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  1. Klug, W. S., 2010. Essentials of Genetics. Pearson Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco, CA.

Recommended Books:

  1. Griffiths, A. J. F., 2012. Introduction to Genetic Analysis. W.H. Freeman and Co., New York.

  2. Hodge, R., 2009. Genetic Engineering: Manipulating the Mechanisms of Life. Facts on File, New York.

  3. Gardener, E. J., M. J. Simmons and D. P. Snustad, 1991. Principles of Genetics. John Wiley and Sons. Inc., New York, U.S.A.

  4. Nicholas, F., 2009. Introduction to Veterinary Genetics. Wiley-Blackwell.

Learning outcomes:
At the end of the course, students will be able to:

  1. Identify avian anatomical and physiological factors which influence feeding and nutrient requirements.

  2. Describe various feedstuffs used in poultry feeding and their potential limitations.

  3. Describe feeding strategies used in raising poultry for meat and egg production.

  4. Explain methods of feed presentation in both conventional and modern production units

  5. Perform manual and software based feed formulation for different classes of poultry.

  6. Identify emerging areas of interest and concern in poultry feeding and nutrition.


Avian digestive anatomy and physiology. Classification of poultry feed ingredients and their chemical composition. Anti-nutritional factors in feed stuffs for poultry. Feed additives in poultry nutrition. New concepts in poultry feeding. Nutrition of broiler, layer and breeder birds. Nutritional deficiency diseases in poultry. Feed stuff handling and storage at poultry feed mill. Feed stuff processing: grinding, mixing, pelleting and extrusion. Current and future prospects of poultry nutrition.


Identification of poultry feed ingredients. Bulk feed stuff sampling, sample preparation and handling for laboratory analysis. Raw material handling and storage. Feed formulation for different classes of poultry bird: Manual method, MS excel, computer software. Preparation of wholesome feed at farm level. Quality control management in poultry feed production. Feeding practices at poultry farm. Compound animal feed stuff act. Visit to a commercial poultry feed mill.


1. Lesson, S. and J.D. Summers. 2002. Scott’s Nutrition of the Chicken. International Book Distributing Co. Guleph, Ontario, Canada.

Recommended Books:

  1. Lesson, S. and J.D. Summers, 1991. Commercial Poultry Nutrition University Books, Guleph, Ontario, Canada.

  2. Lesson, S. and J. D. Summers, 2001. Broiler Breeder Production. University Book, Guleph, Ontario, Canada.

  3. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 1994. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

Learning outcomes:
At the end of the course, students will be able to:

  1. Define population genetics

  2. Describe concepts of genetic parameters

  3. Elaborate principles of selection and methods for improvement of farm animals

  4. Explain role of animal breeding in genetic improvement

  5. Describe various breeding plans and systems and their application


Population Genetics: Gene and genotypic frequency; Hardy-Weinberg law, forces affecting gene frequency and genetic structure of a population; Genetic basis of variation; Quantitative characters and their inheritance; Concepts of heritability and repeatability, methods of their estimation; Genetic and phenotypic correlations; Animal breeding: role of animal breeding; breeding systems; random mating, inbreeding, line-breeding, outbreeding, outcrossing, crossbreeding and grading up; Selection: kinds of selection, methods of selection, basis of selection, selection of superior animals, genetic gain and its measurement; traits of economic importance in cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat and poultry; animal genetic resources, their conservation and preservation; emerging breeding technologies; national breeding policy; constraints and future breeding plans; Role of breed registry societies/associations in developed countries and its application in Pakistan.


Calculation of gene and genotypic frequencies; Estimation of heritability, repeatability and genetic correlations; Measurement of coefficient of inbreeding and relationship; evaluation of livestock on the basis of own performance, pedigree and progeny; Construction of selection index; Calculation of breeding values from single and repeated records; Estimation of genetic gain.


  1. Bourdon, R. M., 2000. Understanding Animal Breeding. Prentice-Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

Recommended Books:

  1. Lasley, J. F., 1987. Genetics of Livestock Improvement. Prentice-Hall International Inc. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.

  2. Legates, J. E. and E. J. Warwick, 1990. Breeding and Improvement of Farm Animals. McGraw-Hill Publishing Co., New York.

  3. MINFAL, 1991. National Agricultural Policy. Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Cooperatives. Government of Pakistan, Islamabad.

  4. Oldenbroek, J. K., 1999. Gene banks and the conservation of Farm Animal Genetic Resources. DLO Institute for Animal Science and Health, The Netherlands.

