Historical geology lecture test # 4 spring, 2011



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HISTORICAL GEOLOGY LECTURE TEST # 4 – SPRING, 2011

1. Ichthyosaurs, placodonts and plesiosaurs had a ? temporal opening. A.anapsid B.diapsid C.synapsid D.euryapsid


2. The ? are characterized by the presence of broad crushing toothplates and a parrot-like toothless beak. A.trilophosaurids B.aetosaurs C.rhynchosaurs D.rauisuchians E.phytosaurs
3. Mammals have ? ear bones. A.1 B.2 C.3 D.4 E.5
4. The early ray-finned fish were primarily A.”biters” B.”suction feeders” C.it depended upon the species of early ray-finned fish
5. The ? Fauna is found in British Columbia; this arthropod-dominated fauna also contains a number of species with no living representatives. A.Burgess Shale B.Ediacara C.Chengjiang D.Tommotian E.Maestrichtian
6. The Franciscan Sequence of California represents turbidites and accretionary wedges of ? age in California; the intrusive rocks of the Sierra Nevada range were also emplaced at this time. A.Ordovician B.Permian C.Devonian D.Jurassic E.Cretaceous
7. Asteroid impact theories have been formulated primarily for the ? extinction event. A.Carnian B.Guadalupian C.end-Permian D.end-Cretaceous E.Ordovician
8. The Sundance Sea regressed, and the dinosaur-bearing Morrison Formation was deposited, during the A.Ordovician B.Permian C.Devonian D.Jurassic E.Cretaceous
9. Which of the following is a “lissamphibian”? A.temnospondyl B.ichthyostegid C.lepospondyl D.frog E.seymouriamorph
10. Abundant crinoids, fusulinid foraminiferans and lacy bryozoans are most characteristic of ? seas. A.Cenozoic B.Archean C.Proterozoic D.Mesozoic E.Paleozoic
11. The archaeopterygids were the earliest A.placoderms B.amphibians C.birds D.mammals E.actinopterygians

12. The breakup of Pangaea resulted in the formation of the ? Ocean. A.Atlantic B.Pacific C.Indian D.the breakup of Pangaea resulted in the formation of all of these oceans


13. Theropods are A.saurischian dinosaurs B.aetosaurs C.ornithischian dinosaurs D.rauisuchians E.phytosaurs
14. The Gulf of Mexico began to form, and its salt deposited, during the A.Ordovician B.Permian C.Devonian D.Jurassic E.Cretaceous
15. Modern embryological studies seem to indicate that fish jaws were formed A.from gill arch supports B.from cartilage supports that surrounded the mouth of jawless fish
16. The iguanodontids and hadrosaurids were A.ceratopsians B.stegosaurs C.ornithopods D.pachycephalosaurs E.ankylosaurs
17. The sphenacodonts and edaphosaurs, both of which had “sails”, were A.pelycosaurs B.therapsids C.mesosaurs D.procolophonids E.pareiasaurs

18. Which of these is a diapsid? A.lizard B.dinosaur C.sphenodontid D.phytosaur E. all of the above are diapsids


19. ? had a bony carapace; they often had a tail club. A.ceratopsians B.stegosaurs C.ornithopods D.pachycephalosaurs E.ankylosaurs
20. “Modern” actinopterygian fish are characterized by the presence of a ? tail. A.heterocercal B.hypocercal C.diphycercal D.homocercal
21. The Chengjiang Fauna is famous for the presence of A.tomotiids B.stromatolites and archaeocyathids C.dinosaurs D.anomalocarids and early fish E.the earliest amphibians
22. During the ? marine turtles grew to huge proportions; mosasaurs also swam in these ? seaways. A.Triassic B.Permian C.Devonian D.Jurassic E.Cretaceous
23. The ? are characterized by “double fertilization”. A.conifers B.cycads C.cycadeoids D.angiosperms E.all of these groups are characterized by “double fertilization”
24. The ? evolved, and became extinct, during the Cretaceous; they had a large bony head shield. A.ceratopsians B.stegosaurs C.ornithopods D.pachycephalosaurs E.ankylosaurs
25. ? are large predatory fish that were believed to have become extinct at the end of the Cretaceous; in the 1930’s living representatives of this group were discovered off the coast of South Africa. A.dipnoans B.coelacanths C.acanthodians D.actinopterygians E.osteolepiforms
26. The ? have labyrinthodont teeth and had similar limb and vertebral structure as that seen in early amphibians. A.dipnoans B.coelacanths C.acanthodians D.actinopterygians E.osteolepiforms
27. ? were rodent-like Mesozoic-Early Cenozoic mammals. A.placentals B.triconodonts C.multituberculates D.symmetrodonts E.marsupials
28. Dinosaurs ? determinant growth. A.had B.did not have
29. The monotremes were/are A.placoderms B.acanthodians C.birds D.mammals E.actinopterygians

