|HISTOLOGY WRITTEN EXAM II
MULTIPLE CHOICE: CHOOSE THE SINGLE BEST ANSWER. EACH ANSWER IS WORTH 1 POINT EACH FOR THE WRITTEN EXAM
1. The spleen receives blood from the splenic artery. This artery then branches to ensure
that blood flow through the spleen follows an orderly path. Which of the following is the
correct path of blood flow?
A. Central artery → central arteriole → trabecular artery → sinusoid
B. Trabecular artery → central artery → pencillar arteriole →sinusoid
C. Central artery → paracentral artery → medullary sinusoid
D. Paracortical artery → central artery → pencillar artery → sinusoid
E. Subcapsular artery → medullary artery → central artery → sinusoid
2. Each of the following statements is true EXCEPT:
A. Ameloblasts continually synthesize enamel.
B. Cementoblasts continually synthesize cementum.
C. The fibers of the peridontal ligament are constantly being replaced.
D. The pulp cavity contains an abundant nerve and blood supply.
E. Odontoblasts continually synthesize predentine.
3. Two weeks after falling from a ladder, a 40-year-old gardener complains of frequent,
severe headaches. A neuroradiologic examination shows several small radiopaque
specks near the center of the brain suggesting calcification. Which of the following is
most likely responsible for this finding?
A. Otoliths in the macula of the saccule.
B. Crystals of the crista ampullaris.
C. Corpora arenacea in the pineal gland.
D. Otoliths in the macula of the utricle.
E. Corpora amylacea in the pineal gland.
4. A student is walking past one of the construction sites at the Medical School.
Suddenly, two workmen start their jackhammers. Which structure protects the inner
ear of the student from damage caused by sound waves coming from the external ear?
B. Otolithic membrane
C. Crista ampullaris
D. Stapedius muscle
E. Eustachian tube
5. A drug undergoes detoxification in the liver in Zone 3. Zone 3:
A. Is the area closest to the portal tract.
B. Is part of the classic lobular description of liver organization.
C. Is the primary site of gluconeogenesis.
D. Is the primary site of glycolysis.
E. Is the area of greatest oxygen concentration in the sinusoids.
6. The function(s)of the RPE (retinal pigment epithelium) include(s):
A. Physical support of the rods and cones
B. Synthesis of vitamin A, used in the visual pigments
C. Light absorption
D. Phagocytosis of outer segments
E. All of the statements are true.
7. In the lobular scheme of liver function, each of the following is true, EXCEPT:
A. Portal tracts are at the periphery of the lobules with sinusoids oriented radially
around the central veins.
B. Bile flow is from the portal tracts through the sinusoids to the central veins.
C. Blood flow is from the portal tracts through the sinusoids to the central veins.
D. The organization is a two-dimensional hexagon based on the histologic
E. Portal tracts contain branches of the hepatic artery, portal vein, bile ducts,
nerves and lymphatics.
8. Which of the following is not associated with olfactory epithelium?
A. Modified bipolar neurons
B. Bowmans glands
C. Motile Cilia
E. Lipofuscin-like pigment
9. DiGeorge Syndrome occurs due to the congenital lack of a thymus. Individuals with
this syndrome would be expected to have a diminished number of cells in which
A. Splenic sinus
B. Paracortex of the lymph node
C. Germinal center of primary follicle
D. Zona reticularis
E. Mantle zone of secondary follicle
10. Prolactin is synthesized and secreted primarily by which of the following cells?
A. Chromophobes in the pars distalis
B. Acidophils in the lateral wings
C. Somatotrophs in the mucoid wedge
D. Basophils in the pars tuberalis
E. Basophils in the pars intermedia
MATCHING: For each numbMred2 Each an , choose the letter of the most closely related item in COLUMN 2. Each answer can be used once, more than once or not at all.
Each of the following is usually found at which location?
COLUMN 1 COLUMN 2
11. Circumvallate papillae A. Dorsolateral surface of the tongue
12. Filiform papillae B. Randomly scattered over the dorsal
13. Fungiform papillae surface o f the tongue
14. Foliate papillae C. V -shaped line between anterior and
posterior surface of the tongue
D. Randomly scattered over the ventral
surface of the tongue
E. The surface of the epiglottis
15. Which of the following is NOT associated with the product synthesized by the cells of the zona fasciculata of the adrenal gland?