  5. Willis, M. B., 2001. Dalton’s Introduction to Practical Animal Breeding. Blackwell Science, Oxford.

Learning Outcomes:

  1. Diagnose diseases conditions based on laboratory tests

  2. Perform and interpret biochemical tests

  3. Interpret results of molecular diagnostic tests


Organization of clinical pathology lab; collection, preservation and dispatch of laboratory specimens, haematological examination in diseases of different animals, diagnosis and interpretations of hematological disorders, anaemia and its classifications, diagnosis of various neoplastic conditions of blood, coagulation disorders, bone marrow response in various diseases and its evaluation, urinalysis, liver function tests (LFTs) and renal function tests (RFTs), plasma protein profile, blood electrolytes, exfoliative cytology, demonstration of molecular diagnostic techniques, case studies.

Recommended Books:

  1. Latimer, K.S., E.A. Mahaffey and K.W. Prasse, 2003. Duncan & Prasse’s Veterinary Laboratory Medicine Clinical Pathology. 4th Ed., Iowa State Press, Ames, Iowa, USA.

  2. Kaneko, J.J., J.W. Harvey and M.L. Bruss, 2008. Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals. 6th Ed. Academic Press, USA.

Learning outcomes:
At the end of the course, students will be able to:

  1. Describe life cycle, vector importance/pathogenesis and control of insects and arachnids.

  2. Collect and process biological samples and parasite specimens for identification / diagnosis

  3. Assess the prevalence, economic / public health significance of parasitic diseases in an environment.


General introduction of entomology: arthropods and their economic significance; classification of arthropoda; respiratory, digestive, nervous and reproductive systems of arthropods; different types of mouthparts of insects and arachnids and their significance in disease transmission; classification, morphology, life cycle, pathogenesis, diagnosis and control of the species of the following families of arthropods: Haematopinidae, Linognathidae, Pediculidae, Cimicidae, Reduvidae, Culicidae, Ceratopogonidae, Simulidae, Psychodidae, Tabanidae, Gastrophilidae, Glossinidae, Muscidae, Calliphoridae, Oesteridae, Hypodermatidae, Cuterebridae, Hippoboscidae, Ixodidae, Argasidae, Demodicidae, Sarcoptidae, Psoroptidae, Dermanyssidae and Cheylotodae, role of insects and arachnids as vector.


Methods for collection, fixation and preservation of arthropods; methods for preparation of permanent mounts and pinning of insects and arachnids; examination of skin scrapings for mange; Identification of lice, bugs, fleas, flies, ticks and mites; field visit for practical exposure to ectoparasitic infestations; demonstration of application of insecticides by arranging visits to livestock farms


  1. Urquhart G.M., J. Armour, J.L. Duncan, A.M. Dunn, F.W. Jennings, 2000. Veterinary Parasitology. Longman Scientific and Technical, U.K.

Recommended Books:

  1. Schmidt G.D. and L.S. Roberts, 2013. Foundations of Parasitology. 9th Edition, W.C.B. Company, U.K.

  2. Bowman D.D., 2013. Georgi’s Parasitology for Veterinarians. Saunders Elsevier, 10th Ed.

  3. Foreyt, W.J., 2001. Veterinary Parasitology, Reference Manual Iowa State Press, Blackwell Publishing Company.

  4. Zajac A.M. and G.A. Conboy, 2006. Veterinary Clinical Parasitology 7th Edition Blackwell Publishing AAVP

  5. Taylor, M.A., L.L. Coop, and R.L. Wall, 2007. Veterinary Parasitology. 3rd Ed. Blackwell Publishing, UK

  6. Iqbal, Z., M.N. Khan and A. Jabbar, 2003. An Illustrated Textbook of Veterinary Entomology. Friends Science Publishers, Faisalabad- Pakistan.

Learning outcomes:
At the end of the course, students will be able to:

  1. Elaborate strategic planning for short listing the diseases during the process of diagnosis of unknown viral diseases

  2. Provide description for methods of sample collection for submission to veterinary diagnostic labs.

  3. Describe entry of viruses into the body of animals, their pathogenesis, excretion in the environment and dissemination

