Hominid Skull Analysis

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Hominid Skull Analysis
For this lab you will be analyzing the various Hominid/Primate skulls to gain a better understanding of the various anatomical adaptations that have been acquired by hominids over time.
Skull Types:

Pan troglodytes (Chimpanzee) Modern
Gorilla gorilla (Gorilla) Modern
Homo sapiens (Human) Modern
Homo neanderthalensis (Neandertal man) 120,000-30,000 years ago
Homo erectus  (Upright man) 2.0 million years ago
Australopithecus boisei  2.3-1.2 million years ago
Australopithecus afarensis  (“Lucy”) 4.0 million years ago

Measurements: Complete the following measurements for each group (A-C).

ALWAYS MEASURE IN MILLIMETERS [mm] and round off to whole numbers.

A. BRAINCASE: (7 items #1-7)

1. Does the FOREHEAD (frontal bone) look more vertical OR flatter when the skull is held in Standard Anatomical Position [SAP] (i.e., with the eyes oriented forward)?

2. Is a SUPRAORBITAL(above the orbital) BROWRIDGE present or absent?

3. If present, is the BROWRIDGE DIVIDED in the middle, or CONTINUOUS?

4. What is the WIDTH OF THE BRAINCASE at the widest point

(take the measurement while looking at the skull from above)?

5. Is a SAGITTAL CREST prominent (2), present (1), or absent (0)?

6. Measure the distance from the front teeth to the front ridge of the FORAMEN MAGNUM [mm].

7. Is the MASTOID PROCESS relatively flat OR does it noticeably protrude (project)?

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