30. Lepidodendron, Lepidophloios, Sigillaria and Stigmaria are fossils from “scale trees”; they represent A.sphenophytes/sphenopsids B.rhyniophytes C.lycophytes/lycopods D.”gymnosperms” E.filicinophytes/filicopsids


31. The ? were armor-plated herbivorous Triassic-age reptiles. A.trilophosaurids B.aetosaurs C.rhynchosaurs D.rauisuchians E.phytosaurs
32. ? were dolphin-like marine reptiles. A.mosasaurs B.nothosaurs C.placodonts D.plesiosaurs E.ichthyosaurs
33. Pterosaurs flew with A.one finger B.four fingers C.a hand that had all fused fingers
34. The “arboreal theory” and “cursorial theory” have been used to explain the origin of A.teeth B.jaws C.pelvic structure D.flight E.homeothermy
35. A notochord and dorsal hollow nerve cord is diagnostic of A.echinoderms B.bryozoans C.brachiopods D.molluscs E.chordates
36. Eryopoids, trimerorhachids and metoposaurs were types of A.ichthyostegids B.lepospondyls C.”temnospondyls” D.seymourimorphs E.reptiles
37. There ? evidence for complex social behavior in dinosaurs. A.is B.is no
38. The ? were “Loch Ness Monster”-looking marine reptiles; they developed paddles by adding toe joints and their ventral ribs formed a peculiar “basket-like” structure. A.mosasaurs B.nothosaurs C.placodonts D.plesiosaurs E.ichthyosaurs
39. ? include the “lungfish”. A.dipnoans B.coelacanths C.acanthodians D.actinopterygians E.osteolepiforms
40. ? have a lower temporal opening with the postorbital and squamosal meeting above. A.euryapsids B.diapsids C.anapsids D.synapsids
41. Mammals have a ? jaw articulation. A.articular-quadrate B.dentary-squamosal C.it depends upon the type of mammal
42. ? were Permian-age aquatic reptiles; they have been used as evidence of continental drift. A.pelycosaurs B.therapsids C.mesosaurs D.procolophonids E.pareiasaurs

43. In an heterocercal tail the ? lobe of the tail fin is larger. A.upper B.lower


44. The tusked dicynodonts, and the mammal-like cynodonts, were A.pelycosaurs B.therapsids C.mesosaurs D.procolophonids E.pareiasaurs

45. The release of huge volumes of methane by the melting of deep-ocean clathrate deposits has been cited as a cause of the ? extinction event. A.Guadalupian B.Ordovician C.Devonian D.end-Permian E.Cretaceous