  4. Elaborate clinical and laboratory based disease diagnosis

  5. Describe preventive vaccination, disinfection and other bio-security measures for control of animal viral diseases.


Introduction, etiology, pathogenesis, transmission, diagnosis and control of following DNA containing viral diseases of veterinary importance: Herpesviridae: Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, Marek’s disease, Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT); Papillomaviridae: Warts- livestock; Adenoviridae: Avian adenovirus-HPS, IBH, EDS, canine adenovirus; Poxviridae: Fowl pox, Cow pox, Capri pox, sheep pox; Parvoviridae: Canine parvovirus, Feline panleucopenia, bovine parvovirus; Circoviridae: Chicken anemia virus. Introduction, etiology, pathogenesis, transmission, diagnosis and control of following RNA containing viral diseases of veterinary importance: Picornaviridae: FMD virus; Paramyxoviridae: Newcasle disease virus, PPR, RP, Canine distemper; Orthomyxoviridae: Avian influenza virus; Rhabdoviridae: Rabies, Bovine ephemeral fever; Birnaviridae: Infectious bursal disease; Reoviridae: Blue tongue, Avian tendosynovitis; Coronaviridae: Infectious bronchitis- poultry, Bovine and canine diarrhea; Togaviridae: Eastern, western, venezuelan equine encephalitis; Pestivirus: BVD; Retroviridae: Avian leukosis, Prions-BSE.


Sources of sample; sample collection and transportation of samples for virus isolation, Processing of samples for virus isolation, Cultivation of NDV in chicken embryos, Cultivation of AIV in chicken embryos, Establishment of monolayer of BHK-21 cell line, FMD Virus cultivation in BHK-21, PPR Virus cultivation in vero cell line, HPS virus growth in broilers, EM and demonstration of Negri bodies (through simulations & images), Sero-characterization of NDV-HA&HI tests, Virus neutralization test, Sero-characterization of FMD virus by ELISA, Sero-characterization of PPR virus by CFT, Sero-characterization of IBDV by AGPT, Evaluation of attenuated live NDV virus vaccine and Evaluation of killed FMD virus vaccine, study tour of Research Institutes / Biological Production Units.


  1. Quinn, P.J., M.E. Carter, B.K. Markie and G.R. Carter, 1994. Clinical Veterinary Microbiology. Wolf, London.

Recommended Books:

  1. Anonymous, 1999. A laboratory manual for the isolation and identification of avian pathogens.6th Ed. American Association of Avian pathologists, Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa.

  2. Cstro, A.E. and W.F. Henschele, 1992. Veterinary Diagnostic Virology. Mosby yearbook, Inc., Baltimore.

  3. Fenner, F.J., E.P. Gibbs, F.A. Murphy, M.J. Studdert and D.O. White, 1993. Veterinary Virology 2nd Ed., Academic Press London.

  4. OIE, 2000. Manual of standards for diagnostic tests and vaccines. Off. Intl. Des. Epiz., Paris.

  5. Talaro, K. and A. Talaro, 1996. Foundation in Microbiology. 2nd Ed., Win C. Brown Publ., Iowa.

  6. Virella, G., 1997. Microbiology and Infectious Disease. 3rd Ed., Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.

Learning outcomes:
At the end of the course, students will be able to:

  1. Describe structures and functions of male and female reproductive systems

  2. Describe reproductive processes of male and female animals (equines, small ruminants and companion animals)

  3. Describe mechanisms of pregnancy and parturition


Anatomy and physiology of male and female reproductive system, Embryogenesis of male and female reproductive systems, Neural and neuroendocrine reflexes, Mechanisms of action of protein and steroid hormones, Classification of reproductive hormones, Roles of reproductive hormones, Factors affecting the onset of puberty, Factors influencing reproductive cyclicity, Folliculogenesis and oogenesis, Oocyte maturation and ovulation, Physiology of estrous cycle: Follicular Phase, Physiology of estrous cycle: Luteal Phase, Luteinisation and luteolysis, Reproductive behaviour, Sequence of spermatogenesis, Factors influencing sperm production, Physiology of copulation and ejaculation, Sperm transport in the female reproductive tract, Capacitation and fertilization, Early embryogenesis, Maternal recognition of pregnancy, Implantation and placentation, Sex differentiation, Endocrinology of gestation, Endocrinology of parturition, Physiology of puerperium, Physiology of equine reproduction, Physiology of caprine reproduction, Physiology of ovine reproduction, Physiology of canine reproduction, Physiology of feline reproduction


Table palpation and biometry of female reproductive organs, Live palpation and biometry of female reproductive organs, Demonstration of male reproductive organs, Demonstration of normal semen parameters, Demonstration of artificial insemination instruments, Practice of passing AI rod, Preparation of semen extenders, Evaluation of fresh and frozen thawed semen, Cumulus Oocyte Complexes (COC) aspiration and grading of oocytes, Demonstration of embryo transfer instruments.


