HISTORY 101 & 101Z / Fall 2004
Prof. Gerald Zahavi
MID-TERM REVIEW HANDOUT
TERMS: You should be familiar with the following events, places, people, organizations, legislation, books, and general terms. You should be able to identify each, place it in a specific chronological context, and explain its significance.
Jazz Age; NBC; RCA; Bruce Barton; F. Scott Fitzgerald; Edward Hopper; Charlie Chaplin; “The New KKK”; Scopes Trial; Peter Kropotkin; Herbert Hoover; Nicola Sacco; Bartolomeo Vanzetti; Judge Webster Thayer; the Buford; American Legion; Emma Goldman; A. Mitchell Palmer; J. Edgar Hoover; Luigi Galleani; anarchism; Lusk Committee; The Third International (The Comintern); Louis Post, Nativism; de jure and de facto segregation; migration clubs; the “Great Migration”; the "New Negro"; Chicago Defender; Ida Wells-Barnett; Booker T. Washington; W. E. B. DuBois; NAACP; Universal Negro Improvement Association (U.N.I.A.); “Harlem Hellfighters” (369th Infantry); Henry Johnson; Marcus Garvey; Harlem Renaissance; Black separatism; Victorianism; Elizabeth Cady Stanton; Susan B. Anthony;Herland;Women and Economics: The Economic Factor between Men and Women as a Factor in Social Evolution(1898); parthenogenesis; Charlotte Perkins Gilman; Mary Church Terrell; Inez Milholland Boissevain; Alice Stokes Paul; Carrie Chapman Catt; National American Woman's Suffrage Association; Congressional Union for Women Suffrage (1913); Jeannette Rankin; National Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage (1911); 19th Amendment ("Susan B. Anthony Amendment"); National Women's Party (NWP); "New Woman/New Women"; radical feminism; Anthony Comstock; Comstock Act; Margaret Sanger; "parlor socialists"; Emma Goldman; open marriage; Women's Peace Party; Equal Rights Amendment; William Jennings Bryan; Lochner v. New York (1905); Muller v. Oregon (1908); initiative; referendum; recall; child labor laws; Louis D. Brandeis; Oliver Wendell Holmes; Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914); Mexican Revolution; "freedom of the seas"; Central Powers (mainly Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey); Allies (mainly Britain, France, Russia, Italy, Japan); Lusitania sinking (1915); "War socialism"; War Industries Board; Bernard Baruch; George Creel; Committee on Public Information; Espionage and Sedition Acts (1917-1918); Fourteen Points; Russian Revolution; Vladimir Ilyich Lenin; "trust busting" ; Anthracite Strike (1902); Northern Securities Case (1904); Pres. William Howard Taft; General Federation of Women's Clubs (1889); child labor laws; Muller v. Oregon (1908); Jane Addams; "settlement house"; Hull-House (1889); William James; Pragmatism; progressive historians; Russell Sage Foundation (1907); "muckrakers"; Lincoln Steffans, The Shame of the Cities (1904); Ida M. Tarbell, History of the Standard Oil Co. (1904); Progressive (Bull Moose) Party; welfare capitalism; National Civic Federation (1900); George F. Johnson; Gerard Swope; Alice Hamilton; eugenics; Buck v. Bell(1927); William Seward, Josiah Strong, Alfred Thayer Mahan, The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660–1783 (1890); Venezuela Crisis of 1895; Valeriano Weyler and Spain's reconcentradopolicy; Emilio Aguinaldo; McKinley Tariff (1890); "yellow journalism" and "yellow press"; U.S.S. Maine sinking (1898)/"Remember the Maine!"; Albert J. Beveridge (R-Indiana), "The March of the Flag Speech" (1898); Anti-Imperialist League (1898); Cherokee Nation v. the State of Georgia, 1831; Chief Justice John Marshall; Lake Mohonk Conference of the Indians and Other Dependent Peoples; Insular Cases; Herbert Spencer, William Graham Sumner, Henry George, Lester Frank Ward, New Economists, Social Gospel Movement, Washington Gladden, Walter Rauschenbusch, Christian Socialism, Edward Bellamy, Looking