A. High blood sugar levels
B. Muscle wasting
C. Increased liver fatty acid uptake
D. Is a glucocorticoid
E. Increased immune response
MATCHING: For each numbered item in COLUMN 1, choose the letter of the most closely related item in COLUMN 2. Each answer can be used once, more than once, or not at all.
COLUMN 1 COLUMN 2
16. Canal of Hering A. Herniation of epithelium into
17. Rokitansky-Ashoff sinus underlying muscle
18. Glisson's capsule B. Row of hepatocytes surrounding
19. Gallbladder portal tract
20.Limiting plate C. Connects bile canaliculus to bile duct
D. Partially enclosed by a serosa of
simple squamous epithelium
E. Contains Ito cells and pit cells
MATCHING: For each numbered item in COLUMN 1, choose the letter of the most
closely related item in COLUMN 2. Each answer can be used once, more than once, or
not at all.
COLUMN 1 COLUMN 2
21. Parotid gland A. Serous demilune
22. Submandibular gland B. Only serous acini
23. Sublingual gland C. Wharton's duct
24. Islet of Langerhans D. Cystic duct
25. Exocrine pancreas E. Alpha cells
26.Otitis media is a common inflammation of the middle ear. Under normal circumstances, the middle ear cavity should contain:
A. Hair cells
27. The best pathway for the flow of aqueous humor is:
A. nonpigmented epithelium, posterior chamber, anterior chamber, Schlemm's
canal, trabecular meshwork
B. iris, pigmented epithelium, posterior chamber, anterior chamber, trabecular
meshwork, episcleral veins
C. nonpigmented epithelium, posterior chamber, anterior segment, trabecular
meshwork, episderal veins
D. pigmented epithelium, posterior segment, anterior chamber, trabecular
meshwork, episcleral veins
E. nonpigmented epithelium, posterior chamber, anterior chamber, trabecular
meshwork, Schlemm's canal
28. Which of the following is two of the maculae of the inner ear?
A. The Type II hair cells lack a kinocilium.
B. The cupula is made by the sustentacular cells.
C. Otoconia are absent from the macula of the utricle.
D. The otolithic membrane sits on top of the hair cells.
E. They contain the vestibular membrane.
29. The hormone, oxytocin, is synthesized by:
A. Hypothalamic neurons
B. Herring bodies
C. Pituitary acidophils
D. Pituitary basophils
30. When questioned about the thymus in Histology Lab, you reply that the thymus:
A. Is separated into several lobules by connective tissue septae.
B. Contains efferent and afferent lymphatics.
C. Has prominent follicles and germinal centers for thymocyte maturation.
D. Contains 6 to 8 deep crypts in young children.
E. Contains a cortex and medulla, but the medulla disappears with age.
31. Characteristics of pinealocytes include which of the following?
A. They contain a single stereocilia
B. They contain calcified concretions of unknown origin
C. They resemble astrocytes
D. They contain melatonin and serotonin
E. They are covered by choroid plexus
32. B-lymphocytes are an important component of lymphoid organs. "Resting" Bells are
found in which of the following locations?
A. Mantle zone of lymphoid follicle
B. Periarterial lymphatic sheath
C. Paracortex of lymph node
D. Germinal center of secondary follicle
E. Epithelium of M cells in the ileum
Matching: For each numbered item in COLUMN 1 , choose the letter of the most
closely related item in COLUMN 2. Each answer can be used once, more than once,
or not at all.
COLUMN 1 COLUMN 2
33. Zona Glomerulosa A. Sex organ development
34. Parafollicular cells B. Renin-Angiotensin system
35. Adrenal Medulla C. Decreased osteoclast activity
36. Zona Reticularis D. Iodide pump
37. Follicular cells E. Pre-ganglion innervation
Matching: For each numbered item in COLUMN 1, choose the letter of the most closely related item in COLUMN 2. Each answer can be used once, more than once, or not at all.