  1. Senger, P.L., 2003. Pathways to pregnancy and parturition. 2nd Ed. Current Conceptions Inc. Pullman USA.

Recommended Books:

  1. Hafez, E.S.E. and B. Hafez, 2000. Reproduction in Farm Animals. 7th Ed. Lippincott, USA

  2. Salisbury, G.W., N.L. Van Demark and J.R. Lodge, 1985. Physiology of Reproduction and AI. 2nd Ed, CBS India

  3. Penner, P., R. Ed Empringham and P.A. Watson, 1993. Bovine AI Technical Manual. 2nd Ed, Ontario, Canada

Learning outcomes:
At the end of the course, students will be able to:

  1. Describe systemic states induced by various disease processes in animal’s body.

  2. Explain clinical manifestations and principles of treatment infectious and non-infectious conditions/diseases of different body organs and/or systems.

  3. Restrain animals for clinical examination.

  4. Perform clinical examination procedures, analyze information, diagnose, and prescribe.

  5. Demonstrate different routes of drug administration in different animal species.


History and scope of veterinary medicine, Concept of animal diseases, General terminology used in veterinary medicine; General Systemic states: Fever, Hyperthermia, Hypothermia, Toxemia/Septicemia, Bacteremia/Viremia, Shock, Hypersensitivity, Allergy/anaphylaxis; Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy; Diseases of alimentary system: Principles of alimentary dysfunction, Stomatitis/parotitis, Pharyngitis/esophagitis, Pharyngeal obstruction/esophageal obstruction, Colic, Gastritis, Vomiting, Peritonitis, Simple indigestion, vagal indigestion, Ruminal acidosis and alkalosis, Ruminal tympany/bloat, Diseases associated with hardwares/Traumatic reticuloperitonitis, Enteritis/diarrhoea, Left sided abomasal displacement, Neoplasms of alimentary tract; Diseases of liver and pancreas: Principles of hepatic dysfunction, Hepatitis, jaundice, Cholilithiasis, Pancreatitis, Diabetes mellitus; Diseases of cardiovascular system: Principles of circulatory failure, Pericarditis/traumatic pericarditis, Myocarditis/endocarditis, Acute heart failure, Congestive heart failure; Peripheral circulatory failure; Diseases of haemolymphatic and immune system: Disorders of white blood cells, Anemia, Oedema, Hemorrhage, Lymphadenopathy; Diseases of respiratory system: Principles of respiratory insufficiency, Rhinitis, Laryngitis/tracheitis/bronchitis, Pulmonary congestion and edema, Pneumonia/aspiration pneumonia, Pulmonary emphysema, Hydrothorax/ haemothorax/pneumothorax, Pleurisy, Epistaxis/haemoptysis; Diseases of nervous system: Principles of nervous dysfunction, Meningitis, Encephalitis, Encephalomalacia, Traumatic injury to brain and spinal cord, Focal diseases of brain; Diseases of renal system: Principles of renal insufficiency, Nephritis, Nephrosis, Pyelonephritis, Cystitis, Urolithiasis; Diseases of musculoskeletal system: Myositis, Myopathy, Arthritis/synovitis, Arthropathy Osteomyelitis, Osteomalacia, Osteodystrophy; Diseases of integumentary system: Pitryasis, hyperkeratosis, Parakeratosis, Patchyderma, Urticarial, Seborrhea, Dermatitis, Photosensitization, Tumors and cysts of skin; Diseases of eye: Ophthalmic manifestations of systemic diseases, Conjunctivitis and keratoconjuctivitis, Cataract, Glaucoma; Diseases of ear: Otitis, Ear hematoma


Orientation of Veterinary Clinics, Animal restraint, History taking, Clinical examination of individual animal and herd (General examination, Physical examination), Recording cardinal signs of health (temperature, pulse rate, respiration rate), Rectal examination (Palpation of pelvic/abdominal organs of cattle, buffalo, horse etc.), Art of prescription writing, Methods of drug administration (oral, parenteral, topical), Passing of stomach tube, probing, urinary catheter, trocar and cannula etc., Special examination, clinical manifestations and principles of treatment of alimentary system, respiratory system, nervous system, cardiovascular system, musculoskeletal system, renal system, integumentary system, eye, ear and bovine udder.


  1. Radostitis, O.M., C.C. Gay, K.W. Hincheliff and P. D. Constable. 2007. A Text Book of Veterinary Medicine, 10th Ed. Saunders Elsevier, PA, USA.

Recommended Books:

  1. Kelly, W. R., 1984. Veterinary Clinical Diagnosis. 3rd Ed. Bailliere Tindall & Corsell, London, UK.

  2. Kahn C.M., 2010. The Merck Veterinary Manual. 10th Ed. Merch & Company., INC, Whitehouse Station, N.J., USA.

  3. Pinsent, P.J.N. and C.J. Fulle, 1997. Outline of Clinical Diagnosis in Horse. Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK.

