987. Hipparion, in M.D. Leakey and J.M. Harris, eds., Laetoli: A Pliocene Site in Northern Tanzania. Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 471-481.
Rensberger, J.M., A. Forstèn, and M. Fortelius. 1984. Functional evolution of the cheek tooth pattern and chewing direction in Tertiary horses. Paleobiology 10:439-452.
Repenning, Charles A. 1967. Palearctic-Nearctic mammalian dispersal in the late Cenozoic, in d.M. Hopkins, ed., The Bering Land Bridge. Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, California, pp. 288-311.
Rémy, J.A. 1965. Un nouveau genre de Paleotheriidae (Perissodactyla) de l’Eocene supérior du Midi de la France. C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 20:4362-4364.
Rémy, J.A. 1972a. Etude de crane de Pachynolophus lavocati n. sp. (Perissodactyla, Palaeotheriidae) des Phosphorites du Quercy. Palaeovertebvrata 5:45-78.
Rémy, J.A. 1972b. Evolution d’une structure histologique chèz les perissodactyles: le development de la dentine pericanaliculaire. C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 274:2026-2029.
Richey, K.A. 1948. Lower Pliocene horses from Black Hawk Ranch, Mount Diablo, California. Univ. Calif. Bull. Dept. Geol. Sci. 28:1-44.
Romer, Alfred Sherwood. 1966. Vertebrate Paleontology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.
Rose, K.D. 1990. Postcranial skeletal remains and adaptations in early Eocene mammals from the Willwood Formation, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, in T.M. Brown and K.D. rose, eds., Dawn of the Age of Mammals in the Northern Part of the Rocky Mountain Interior, North America. Geol. Soc. Amer. Spec. Pap. No. 243, pp. 107-133.
Rutimeyer, L. 1863. Beitrage zur Kenntniss der fossilen Pferde und zur vergleichenden Odontographie der Hufthiere uberhaupt. Verh. naturf. Ges. Basel 3.
Sack, W.O. 1989. The stay-apparatus of the horse’s hind limb – explained. Equine Practice, 11:31-35.
Samson, P. 1975. Les Equides fossiles de Roumanie (Pliocene moyen ‑ Pleistocene superieur). Geologica Rom., 14(1975):165‑352.
Savage, D.E. 1951. Late Cenozoic vertebrates of the San Francisco Bay region. Univ. Calif. Publ. Dept. Geol. Sci. 28:215-314.
Savage, D.E., D.E. Russell and P. Louis. 1965. European Eocene Equidae. Univ. Calif. Publ., Bull. Dept. Geol. Sci., 56:1-94.
Savage, J.M. 1977. Evolution, 3rd ed. Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York.
Savage, R.J.G., and M.R. Long. 1986. Mammal Evolution: An Illustrated Guide. Facts-On-File Publications, New York.
Schafer, T,.S., and W.W. Dalquest. 1991. Comparison of dental characters of fossil horses in two Pleistocene local faunas. Texas Jour. Sci., 43:45-48.
Schaeffer, B. 1947. Notes on the origin and function of the artiodactyl tarsus. Amer. Mus. Novitates, 1356:1-24.
Schaeffer, B., M.K. Hecht and Niles Eldredge. 1972. Phylogeny and paleontology, in T. Dlobzhansky, M.K. Hecht and W.C. Steered, eds., Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 6. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, pp. 31-46.
Schiebout, J.A. 1974. Vertebrate Paleontology and paleoecology of the Paleocene Black Peaks Formation, Big Bend National Park, Texas. Texas Mem. Mus. Bull. 24:1-88.
Schoch, R.M. 1989. A brief historical review of Perissodactyl classification, in D.R. Prothero and R.M. Schoch, eds., The Evolution of Perissodactyls. Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 13-23.
Schuchert, C., and C.M. LeVene. 1940. O. C. Marsh, Pioneer in Paleontology. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp. 1‑541.
Schultz, J.R. 1936. Plesippus francescana (Frick) from the Late Pliocene, Coso Mountains, California, with a review of the genus Plesippus. Carneg. Inst. Wash. Publ. no. 473:1‑13.