COLUMN 1 COLUMN 2
38. Lingual tonsil A. Paired structures
39. Palatine tonsil B. Most numerous type of tonsil
40. Pharyngeal tonsil C. Covered by respiratory epithelium
D. Completely encapsulated
E. Anterior portion of tongue
41. Which of the following cells are involved in detecting movements of the head?
A. Sustentacular cells in the crista ampullaris
B. Hair cells in the macula
C. Hensen's border cells
D. Spiral ganglion neurons
E. Inner hair cells in the organ of Corti
42. Which of the following is INCORRECT concerning taste buds?
A. They are found embedded in the respiratory epithelium of the upper pharynx.
B. Sustentacular cells contain microvilli on their apical aspect.
C. Basal cells are the cells from which other cell types of the taste bud are derived.
D. Serous secretions of the glands of von Ebner help to keep the taste pore from
E. Gustatory cells are associated with afferent nerve endings.
43. While you are rotating in the Emergency Department, a victim of a motor vehicle
accident is brought in. He is found to have a fractured ulna and, due to concerns about
bleeding, is taken to the Operating Room for abdominal exploration. Fortunately, he is
found to have only an isolated tear in his spleen and it is removed. Since the patient
now lacks a spleen, you would expect:
A. Increased need for copper supplementation.
B. Increased susceptibility to bacterial infections of the blood.
C. Inability of the patient to mount a T-cell mediated immune response.
D. Lack of continued production of immunoglobulins.
E. Death to occur within the next two to three months.
44. In the cornea, each of the following is true EXCEPT:
A. The comeal epithelium contains several layers of cells.
B. Descemet's membrane is the basement membrane of the corneal endothelium.
C. A special pump in the corneal epithelium keeps the cornea clear and
D. Bowman's layer contains collagen fibers.
E. The limbus provides nourishment to the cornea.
45. Which of the following cells is believed to play a role in the maturation of thymocytes to
A. Epithelial reticular cells
B. Thymic nurse cells
C. Sinusoidal macrophages
D. Dendritic reticulum cells
E. Chief cells
46. Pick the group that contains an item that does not belong:
A. tunica vasculosa / iris / ciliary body / choriocapillaris / choroid
B. lens / accommodation / ciliary body / radial muscle / meridional muscle
C. goblet cells / mucous / tears / lacrimal gland / lipid layer
D. aqueous / nonpigmented epithelium / posterior chamber / trabecular meshwork /
E. epithelium / Bruch's membrane / stroma / Descemet's membrane / endothelium
47. Meniere's disease, a chronic disease of the inner ear, is caused by overproduction of
endolymph. This overproduction would be expected to lead to:
A. Lymphocytes in the stria vascularis.
B. Distension of the membranous labyrinth.
C. Blockage of the Eustachian tube.
D. Bacterial infection of the tympanic membrane.
E. Contraction of the stapedius muscle.
48. The adenohypophysis:
A. Contains mostly chromophobes and acidophils
B. Contains remnants of Rathke's pouch from the pars nervosa.
C. Is primarily derived from neuroectoderm.
D. Is under the control of adrenal releasing hormones.
E. Is innervated by axons from the supraoptic nuclei.
49. In a nightmare, you find yourself on an 'Incredible Voyage" through the salivary gland
system. You recognize that you are in a serous demilune surrounded by abundant
mucous glands, so you know all of the following are true EXCEPT:
A. Once you slip through the gutter of the serous demilune and enter the gland
lumen, you will next find yourself propelled down the intercalated duct.
B. In one duct, you recognize the striated nature of the walls and know that it is
caused by membrane invaginations and mitochondria.