Backward, Francis Bellamy, Nationalism and Nationalist Clubs, Marxian Socialism, Democratic Socialism, Eugene V. Debs, syndicalism; Black Codes; Freedmen’s Bureau; Radical Republicans; Conservative Reconstruction; Radical Reconstruction; 13th Amendment; 14th Amendment; 15th Amendment; Andrew Johnson; Charles Sumner; Thaddeus Stevens; George Julian; 10% Plan; Wade-Davis Bill; land reform; KKK; Regulators; Ku Klux Klan Act – 1871; writ of habeas corpus; Redeemers; Reconstruction Act (1867); Birth of a Nation; D.W. Griffith; Gone with the Wind; David Selznick; Within Our Gates; Oscar Micheaux; Jim Crow; Booker T. Washington; W.E.B. Dubois; Talented Tenth; poll tax; grandfather clause; literacy test; Dred Scott Case; Plessy v. Ferguson (1896); Slaughterhouse Cases (1873); U.S. v. Cruikshank (1876); U.S. v. Reese (1876); Compromise of 1877; Panic of 1873; Scientific Racism; Dawes Act; George Custer; nativism; Jacob Riis; Samuel Insull; ouis Pasteur; Colonial Economy; King Cotton; New South; Henry Grady; sharecropping; crop-lien system; Great Railroad Strike (of 1877); Tramp Terrors; industrial union; craft union; National Labor Union; Knights of Labor; Terence Powderly; United Labor Party; Henry George; Pinkerton Agency; Pullman Strike – 1894; Populists; People’s Party; gold standard; Scientific Management; Taylorism; Frederick W. Taylor; Transcontinental Railroad; business cycle; Jay Gould; Cornelius Vanderbilt; J. P. Morgan; land grant colleges; Morrill Act; Hatch Act; industrial laboratories; ‘Patent Factories’; horizontal integration; vertical integration; Standard Oil; Carnegie Steel; Duke Tobacco; Thomas Alva Edison; Alexander Graham Bell; Nikola Tesla; Richard Warren Sears; chain migration; Molly Maguires; 1886 Haymarket Riot; A.F. of L.; dime novels; Erastus F. Beadle; Orville Victor; Wild West Shows; Buffalo Bill Cody; mining frontier; tanching frontier; open range management; Texas Livestock Association; syndicates; Panhandle Stock Association; farming frontier; bonanza farms; Sherman Anti-Trust Act 1890
QUESTIONS TO HELP FOCUS YOUR REVIEW: RECONSTRUCTION ERA: How did Reconstruction affect the lives of southern whites? How did the outcome of the Civil War affect the North, politically, economically, and socially? Why was President Johnson impeached? What does that episode reveal about the conflicts in American politics during the period immediately after the Civil War? What was the Fourteenth Amendment? What issues was it intended to address? What did it accomplish, and what did it not do? What exactly did the Fifteenth Amendment say? What issues was it intended to address? What did it accomplish, and what did it not do? How did everyday life for blacks change, in both negative and positive ways, in the decade following the end of the Civil War? What caused those changes? What were the Black Codes? What were sharecropping and the crop-lien system? How did those patterns develop in the postwar South? What were their economic and social implications for blacks and for whites? How did the reconstruction proposals of President Johnson compare to Lincoln’s plan for the postwar South? What approach did the Radical Republicans take? What was the role of Congress in the fight over Reconstruction? What were the political consequences of the fight over Reconstruction? Which parties did well, which suffered, and how did the national political scene shift? Ho was the battle for “reconstruction” fought in the years following 1877? What actions by recently freed Southern blacks drew the strongest reactions from the KKK, Regulators, etc.? How did Southern blacks respond to inquiries made by Congressional investigators in the early 1870s? Why? Had the Civil War ended the debate within Congress over race, civil rights? If not, in what ways did the debate continue?
