History of Endodontics aae/abe

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Index Card Literature Guide

2014 Update

Dr. Matthew S. Detar

Contributions by: Drs. Richard D. Archer and Tareq Al-Ali

Original Guide by: Drs. Randy Todd, Colleen Shull, and Steven Tsoucaris

History of Endodontics

1943 AAE begins (Clyde Davis-1st president)

1963 Endodontic specialty recognized by ADA

1956 ABE begins

1965 1st ABE board exam
1st in Endodontics:

Hermann (1930): Introduced Ca(OH)2 - vital pulp cap; Frank: Apexification

Coolidge (1919): Introduced NaOCl as tissue solvent (Dakin’s Solution)

Nygaard Ostby (1957): Introduced EDTA for dentin softening

Imperial Chemical Industries (1940s).: Introduced CHX

Barnum (1864): Introduced concept of Rubber dam

Bowman: Introduced GP for obturation, Rubber dam forceps

Koller: Proposed Cocaine as anesthetic

Einhorn (1906): Procaine (novocaine) introduced

Maynard: Developed broach

Arthur: Introduced barbed broach

1st in Endodontics:

Harry B. Johnston: Created term “Endodontia”; 1st Endodontic Office

Clyde Davis: 1st president of AAE

Otto Walkhoff: 1st dental radiograph, CMCP as pulpal antiseptic

Ingle (1961): Standardization of GP and instruments

Miller; Hunter: Introduced Focal Infection Theory, Billings: Introduced Focal Infection Theory to USA

Pfaff: Introduced pulp capping

Codman: Concept of secondary dentin in pulp cap healing

Buckley: Developed Formocresol for pulpal antiseptic (“Buckley’s solution”)

Jasper: Silver points

Hudson: 1st to obturate canal (gold)

Hill: Introduced Hill’s stopping (GP, carbonated lime, quartz) for obturation

Perry: 1st carrier based obturation (Goldwire/GP for obturation), see also Wm Ben Johnson: Thermafil

Callahan: Introduced chloropercha technique for obturation


AAE Terminology


Normal pulp – A clinical diagnostic category in which the pulp is symptom free and normally responsive to vitality testing.

Reversible pulpitis – A clinical diagnosis based upon subjective and objective findings indicating that the inflammation should resolve and the pulp return to normal.

Irreversible pulpitis – A clinical diagnosis based on subjective and objective findings indicating that the vital inflamed pulp is incapable of healing.

Additional descriptions:

Symptomatic – Lingering thermal pain, spontaneous pain, referred pain Asymptomatic – No clinical symptoms but inflammation produced by caries, caries excavation, trauma, etc.

Pulp necrosis – A clinical diagnostic category indicating death of the dental pulp. The pulp is non-responsive to vitality (sensibility) testing.

Previously Treated – A clinical diagnostic category indicating that the tooth has been endodontically treated and the canals are obturated with various filling materials, other than intracanal medicaments.

Previously Initiated Therapy – A clinical diagnostic category indicating that the tooth has been previously treated by partial endodontic therapy (e.g. pulpotomy, pulpectomy).

NOTE: See AAE Glossary of Endodontic Terms for further definitions


Normal apical tissues – Teeth with normal periradicular tissues that will not be abnormally sensitive to percussion or palpation testing. The lamina dura surrounding the root is intact and the periodontal ligament space is uniform.

Symptomatic apical periodontitis – Inflammation usually of the apical periodontium, producing clinical symptoms including painful response to biting and/or percussion or palpation. It may or may not be associated with an apical radiolucent area.

Asymptomatic apical periodontitis – Inflammation and destruction of apical periodontium that is of pulpal origin, appears as an apical radiolucent area and does not produce clinical symptoms.

Acute apical abscess – An inflammatory reaction to pulpal infection and necrosis characterized by rapid onset, spontaneous pain, tenderness of the tooth to pressure, pus formation and swelling of associated tissues.

Chronic apical abscess – An inflammatory reaction to pulpal infection and necrosis characterized by gradual onset, little or no discomfort and the intermittent discharge of pus through an associated sinus tract.

Radiological Exam

  1. Vital case w/ AP – Stashenko; Yamasaki; Byers (CGRP sprouting)

    1. Torbijork – C fibers resistant to hypoxia/necrosis

  2. Bone loss & AP – Avg 7.1% MBL, 12.5% CBL – Bender 1982

  3. Digital Comparison studies

    1. Film vs digital – root length – NSD – Pitt Ford

    2. Film vs digital – PARL det. – NSD – Mistak/Loushine

    3. Digital (filtered) > D speed – Cortical lesion – Hadley/Replogle

    4. Film vs digital – WL measurement – NSD – Lamus/Katz

    5. Digital (Kodak) > Film – WL (10,15 k) – Goodell/McClanahan

    6. 80 – 90% radiation reduction w/ digital – Soh

  4. Lamina dura – Most consistent feature aiding dx of PAP – Kaffe

    1. Strindberg – PDL width/shape, Lamina dura aids dx of PAP

  5. Radiographic Interpretation accuracy –

    1. Brynolf - accuracy increases with added films, 1=74%, 3=87%

    2. Goldman – 47% interobserver, 75% intraobserver (6-8 mo later)

    3. Tewary/Hartwell – digital PAs – 35% interobserver agreement

  6. Technique - Paralleling > Bisecting Angle – WL – Forsberg

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