C. In the striated duct, you encounter resorption of water and modification of
D. You are finally secreted into the oral cavity by way of Wharton's duct.
E. You most probably are in the sublingual gland.
50. In the spleen:
A. Lymphatic vessels that are present lack functional valves.
B. The majority of the parenchymal mass is white pulp.
C. The cortex and medulla cannot be clearly distinguished.
D. The capsule contains dense regular connective tissue.
E. The sinuses are lined with macrophages.
51. Which of the following histologic layers of the retina contain cell bodies?
A. Ganglion cell layer, inner nuclear layer, outer nuclear layer
B. Outer plexiform layer, outer nuclear layer, outer segment layer
C. Internal limiting membrane, external limiting membrane, RPE
D. Nerve fiber layer, outer segment layer, outer nuclear layer
E. Inner plexiform layer, outer plexiform layer, ganglion cell layer
52. Diffuse lymphatic tissue:
A. Includes the spleen and thymus.
B. Is surrounded by a connective tissue capsule.
C. Forms follicles composed of activated T-cells.
D. Secretes primarily IgG and IgM immunoglobulins.
E. Is found beneath moist mucosal surfaces.
53. Pick the group that contains an item that does not belong, or is wrong:
A. far focus / thinner lens / ciliary muscle relaxed
B. iris sphincter / CNIII / small pupil
C. iris dilator muscle / parasympathetic / larger pupil.
D. orbicularis / tarsal plate / lashes
E. near focus / fatter lens / ciliary muscle contracted
54. A medical student complains of a sore throat and is found to have swollen, tender
lymph nodes in the cervical region. Blood test results show that her white blood cell
count is elevated and consists primarily of segmented neutrophils. If a biopsy were
taken of one of her lymph nodes, one would expect to see:
A. The production of Malpighian corpuscles.
B. Large lymphoid follicles with prominent germinal centers.
C. Medullary sinusoids engorged with red blood cells.
D. Dendritic reticulum cells forming cuffs around blood vessels.
E. Depletion of lymphocytes and macrophages in the paracortical area.
55. Complete removal of the right axillary lymph node chain during breast cancer surgery
could be expected to result in which of the following?
A. Increased production of glucocorticoids.
B. Edema of the right upper extremity.
C. Increased susceptibility to parasitic infections.
D. Loss of bone marrow lymphocytes
E. Disappearance of the thymic fat pad.
56. Dr. Hartwell has handed out her homemade peanut-butter cookies to everyone in class,
but she forgot to bring the milk. As everyone chokes down the cookies, all of the
following should happen EXCEPT:
A. Myoepithelial cells around pancreatic acini will contract to force the pancreatic
secretions into the duct of Wirsung and out into the duodenum.
B. Parotid glands will pour out amylase and begin to break down the starch.
C. Submandibular glands will secrete amylase and some sialomucins to help wash
down the cookies.
D. Myoepithelial cells around salivary glands will be working overtime to squeeze
out the salivary gland secretions.
E. Once the cookie bolus is emptied from the stomach, secretin, cholecystokinin
and vagus nerve stimulation will regulate the secretion of proenzymes by the
pancreatic acinar cells.
57. Communication between the scala tympani and scala vestibuli occurs at the:
B. Oval window
C. Endolymphatic duct
D. Round window
58. A patient undergoes a bone scan and multiple fractures are found; his bone density is
60% of that expected. Laboratory values of thyroid function tests and circulating T3 and
T4 levels show that the thyroid is performing normally. The probable cause of these
symptoms therefore is very likely a problem with which of the following organs and