INDUSTRIALIZATION AND THE ECONOMY: What major developments in railroad history occurred during this period? How did easier access to faster transportation and communication affect American politics, economic life, and society? Compare conditions of American agriculture in 1900 to those in 1800. What had changed, what had not changed, and why?. What is the meaning of the terms “vertical integration” and “horizontal integration”? What defines “big business,” and what spurred such sharp growth during this era? What did the Sherman Anti-Trust Act try to do, and was it successful? Describe the persistence of regional economic differences during these decades. Describe the economic character of the South and West; what was unique about them? What were the realities and challenges of working-class life during this period? Where does Horatio Alger fit in? Discuss the development of labor unions during the late 19th century, including specific groups such as the Knights of Labor and the A.F. of L. What accounted for their rise? What were their goals and to what extent were they able to achieve them? What happened in Haymarket Square in 1886, and how does it fit into the labor movement of the period? Review economic changes in the years immediately following World War I and during the 1920s. What factors helped stimulate growth, and in which sectors of the economy? How was prosperity distributed? Who benefited and who failed to share in the wealth? What is the business cycle? How did railroads change the effects of the business cycle on the U.S. economy? How did changes in the structure of the economy, along with changes in demographics, affect the impact of the business cycle? What roles did newspapers play in the development of industrial capitalism? How objective were newspapers in their reporting of conflict between labor and management? How does the objectivity of individual newspapers parallel the arguments of Congressional leaders over issues of race, etc.? What was Edward Bellamy’s opinion of industrial capitalism? What were the differences between industrial capitalism and Bellamy’s utopian Nationalist state? What were the objectives of Bellamy’s idealized changes in American society?
AGRARIAN REVOLT AND POPULISM: Explain the meaning of the exclamation, “You shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold!” Who said it, when, and why? What is the broader context? What were farmers’ grievances during this period? What were the Grange and the Farmers’ Alliance? What did such groups hope to accomplish? Did their movement fail or succeed, and why? What was the People’s Party? What were its goals? Was it a success or failure? How were the issues important to farmers related to the development of industrial capitalism, and corporate capitalism? How had the concept of the ideal American changed between 1800 and 1900? What changes in American society prompted those changing concepts? To what extent did demographics and technology play a role?
WOMEN’S RIGHTS AND SUFFRAGE STRUGGLES: Trace the course of the women’s suffrage movement in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. What were the primary concerns of the movement’s leaders, and how did they attempt to accomplish their goals? How did women finally manage to win the vote? Why had it taken so long? Who opposed women’s suffrage and on what grounds? What was the Victorian Woman? How did Charlotte Perkins Gilman convert Victorian ideals in her utopian Herland? What changes did she hope to see in American society? Compare women’s position in American life in 1920 to their lives in 1860 in terms of political, social, and personal conditions. What had changed, and what had not? What had made the difference? Who was the “New Woman”? Was she really so different from her counterpart of two or three decades before? What conflicts arose between black rights and women’s rights after the Civil War? Why did these conflicts arise? What part did reproductive rights play in the women’s rights agenda? Why did activists view reproductive rights as important? How did these views conflict with those of conservatives like Anthony Comstock?
POLITICS ~ LOCAL AND NATIONAL: How did machine politics in urban America in the late 19th and early 20th centuries time period work? Use Boss Tweed (discussed in the text) as an example. How did machine politics affect city residents? Why might we call state governments of the late 19th and early 20th centuries “laboratories of democracy”? What were they trying to accomplish? Was this a national trend, or were there regional differences? Describe the national shape of partisan politics in the late 19th century, with specific reference to the elections of 1892 and 1896. What were the hot issues, how were campaigns run, and which way did public support fall? Explore the progressive regimes of Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson; how did they differ? What did they have in common? Was President Teddy Roosevelt more of a conservative or a reformer? Describe his views of the presidency and his approach to the major issues of his term. What was his notion of a “Square Deal,” and what did it really mean for most Americans? What happened in the 1912 presidential election, and why? What were the similarities and differences between the candidates? What major third parties arose in the late 19th and early 20th centuries? What were they about? How did urbanization, the rise of the city, affect democracy and politics? What part did immigrants play in these changes? Why was this an added point of conflict between new immigrants and ‘natives’?