Schwarzbach, M. 1963. Climates of the Past. Van Nostrand, London.
Scott, E. 1990. New record of Equus conversidens Owen, 1869 (Mammalia; Perissodactyla; Equidae) from Rancho La Brea. Jour. Vert. Paleontol. 10:41A.
Scott, William Berryman. 1893. The mammals of the Deep River Beds. Amer. Nat. 27 (319):661, no fig. (Desmatippus crenidens); p. 94, pl. iii, figs. 25‑28 (Anchitherium equinum)
Scott, W.B. 1894. The Mammalia of the Deep River Beds. Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., N.S. 28 (1894): 84, pl. ii, figs. 9‑14 (more on Desmatippus crenidens).
Scott, W.B. 1913. A History of Land Mammals in the Western Hemisphere. MacMillan, New York.
Scott, W.B. 1941. The mammalian fauna of the White River Oligocene, Part V: Perissodactyla. Trans. Am. Philos. Soc. 28:747-980, plates 79-100.
Sefve, I. 1912. Die fossilen Pferde Südamerikas. Kungl. Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar, 48:1-185.
Sefve, I. 1927. Die Hipparionen Nord‑Chinas. Paleont. Sinica Ser. C, Vol. 4, Fasc. 22:1‑91.
Sellards, E.H. 1916. Fossil vertebrates from Florida: a new Miocene fauna; new Pliocene species; the Pleistocene fauna. Eighth Ann. Rept. Florida State Geol. Surv., pp. 83‑7, pl. 11, fig. 7, Pl. 13, figs. 2,3 (Parahippus leonensis); p. 96‑98, pl. 11, fig. 10, pl. 13, fig. 8 (Hipparion minor)
Shikama, T., and Y. Onuki. 1962. Equid fossils from Iwate and Miyagi prefectures. Science Reports, Tohuku Universkity (Sendai, Japan), Geology, 34:187-197.
Short, R.V. 1975. The evolution of the horse. Jour. Reproduction and Fertility, 23:1-6.
Shotwell, J.A. 1961. Late Tertiary biogeography of horses in the northern Great Basin. Jour. Paleontol. 35:203-217.
Simpson, George Gaylord. 1933. Glossary and correlation charts of North American Tertiary mammal-bearing formations. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 67:79-121.
Simpson, G. G. 1945. The principles of classification and a classification of mammals. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 85:10-350.
Simpson, G.G. 1940. Mammals and land bridges. Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. 30:137-163.
Simpson, G.G. 1944. Tempo and Mode in Evolution. Columbia University Press, New York.
Simpson, G.G. 1945. The principles of classification and a classification of mammals. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 85:1-350.
Simpson, G.G. 1951. Horses: The Story of the Horse Family in the Modern World and Through Sixty Million Years of History. Oxford University Press, New York.
Simpson, G.G. 1952. Notes on British hyracotheres. Jour. Linn. Soc. London, Zool., 42(284):195-206.
Simpson, G.G. 1953. The Major Features of Evolution. Columbia University Press, New York.
Sinclair, W.J. 1905. New or imperfectly known rodents and ungulates from the John Day series. Univ. Calif. Publ., Bull. Dept. Geol. Sci., 4(6):141, pl. xviii (Mesohippus acutidens).
Skinner, Morris F. 1972. Order Perissodactyla, in: M.F. Skinner and C.W. Hibbard et al., eds., Early Pleistocene preglacial and glacial rocks and faunas of North‑Central Nebraska. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 148(1).
Skinner, Morris F., and B.E. Taylor. 1967. A revision of the geology and paleontology of the Bijou Hills, South akota. Amer. Mus. Novitates 2300:1-53.
Skinner, Morris F. and C.W. Hibbard. 1972. Early Pleistocene pre-glacial and glacial rocks and faunas of north-central Nebraska. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 148:1-148.