46. In a ? dentition, the teeth are implanted in sockets. A.pleurodont B.acrodont C.thecodont D.the teeth are in sockets in all of these dental types
47. Arborescent lycopods, sphenopsids and ferns formed major forests during the A.Cenozoic B.Proterozoic C.Archean D.Mesozoic E.Paleozoic
48. The initial breakup of Pangaea was during the A.Ordovician B.Permian C.Devonian D.Jurassic E.Cretaceous
49. ? is flexible material capable of growth. A.sclerites B.tomotiids C.cartilage D.enameloid E.bone
50. The ? include the cephalaspids; these fish were dorsoventrally compressed bottom-dwellers. A.osteostracans B.conodonts C.placoderms D.acanthodians E.heterostracans
51. During the ? climate was relatively arid and redbeds formed such as those seen in the spectacular “Painted Desert” area of Arizona. A.Ordovician B.Triassic C.Devonian D.Jurassic E.Cretaceous
52. Coral-Strome reefs are characteristic of ? seas. A.Cenozoic B.Archean C.Proterozoic D.Mesozoic E.Paleozoic
53. Trilobites were most abundant during the A.Late Mesozoic B.Early Mesozoic C.Cenozoic D.Late Paleozoic E.Early Paleozoic
54. The greatest transgression occurred during the ?; rocks of this system include many limestones. A.Ordovician B.Permian C.Devonian D.Jurassic E.Cretaceous
55. The premaxilla is the major toothbearing element in ? ray-finned fish. A.“primitive” B.“derived”
56. Which of the following plants do not produce seeds? A.angiosperms B.gymnosperms C.ferns D.all of these plant groups produce seeds
57. The ? fauna consists of “small shelly fossils” made of calcium carbonate or calcium phosphate. A.Burgess Shale B.Ediacara C.Chengjiang D.Tommotian E.Maestrichtian
58. Ichthyosaurs A.laid eggs B.gave birth to live young
59. Modern oceanic circulation, consisting of the “Global Conveyer Belt”, was initiated during the A.Ordovician B.Permian C.Devonian D.Jurassic E.Cretaceous
60. Ammonites are most important as index fossils in rocks of ? age. A.Proterozoic B.Hadean C.Paleozoic D.Cenozoic E.Mesozoic
61. The dinosaurs became the dominant group of animals after the end-Carnian extinction; this event occurred during the A.Triassic B.Permian C.Devonian D.Jurassic E.Cretaceous