  4. Howard J.L, 1999. Current Veterinary Therapy, Food Animal Practice. W.B. Saunders, Co., USA.

  5. Hungerford. T.G., 1991, Hungerford’s Diseases of Livestock 9th Ed. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Sydney, Australia.

This course is aimed at:

1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies

2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization

3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships

4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.
Detail of Courses:
Introduction to Quranic Studies

  1. Basic Concepts of Quran

  2. History of Quran

  3. Uloom-ul-Quran

Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran

  1. Verses of Surah Al-Baqara Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286)

  2. Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi

(Verse No-1-18)

  1. Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11)

  2. Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.63-77)

  3. Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam (Verse No-152-154)

Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran

  1. Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.6, 21, 40, 56, 57, 58.)

  2. Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18,19,20) Related to thinking, Day of Judgment

  3. Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar, Tadabar (Verse No-1,14)

Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.A.W) I

  1. Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood)

  2. Life of Holy Prophet (S.A.W) in Makkah

  3. Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah

Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.A.W) II

  1. Life of Holy Prophet (S.A.W) in Madina

  2. Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina

  3. Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina

Introduction to Sunnah

  1. Basic Concepts of Hadith

  2. History of Hadith

  3. Kinds of Hadith

  4. Uloom –ul-Hadith

  5. Sunnah & Hadith

  6. Legal Position of Sunnah

Selected Study from Text of Hadith
Introduction to Islamic Law & Jurisprudence

  1. Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence

  2. History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence

  3. Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence

  4. Nature of Differences in Islamic Law

  5. Islam and Sectarianism

Islamic Culture & Civilization

  1. Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization

  2. Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization

  3. Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization

  4. Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues

Islam & Science

  1. Basic Concepts of Islam & Science

  2. Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science

  3. Quran & Science

Islamic Economic System

  1. Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System

  2. Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics

  3. Islamic Concept of Riba

  4. Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce

Political System of Islam

  1. Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System

  2. Islamic Concept of Sovereignty

  3. Basic Institutions of Govt. in Islam

Islamic History

  1. Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida

  2. Period of Ummayyads

  3. Period of Abbasids

Social System of Islam

  1. Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam

  2. Elements of Family

  3. Ethical Values of Islam

Reference Books:

  1. Hameed ullah Muhammad, “Emergence of Islam” , IRI,


2) Hameed ullah Muhammad, “Muslim Conduct of State

3) Hameed ullah Muhammad, ‘Introduction to Islam

  1. Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi,”

5) Hussain Hamid Hassan, “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad, Pakistan.

6) Ahmad Hasan, “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research

Institute, International Islamic University, Islamabad (1993)

7) Mir Waliullah, “Muslim Jurisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes”

Islamic Book Service (1982)

8) H. S. Bhatia, “Studies in Islamic Law, Religion and Society” Deep & Deep

Publications New Delhi (1989)

9) Dr. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama

Iqbal Open University, Islamabad (2001)
ETHICS 1 (1-0)
Learning outcomes:
At the end of the course, students will be able to:

  1. Define ethics and describe ethical teaching of world religions

  2. Describe ethics to be followed in business, biomedical, society, and interactions with animal


Definition, scope and nature of ethics, development of ethical theory, ethical teachings of world religions, promotion of moral values through family and institutions, general review of moral standard as duty and happiness with reference to Kant and Mill, general review of business ethics, profits and ethics, ethics of stakeholders, general review of biomedical ethics, ethical implications of euthanasia (ethics of care), ethical implications of abortion, general review of ethics and ecology, the right to liveable environment and animals.

Recommended Books:

1. William, L.A., 1982. Introduction to Ethics, Mathuen & Co. Ltd., London, UK.

2. Garewal, S. M., 1985. Pakistan Way of Life and Culture. United Ltd., Lahore, Pakistan

3. Joseph, G., 1984 What the Great Religions Believe, New American Library, New York, USA.

Learning outcomes:
At the end of the course, students will be able to:

  1. Define and describe the basics of zoonotic diseases and principles of food safety

  2. Describe laws and regulations impacting food animal, processing industries and food consumers

  3. Describe approaches to microbiological and physical foodborne hazard identification, testing and sampling; and foodborne hazard prevention and control.

  4. Describe the route(s) of transmission of major zoonotic diseases, individual and population prevention and control methods for major zoonotic diseases.


