Hominid skull comparison



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HOMINID SKULL COMPARISON DATA TABLE




FEATURES


A

Gorilla gorilla Gorilla

B

Pan

troglodytes Chimpanzee

C

Homo sapiens

Human

D

Homo Neander-

thalensis

Neanderthal

E

Homo

erectus

F

Australo-

pithecus boisei

G

Australo-

pithecus afarensis

Age of Specimen





Modern

Modern

Modern

30,000 YA

.4 -.5 MYA

1.8 MYA

2.9-3.6 MYA

Location and Date of Fossil Discovery











France

1908

China

1920’s

Tanzania 1959

Africa

1975

1.Forehead: more vertical or

slopes back

























2.Chin: sticks out or

recedes back

























3.Sagittal Crest: large, small

medium or absent

























4.Facial Prognathism: (snout

protrusion) large, small, medium, absent
























5.Browridge: large, small

medium
























6.Dental Arcade: rows of molars parallel or parabolic























7.Canine Tooth: length of

exposed upper canine tooth

in mm























8.Dental Formula: # of incisors-canine-premolars-molars in upper jaw (ICPM)






















9.Canine Diastema: gap

between upper incisors and

canines present or absent























10.Angle of Incisor: vertical or slanted out























11.Foramen Magnum: towards

rear or underneath
























12.Width of Cranium: maximum width of brain case

in mm























13.Length of Cranium: maximum length of brain case

in mm























14. Facial Slope: the angle made by the face and the upper jaw viewed from side






















Name: __________________________

Analysis:

1. Fill in this matrix of characters for the hominids that you measured and observed. Put a 0 if the

character is absent (0 = absent) and a 1 of the character is presents (1 = present).

CHARACTER MATRIX FOR SEVEN HOMINIDS




CHARACTERS


A

Gorilla gorilla Gorilla

B

Pan

troglodytes Chimpanzee

C

Homo sapiens

Human

D

Homo Neander-

thalensis

Neanderthal

E

Homo

erectus

F

Australo-

pithecus boisei

G

Australo-

pithecus afarensis

Small Brow Ridge
























Cranium Width Greater

Than 120 mm























Dental Arcade Parabolic


























Foramen Magnum

Underneath - Bipedal

























Large Sagittal Crest





















Forward Facing Eyes























Name: _________________________________




  1. Construct an evolutionary tree hypothesis, using the information in the character matrix, the data table, and other sources. Use 6 or more characters and all 7 hominids in your tree. After you have drawn and labeled your evolutionary tree hypothesis, circle the names of the hominids that are living today (modern).

Name: ___________________



Conclusion:

Using observations and measurements from your completed Hominid Skull Comparison Data Table, Hominid Character Matrix, and your Tree Hypothesis, answer the following questions:

1. How would you respond to someone who claims that:


  1. scientific evidence suggests that humans descended from chimps and gorillas?


  1. scientific evidence suggests that humans, gorillas, and chimpanzees share an evolutionary common ancestor?

2. Essay Question

Discuss (write in complete sentences) at least four kinds of evidence (from the data table, matrix, and tree)

that support the idea that Homo erectus has more recent common ancestor with Homo sapiens than with

Australopithecus boisei.

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

Name ______________________


Circle the best answer for each of the following questions:
3. (1 pt.) Humans belong to the group of animals called (a) carnivores, (b) marsupials, (c) primates, (d) apes
4. (1 pt.) Which of the following animals has a body structure most similar to that of a human? (a) chimpanzee

(b) monkey (c) whale (d) seal


5. (1 pt.) In the human skull, where is the opening for the spinal cord located? (a) at the back (b) underneath

(c) in the front (d) none of these locations


6. (1 pt.) The human jaw (a) is Parabolic-shaped, (b) is V-shaped, (c) has more teeth than an ape,

(d) is H-shaped


7. (1 pt.) Fossils of the earliest hominins are found in (a) Australia, (b) Europe, (c) Greece, (d) Africa.
8. (1 pt.) All hominins (a) are bipedal, (b) have very large brains, (c) use tools, (d) use fire
9. (1 pt.) Which of the following was most like the human beings presently alive? (a) Homo erectus, (b) Homo

neanderthalensis, (c) Homo habilis (d) Australopithecus afarensis.
10. Essay Question

You discover a fossil adult skull on the banks of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. The brain is 145 mm

wide and 180 mm long. The jaw is parabolic shaped. The foramen magnum is located underneath. The

fossil is about 35,000 years old.

a. (1 pt.) Is this fossil a hominin?

b. (2 pts.) What evidence supports your conclusion?





  1. (1 pt.) To what genus and species might you assign this fossil?

This lesson and assessment revised and updated from the Delaware State Science Curriculum, SEPUP Biology,



Science and Global Issues, and Indiana University ENSI (Evolution and the Nature of Science Institutes) on the web: http://www.indiana.edu/~ensiweb/evol.fs.html by Christine M. Anderson for Middletown High School, 2013 and 2014, and Newton Rennie 2015 and by Christine M. Anderson 2015.


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