A. Thyroid and follicular cells
B. Parathyroid and chief cells
C. Parathyroid and parafollicular cells
D. Adrenal and medullary cells
E. Adrenal and the zona glomerulosa
59. Lymphocytes circulating in the blood are able to enter lymph nodes via:
A. Paracortical sinuses
B. Trabecular endothelium
C. Marginal sinuses
D. Mucosal capillaries
E. High endothelial venules
60. Each of the following is true EXCEPT:
A. Rods work best in the light; cones work best in the dark.
B. The six million cones are primarily located in the region of the macula (or fovea.)
C. The rods and cones are the light capturing cells of the visual pathway.
D. The visual pigment of the rods is rhodopsin, the visual pigment of cones is
E. Rods and cones get their nourishment from the choriocapillaris.
HISTOLOGY PRACTICAL EXAM II
MULTIPLE CHOICE: CHOOSE THE SINGLE BEST ANSWER. EACH ANSWER IS WORTH 2 POINTS EACH FOR THE PRACTICAL EXAM
1. What is the predominant type of cell in this tissue?
A. Chief cell
B. Parafollicular cell
D. Chromaffin cell
E. Acinar cell
2. In this tissue:
A. Serous demilunes are present.
B. Pre-enzymes are secreted and activated within the duct of Bilroth.
C. Striated ducts are named ducts of Santorini.
D. Endocrine cells make up 1-2% of the parenchyma.
E. There are more chief cells than oxyphils.
3. Which of the following is/are not associated with this structure?
A. Smooth muscle bundles running in 3 planes and 4 layers
B. Serous and mucous glands
C. Diffuse lymphoid tissue
D. A keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium.
E. A non-keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium.
4. The cells indicated are:
A. Dendritic reticulum cells
C. Mixed T- and B-lymphocytes
D. Epithelial reticular cells
5. These structures:
A. Are the site of outflow for aqueous humor.
B. Detect light better than color.
C. Form the anterior lens capsule.
D. Are the source of blood supply to the photoreceptors.
E. Produce aqueous humor.
6. Which of the following is true concerning this structure?
A. Blood flows towards this structure.
B. Bile flow is towards bile ducts in this structure.
C. Vessels in this structure drain the organ of blood.
D. This structure contains small branches of the hepatic artery and hepatic vein.
E. There are no nerves or lymphatics in this structure.
7. The material in this location is composed of:
A. 70-80% hydroxyapatite and 20-30% organic material
B. Fibroblasts, collagen, ground substance, nerves and blood vessels.
C. Dense, regular connective tissue.
D. Almost entirely hydroxyapatite.
E. A collagen containing, bone-like, substance.
8. Movement of fluid in this space would directly stimulate:
A. Type III hair cells
C. Inner hair cells
D. Tympanic membrane
E. Myoepithelial cells
9. Which of the following is not associated with this epithelium?
A. Goblet cells
C. Bowmans glands
D. Brush cells
E. Basal cells
10. What is produced by these cells?
A. Major basic protein
11. This tissue:
A. Has a simple squamous epithelium on its luminal surface.
B. Has two well-defined smooth muscle layers.
C. Is normally devoid of inflammatory cells in the lamina propria.
D. Has a serosa and an adventitia.
E. Has lymphatics in the lamina propria like other gastrointestinal organs.
12. This tissue:
A. Is found at the roof of the lateral ventricles.
B. Influences the maturation of the gonads.
C. Contains many melanocytes.
D. Helps regulate Vitamin D absorption.
E. Secretes melanocyte-stimulating hormone.
13. Fuid in this cavity directly communicates with the:
A. Scala media
B. Scala tympani
D. Middle ear cavity
E. Eustachian tube
14. In this tissue:
A. The majority of the acini are mucous secreting.
B. The secretions of this tissue are transported via the duct of Wirsung.
C. Intralobular ducts transport glandular secretions, water and electrolytes.
D. Cilia are present on the apical surface of the acinar cells.
E. Striated ducts are not present.
15. The lymphocytes in this area:
A. Surround a small central artery.
B. Are maturing T-lymphocytes.
C. Selectively produce IgA immunoglobulin.
D. Are also known as "M" cells.
E. Produce lymphopoietin.
16. Regarding blood flow in this tissue:
A. Blood flow and bile flow proceed in the same direction.
B. The majority of the blood flow to this tissue is from the hepatic artery.
C. The space of Disse allows for direct contact of blood with hepatocytes.
D. The majority of oxygen-rich blood is delivered via the portal vein.
E. The single venous drainage of this tissue is through the portal vein.
17. Which of the following is true of the cells in this area?
A. They contain microvilli on their apical surface.
B. Their activity is dependent upon ACTH.
C. They are also called spongiocytes.
D. They originate from cells in the neural crest.
E. Intracellular lipofuscin is often seen.
18. This structure:
A. Is a medium-sized arteriole.
B. Contains numerous T-lymphocytes.
C. Is composed to 3-4 macrophages.
D. Contains calcium phosphate crystals.
E. Is unique to the thymus.
19. This area:
A. Contains the outer segments of the photoreceptor cells.
B. Is composed of bipolar neurons and sustentacular cells.
C. Forms the bulk of the optic nerve.
D. Has synapses between photoreceptors and bipolar cells.
E. Is responsible for synthesis of Vitamin A.
A. Serves as a filter for lymphatic fluid.
B. Produces parathormone.
C. Is responsive to light and dark cycles.
D. Is under the influence of ACTH.
E. Removes damaged red blood cells.
Histology Exam II Answer Keys
Written Version 1
B 21. B 41. B
A 22. C 42. A
C 23. A 43. B
D 24. E 44. C
D 25. B 45. A
E 26. E 46. E
B 27. E 47. B
C 28. D 48. A
B 29. A 49. D
B 30. A 50. E
C 31. D 51. A
B 32. A 52. E
B 33. B 53. C
A 34. C 54. B
E 35. E 55. B
C 36. A 56. A
A 37. D 57. E
D 38. B 58. B
D 39. A 59. E
B 40. C 60. A
PRACTICAL EXAM KEY