Introduction to zoonoses and its classification, Impact of zoonotic diseases on human health and economy, Global prevalence of zoonotic diseases, Role of veterinarians in preventing zoonotic diseases, Zoonoses: Viral, Bacterial, Parasitic and Fungal, Companion animals and zoonoses, Handling of zoonotic diseases (e.g. wool sorter’s diseases), Regulations regarding zoonotic diseases. Food safety as global issue, Foodborne disease surveillance and outbreak investigation, Food safety monitoring, Drug Resistance and food safety, Surveillance and reporting of food borne illness, Hygienic handling and processing of milk and meat products. Water, Milk- and Meat-borne diseases, Microbiological standards of water, milk, meat, eggs and their by-products, Intoxications associated with food products of animal origin, Residues in food products of animal origin, WTO standards, Importance and need of Communication with media, Role of national and international agencies in controlling emerging and re-emerging diseases, HACCP certification, ISO 22000 and Global Gap program for food safety.


Collection, transportation and bacteriological examination of water, milk, eggs and meat samples, Qualitative standards for food safety certification of milk and meat, Quantitative standards, most probable number (MPN) and plate count (APC), Testing of residues (Antibiotics, heavy metals etc), Isolation and identification of pathogens from milk products and molecular diagnostic methods for food pathogens, Schematic sketch for isolation and characterization of bacteria, Screening and diagnosis of brucellosis, Screening and diagnosis of Tuberculosis, Screening and diagnosis of mastitis, Identification of adulteration in milk samples, Visits to Milk processing plant, Visits to Abattoir, Data collection and analysis of food borne illness.


  1. Hartmurt, K., 2009. Zoonoses, 3rd Edition, ASM press, USA.

Recommended Books:

  1. Morris, J. G. and M.E. Potter, 2013. Foodborne Infections and Intoxications. 4th ed. Academic Press. USA

  2. Rahman, H., L. R. Chatlod and Z.B. Dubal, 2011. Veterinary public health, New trends. Biotech Books, India

  3. Pedro, N. A. and S. Boris, 2003. Zoonoses and communicable diseases common to man and animals. 3rd Edition. Pan American Health Organization. USA.

Learning outcomes:
At the end of the course, students will be able to:

  1. Describe current status, challenges and potential of dairy production in Pakistan.

  2. Describe modern management systems for enhancement of clean milk production.

  3. Run a successful dairy enterprise through modern management techniques and practices.


Present status of dairy production in Pakistan; Breeds of local, exotic and crossbred dairy animals; Production systems; Principles of profitable dairy farming; Planning for establishing a dairy farm; management of calves, young stock, dry, pregnant, transition and lactating animals; bull management; housing, welfare and behaviour of dairy animals; reproductive management of dairy animals; farm mechanization; feeding management of dairy animals; heat stress management; biosecurity, hygiene and farm waste management; common ailments, prophylaxis and keeping dairy animals healthy; hygienic milk production and parlour management; mastitis control; marketing of animals, milk and milk products, record keeping, data analysis, report preparation and economic appraisal of a dairy farm.


Identification/demonstration of characteristics of local, exotic and crossbred animals; judging and scoring of dairy animals; farm management practices for calves, young stock, dry and lactating animals; observation of animal behaviour and cow signals; heat detection practices, pregnancy diagnosis; milking practice and milk analysis; preparation of housing plans for small, medium and large dairy farms; observation and assessment of housing environment; feed preparation practices; cleaning, sanitation and biosecurity measures in farm premises; preparation of feasibility reports; fodder production and preservation practices; record keeping and farm management software.


  1. Thomas, C.K., N.S.R. Sastry and G. Ravikiran, 2012. Dairy Bovine Production. Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi

Recommended Books:

  1. Donald, B., L. Frank, N. Dickinson and H.A. Tucker, 1985. Dairy cattle: Principles, Practices, Problems, Profits. 3rd Ed. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia.

  2. Khan, B.B (Ed.)., 2008. Health and Husbandry of Dairy Animals. Pak. T.M. Printers, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

  3. Riaz, M., S.H. Raza, M. Lateef and M. Yaqoob, 2006. Principles and Practices in Livestock Management (1st Ed.), Pak TM Printers, Faisalabad.

  4. Ensminger, M.E., 1990. Dairy Cattle Science. The Interstate Printers and Publishers Inc., Danville, Illinois, USA.

  5. Khan, M.A., 2009. Buffalo; The Animal of Future. Idara Matbooat-i- Sulaimani, Urdu Bazar Lahore.

Learning outcomes:
At the end of the course, students will be able to:

  1. Explain the importance of reproductive biotechnologies and their status in Pakistan

  2. Describe steps involved in semen preservation, semen evaluation and cryopreservation.

  3. Elaborate different estrus synchronization programs and their field applications

  4. Define and explain Embryo transfer (ET), In vitro embryo production (IVEP), In vitro Fertilization (IVF), Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)