WAR AND FOREIGN POLICY (AND THE HOME FRONT): How did America gain access to build the Panama Canal? Why was it considered so important? How does this story relate to the broader context of America’s relationship to Latin America during this period? How did economic considerations influence U.S. foreign policy of the late 1800s and early 1900s? What were the moral considerations and intellectual assumptions behind American foreign policy? Compare the U.S. role in the world and its global position in 1914 to its role and position in 1860. What had changed, and what had driven those changes? Who was Alfred Thayer Mahan, and how did his arguments relate to the era’s changes in military technology and American military commitments? How did the United States deploy its military in this period in relationship to international crises and concerns? What happened in Venezuela in 1895? What does it say about the legacy of the Monroe Doctrine? Explain the phrase “Remember the Maine!” Did Americans remember, and what did they do about it? Keeping in mind the history of the Monroe Doctrine, explain the Roosevelt Corollary, “dollar diplomacy,” and Wilsonian idealism. How did the development of these approaches of foreign policy relate to specific international events of the period? What do they reveal about Americans’ sources of interest and about their attitudes toward other countries and different peoples? Trace the changes and continuities in U.S. policy toward Native Americans over the nineteenth century. What does it reveal about American racial attitudes and political considerations? How was US Indian policy related to overseas expansionism? How did World War I get started, and how did the United States get drawn into it? How does this history relate to the earlier history of American expansionism and the changing world role of the United States? What was the War Industries Board? What was this dubbed by some “war socialism?” How did the federal government mobilize American society, business, and the economy to fight in World War I? How did these techniques relate to principles of progressivism established in previous years? To what extent were these policies effective? Discuss conditions for political debate and dissent during World War I and in the five years following the war. Review this era’s political harassment episodes, the Red Scare, and the Palmer Raids. How did President Wilson envision the structure of a postwar world? What philosophical principles lay beneath his ideals, and how did he propose to construct a new international order? What were the main goals of the Fourteen Points?
PROGRESSIVISM AND THE PROGRESSIVE ERA: Compare the Gospel of Wealth and the Social Gospel movements. What do they reveal about how Americans defined progress in the late 1800s and where they thought they might find solutions? How did the American city physically change during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and what spurred those changes? What problems were created or intensified by such rapid growth? What was so “progressive” about the Progressive Era? Who were its leaders, and what were they committed to? What were the limitations of the Progressives, and what was their legacy? Discuss progressivism at the local and state levels as well as in national politics. Compare and contrast the reformers of the early 1900s to those of the middle and late 1800s. What was different and what was the same in the nature of their concerns, in their assessment of America, and in their methods of seeking change? Compare immigration patterns of the late 1800s and early 1900s to those of the early 1800s. What had changed, and what had not? What type of reception did these immigrants find in America? What was different about the character of immigration in the early 1900s? How did those already in this country respond to issues of immigration and ethnicity? How did Oliver Wendell Holmes apply progressive concepts to the actions of the Supreme Court? On what did the “Progressive Historians” focus? How was this different from the approach of previous generations of historians?
TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE: What is meant by the notion of a technological “system”? Explain the term, with reference to automobiles and electricity during the early twentieth century. Discuss the major technological changes of the early 1900s—the adoption of the automobile, radio, airplane, etc.—and review their impact on American society. How did new forms of communication and transportation affect people as individuals, community members, consumers, and citizens? How did new technology lead to the concept of consumerism and the consumer economy? What were the positive and negative effects of new technology, especially communication and transportation, on U.S. culture and society? What was scientific management? How did developments in technology change the relationship between workers and management in U.S. industry? How were these changes accepted by labor, especially by skilled craftsmen? In what ways did management attempt to control labor?
RACE, ETHNICITY, AND IMMIGRATION: What were the Jim Crow laws, and what was their effect on southern society? Explain how the Supreme Court decision Plessy v. Ferguson fits into this history. How did the ideas of Charles Darwin influence Americans’ thinking about the nature of human societies? Compare W. E. B. DuBois, Booker T. Washington, and Marcus Garvey’s views on civil rights and black struggle; What was The Crisis? How did Dubois’s arguments for black ‘respectability’ manifest themselves in The Crisis, and in advertisements for black-owned businesses, as well as black educational and business opportunities?
INTELLECTUAL AND CULTURAL CHANGE:
Describe the varieties of Social Darwinism that emerged in the late 19th century, along with the criticisms made of them; What were William Graham Sumner’s and Lester Frank Ward’s views on social evolution? What is scientific racism? What are the ‘hereditarian’ and ‘environmental’ views of mental ability? What did the U.S. Army and WWI have to do with the development and acceptance of these theories? What is eugenics? What were the objectives of eugenics? What were some the methods eugenicists advocated for protecting ‘genetic purity?’
Review major trends in art, literature, law, and philosophy during the 1865-1920s period. What were some of the major cultural patterns and themes that pervaded US society, and how do they relate to the broader culture of the time? How did mass media transform American cultural and social life in the 1920s?