Skinner, Morris F. and F.W. Johnson. 1984. Tertiary stratigraphy and the Frick collection of fossil vertebrates from north-central Nebraska. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 178:215-368.
Skinner, Morris F. and B.J. MacFadden. 1977. Cormohipparion n. gen. (Mammalia, Equidae) from the North American Miocene (Barstovian, Clarendonian). Jouir. Paleo., 51:912-926.
Skinner, Morris F., S.M. Skinner, and R.J. Gooris. 1977. Stratigraphy and biostratigraphy of Late Cenozoic deposits in central Sioux County, western Nebraska. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 158:263-370.
Slijper, E.J. 1946. Comparative biologic-anatomical investigations on the vertebral column and spinal musculature of mammals. Verh. Onink. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Afd. Natuurk., 42:1-128.
Skorkowski, E. 1938. Studien uber die Systematik des Pferdes. Pol. Akad. Umiejetnosci. 32:1‑125.
Smith, A.B. and C. Patterson. 1988. The influence of taxonomic method on the perception of patterns of evolution, in M.K. Hecht and B. Wallace, eds., Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 23. Plenum Publishing, New York, pp. 127-216.
Smith, C.H. 1845. Mammalia; Horses in W. Jardine, ed., The Naturalist’s Library. W.H. Lizars, Edinburgh, 20:1-352.
Smith, J.M. and R.J.G. Savage. 1959. The mechanics of mammalian jaws. School Sci. Rev., 141:289-301.
Sondaar, P.Y. 1968. The osteology of the manus of fossil and recent equidae with special reference to phylogeny and function. Verhandelingen der koniklijke nederlandse akademie van wetenschappen, afd. Naturkunde 24(1):1‑76.
Speed, J.G. and M.G. Etherington. 1952/1953. The Exmoor pony, and a survey of the evolution of horses in Britain. British Veterinary Journal, 108:229-338 and 109:315-320.
Stanley, S.M. 1974. Relative growth of the titanothere horn: a new approach to an old problem. Evolution 28:447-457.
Stanley, S.M. 1979. Macroevolution: Pattern and Process. Freeman & Co., San Francisco.
Stanley, S.M. 1981. The New Evolutionary Timetable: Fossils, Genes, and the Origin of Species. Basic Books, New York.
Stehlin, H.G. and P. Graziosi. 1935. Recherchi sugli Assinidi fossili d'Europa. Mem. Soc. Pal. Suisse 56.
Stirton, R.A. 1940. Phylogeny of North American Equidae. Univ. Calif. Publ., Bull. Dept. Geol. Sci., 25:165-198.
Stirton, R.A. 1941. Development of characters in horse teeth and the dental nomenclature. Jour. Mamm., 22:339-410.
Stirton, R.A. 1947. Observations on evolutionary rates in hypsodonty. Evolution 1:32-41.
Tarling, D.H. 1983. Palaeomagnetism: Principles and Applications in Geology, Geophysics, and Archaeology. Chapman & Hall, London.
Tedford, R.H. 1970. Principles and practices of mammalian geochronology in North America. Proc. 3rd North Amer. Paleontol. Convention F:666-703.
Tedford, R.H., T. Galusha, M.F. Skinner, B.E. Taylor, R.W. fields, J.R. Macdonald, J.M. Rensberger, S.D. Webb and D.P. Whistler. 1987. Faunal succession and biochronology of the Arikareean through Hemphillian interval (late Oligocene through earliest Pliocene epochs), North America, in M.O. Woodburne, ed., Vertebrate Paleontology as a Discipline in Geochronology. Univ. Calif. Press, Berkeley.
Thewissen, J.G.M. 1990. Evolution of Paleocene and Eocene Phenacodontidae (Mammalia, Condylarthra). Univ. Michigan Pap. Paleontol. 29:1-107.
Thomason, J.J. 1985. The relationship of trabecular architecture to inferred loading patterns in the third metacarpals of the extinct equids

Share with your friends:
1   2   3   4   5   6   7


The database is protected by copyright ©dentisty.org 2019
send message

    Main page