  5. Exemplify and describe advanced reproductive biotechnologies


Introduction to biotechnology, Estrous cycle and estrus detection, Basics of estrus synchronization, Application of estrus synchronization, Basics of cryopreservation, Consequences of freezing-thawing, History and status of artificial insemination, Techniques of artificial insemination, Breeding soundness examination, Progeny testing program, Basics of reproductive ultrasonography, Application of reproductive ultrasonography, Introduction to embryo transfer technology, Selection of donors and superovulation, Embryo collection and evaluation, Selection of recipients and embryo transfer, Introduction to in vitro technologies, Oocytes collection and grading, In-vitro maturation of oocytes, In-vitro fertilization and ICSI, In-vitro culture of embryos, Assisted reproductive technologies, Applications of assisted reproduction, Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, Introduction to animal cloning, Application of animal cloning, Gender selection via semen sexing, Gender selection via embryo sexing, Introduction to stem cells technology, Application of embryonic stem cells, Introduction to therapeutic cloning, Introduction to transgenesis in domestic animals


  1. Gordon, I., 1996. Controlled reproduction in cattle and buffaloes. Published by CAB International Willingford, UK

Recommended Books:

  1. Meredith, M.J. (Ed), 1995. Animal breeding and infertility. 1st edition Blackwell publishers, Berlin, Germany

  2. Senger, P.L., 2003. Pathways to pregnancy and parturition. 2nd Ed. Current Conceptions Inc. Pullman USA

Learning outcomes:
At the end of the course, students will be able to:

  1. Characterize the etiology, epidemiology, and clinical manifestations of infectious diseases of ruminants and equines.

  2. Describe the main transmission routes for infectious diseases, including animal-human, human-animal, vector-borne, water-borne, and air-borne cycles.

  3. Explain mechanism of development/pathogenesis of diseases caused by different infectious agents in ruminants and equines

  4. Principles and tools for proper diagnosis and differential diagnosis of infectious diseases of animals.

  5. Demonstration of treatment protocols of diseases associated with different pathogenic organisms in animals.

  6. Describe interventions used to control and prevent disease, and improve animal health at the individual and herd level.

Theory :

While etiology and pathogenesis are reviewed, emphasis will be given on clinical signs, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment, control and prevention.
Diseases associated with Streptococcus species: (Strangles, Neonatal Streptococcal infection); Diseases associated with Staphylococcus species: (Tick pyemia of lambs); Diseases associated with Corynebacterium species: (Contagious bovine pyelonephritis, Caseous lymphadenitis of sheep and goats, Ulcerative lymphangitis of horses and cattle, Contagious acne of horses); Diseases associated with Listeria species: (Listeriosis); Diseases associated with Bacillus species: (Anthrax); Diseases associated with Clostridium species: (Tetanus, Botulism, Blackleg, Malignant edema, Infectious necrotic hepatitis, Bacillary hemoglobinuria, Enterotoxemia); Diseases associated with Escherichia coli (Acute undifferentiated diarrhea of newborn farm animals, Collibacillosis); Diseases associated with Salmonella species: (Salmonellosis); Diseases associated with Pasteurella species: (Septicemic pasteurellosis (HS), Bovine respiratory disease, Pneumonic pasteurellosis (Shipping fever); Diseases associated with Brucella species: (Brucellosis); Diseases associated with Morexilla species: (Infectious keratitis of cattle); Diseases associated with Mycobacterium species: (Tuberculosis, Jonhe’s disease); Diseases associated with Actinomyces spp. Actinobacillus spp., Dermatophilus spp. (Actinomycosis, Actinobacillosis, Dermatophilosis); Diseases associated with Fusobacterium and Bacteroides spp.: (Necrobacillosis, Bovine digital dermatitis, Infectious foot rot); Diseases associated with Pseudomonas and Burkholderia spp.: ( Fleece rot in sheep, Glanders); Diseases associated with Leptospira spp.: (Leptospirosis); Diseases associated with Mycoplasma spp.: (Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, Contagious agalactia in sheep and goats, Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia, Mycoplasmal arthritis in cattle); Diseases of mammary glands: (Mastitis, Udder edema, blood in milk, Viral lesions of udder and teat); Viral diseases with manifestations attributable to involvement of body as whole: (Equine infectious anemia, Bovine ephemeral fever, African horse sickness, Rift valley fever); Viral disease characterized by alimentary tract signs: (Foot and mouth disease, Vesicular stomatitis, Rinderpest, Peste des petits ruminants, Malignant catarrhal fever, Bovine virus diarrhea/mucosal disease, Viral diarrhea in calves, lambs, kids and foals, Winter dysentery in cattle, Bluetongue); Viral diseases characterized by respiratory signs: (Viral infections of the upper respiratory tract of horses, Equine herpes virus infection, Equine viral arteritis, Equine influenza, Enzootic pneumonia of calves, Bovine respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia, Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis); Viral diseases characterized by nervous signs: (Viral encephalomyelitis of horses, Rabies, Pseudorabies, Sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis, Ovine encephalomyelitis, Caprine arthritis encephalitis); Viral diseases characterized by skin lesions: (Contagious ecthyma, Lumpy skin disease, Cowpox/Sheeppox/goatpox/Horsepox); Diseases associated with prions: (Scrapie, Bovine spongiform encephalopathy); Diseases associated with Rickettsiales: (Anaplasmosis, Tick-born fever, Equine granulocytic Anaplasmosis, Potomac horse fever, Q Fever, Lyme disease); Diseases associated with algae and fungi: (Aspergillosis, candidiasis, Ringworm); Diseases associated with protozoa: (Babesiosis, Theileriosis, Coccidiosis, Neosporosis, Cryptosporidiosis, Toxoplasmosis,); Disease associated with Trypanosomes: (Nagana /Surra, Dourine); Nematode diseases of the alimentary tract:{(Parasitic gastroenteritis in ruminants, Strongylosis in horses, Miscellaneous roundworm infestation (Oxyuris equi, Strongyloides , Trichuris)}; Nematode diseases of other organs: (Lungworm); Nematode induced skin conditions: (Summer sores in horses, Filarial dermatitis/Parafilariosis); Nematodes affecting eye: (Thalezia); Diseases associated with trematodes and cestodes: (Fasciolosis, Stomach fluke disease , Adult and larval tapeworm infestation, GID); Diseases associated with arthropod parasites: (Stomach bot, Nasal bots, Warble flies, Sheep ked, Tick infestations, Stable flies, Horse flies, Biting midges); Mite infestation: (Demodectic mange, Sarcoptic mange, Psoroptic mange, Chorioptic mange):