62. The Hesperornithiformes were Cretaceous A.placoderms B.acanthodians C.birds D.mammals E.actinopterygians


63. In the ? the pubis points posteriorly. A.saurischian dinosaurs B.aetosaurs C.ornithischian dinosaurs D.rauisuchians E.phytosaurs
64. The suture patterns of ? are often complex but relatively easy to identify; this makes them good index fossils. A.brachiopods B.ammonites C.belemnites D.conodonts E.dinoflagellates
65. Teleost fish and shell-crushing hybodont sharks would be most diagnostic of the A.Triassic B.Permian C.Devonian D.Ordovician E.Cretaceous
66. The Tethys Seaway was a dominant feature during the ?, along which there were prominent carbonate banks and rudist bivalve reefs. A.Ordovician B.Permian C.Devonian D.Triassic E.Cretaceous
67. ? have a combination of reptile and amphibian features. A.ichthyostegids B.lepospondyls C.”temnospondyls” D.seymourimorphs E.osteolepiforms
68. Which of the following is not typically cited as causing the end-Permian extinction event? A.upwelling of anoxic waters B.aridity C.glaciation D.bolide impacts E.formation of Pangaea
69. Cycads, cycadeoids and conifers were especially numerous during the ?; one period during this era is termed “the Age of Cycads”. A.Archean B.Mesozoic C.Cenozoic D.Paleozoic E.Proterozoic
70. Fleshy lobe fins and cosmoid scales are diagnostic of ? fish. A.acanthodian B.placoderm C.actinopterygian D.sarcopterygian E.chondrichthyan
71. The Austin Chalk, and the Chalk Cliffs of Dover in England, are of ? age. A.Triassic B.Permian C.Devonian D.Jurassic E.Cretaceous
72. The end-Devonian extinction event was probably mostly due to A.formation of Pangaea B.global cooling/glaciation C.bolide impact D.global warming E.reduction in size of shelf ecosystems
73. The ? were a Paleozoic shark group characterized by weird dorsal fin brushes. A.eugeneodonts B.actinopterygians C.xenacanths D.symmoriids E.dipnoans
74. There ? modern sphenodontids. A.are B.are no
75. The oldest angiosperms are found in rocks of ? age. A.Archean B.Mesozoic C.Cenozoic D.Paleozoic E.Proterozoic
76. Free oxygen levels had to exceed a minimum of about ? percent total atmospheric level in order for skeletons to be secreted and for “modern” metabolic processes to take place. A.2-3 B.8-10 C.13-15 D.18-20 E.over 25
77. Sea level was relatively ? during the Early Triassic. A.low B.high
78. ? have a “perforate acetabulum”. A.trilophosaurids B.aetosaurs C.rhynchosaurs D.rauisuchians E.dinosaurs
79. Agnathans are A.sharks B.bony fish C.jawless fish D.amphibians E.all of the above are agnathans
80. The ceratosaurs, coelurosaurs and deinonychosaurs are A.theropod dinosaurs B.sauropodomorphs C.ornithopods D.pachycephalosaurs E.ceratopsians
81. Flying insects first became abundant during the A.Cenozoic B.Lower Paleozoic C.Upper Paleozoic D.Lower Mesozoic E.Upper Mesozoic
82. ? are among the oldest-known land plants; they have no leaves or “true roots”. A.sphenophytes/sphenopsids B.rhyniophytes C.lycophytes/lycopods D.”gymnosperms” E.filicinophytes/filicopsids
83. Dinosaurs became extinct at the end of the A.Proterozoic B.Archean C.Paleozoic D.Cenozoic E.Mesozoic
84. The oldest reefs consisted of A.scleractinian corals B.rugose and tabulate corals C.stromatolites and archaeocyathids D.sponges and fusulinid foraminiferans E.rudist bivalves
85. The most primitive reptiles, including the small lizard-like “parareptiles”, were A.euryapsids B.diapsids C.anapsids D.synapsids
86. The brachiosaurs were A.theropod dinosaurs B.sauropodomorphs C.ornithopods D.pachycephalosaurs E.ceratopsians
87. The large carnivorous arthrodires and weird mud-grubbing antiarchs were A.acanthodians B.placoderms C.chondrichthyans D.osteichthyans E.pteraspidomorphs
88. The ? were primarily freshwater sharks; each of their teeth typically consisted of two or three pointed cusps. A.eugeneodonts B.actinopterygians C.xenacanths D.symmoriids E.dipnoans
89. Amniote eggs are characteristic of A.fish B.amphibians C.reptiles D.all of the above have amniote eggs
90. Ornithischians were A.carnivores B.herbivores C.it depends upon the type of ornithischian
91. Tracheophytes are A.amphibians B.reptiles C.birds D.fish E.land plants
92. Dinosaurs probably ? a metabolism similar to that of birds and mammals. A.had B.did not have
93. ? are characterized by the presence of spool-shaped vertebrae; they include nectridians and “microsaurs”. A.ichthyostegids B.lepospondyls C.”temnospondyls” D.seymourimorphs E.reptiles
94. The oldest undisputed land animals were A.insects B.amphibians C.millipedes and centipedes D.spiders E.captorhinids
95. ? are characterised by pneumatic bones and a keeled sternum, or breast bone. A.placoderms B.acanthodians C.birds D.mammals E.actinopterygians
96. The top predators in the Paleozoic seas were A.mammals and sharks B.large aquatic reptiles, large bony fish and sharks C.large cephalopods and placoderms D.trilobites E.graptolites
97. Land plants probably evolved from the A.Rhodophyta B.Cyanobacteria C.Chlorophyta D.Phaeophyta E.Eubacteria
98. The conodonts and placodonts became extinct, and almost all of the therapsids became extinct, during the A.Triassic B.Permian C.Devonian D.Jurassic E.Cretaceous
99. In the ? the palatal bones extend posteriorly to form a secondary palate; they have a semi-improved gait. A.mosasaurs B.nothosaurs C.placodonts D.plesiosaurs E.crocodilians
100. This is test # “A”. Please answer “A” for question # 100.


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