  1. Radostitis, O.M., C.C. Gay, K.W. Hincheliff and P. D. Constable, 2007. Veterinary Medicine, 10th Ed. Saunders Elsevier, PA, USA.

Recommended Books:

  1. Kahn C.M., 2010. The Merck Veterinary Manual. 10th Ed. Merch & Company., INC, Whitehouse Station, N.J., USA.

  2. Matin W. B. and I. D. Ait Isen, 2000. Diseases of Sheep, 3rd Ed. Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK.

  3. Howard J.L, 1999. Current Veterinary Therapy, Food Animal Practice. W.B. Saunders, Co., USA.

  4. Rebhum, W.C., 1998. Diseases of Dairy Cattle, Williams and Willkins, Baltimore, USA.

  5. Smith B.P., 1996. Large Animal Internal Medicine. 2nd Ed. The Mosby Co. Philadelphia U.S.A.

  6. Hungerford. T.G., 1991. Hungerford’s Diseases of Livestock 9th Ed. McGraw Hill Book Company, Sydney, Australia.

  7. Morgan R.V., 1997. Handbook of Small Animal Practice. 3rd Ed. W.B. Saunders Company, PA, USA.

Learning outcomes:
At the end of the course, students will be able to:

  1. Differentiate between meat of different animals

  2. Evaluate meat for wholesomeness

  3. Describe the cause of death and pathological lesions.

  4. Demonstrate understanding of vetro-legal cases


Food animals, slaughter house / abattoir management, Halal meat industry, objectives of meat inspection, antemortem and postmortem examination of animals, non-specific and specific lesions in different organs of body, rigor mortis, conditions rendering meat unwholesome for human consumption, judgment of carcass, disposal of condemned meat, laws regulating meat quality in Pakistan, differentiation of meat of different animals, recognition of contagious and zoonotic diseases associated with abattoirs, differentiation between lesion and postmortem changes, postmortem of large, small, poultry and wild animals, diagnostic features of accidental and infectious causes of death, single and group animal death features, importance of forensic veterinary pathology, laws governing forensic examination of animals.


Meat inspection procedure, wholesomeness of carcass, techniques for differentiation of meat of different species of animals, laboratory tests for evaluation of wholesome meat, examination of live and dead animals in forensic cases, necropsy techniques, safety measures to be observed while performing necropsy, disposal of carcasses suspected to be suffering from contagious and zoonotic diseases, visits to slaughter house / abattoir for examining, processing (meat by-products) and further processing (value addition) technologies.


  1. Gracey, J.F., 2014. Meat Hygiene.11th Edition. The English Language Book Society, Bailliere Tindal, London U.K.

  2. Cooper, J.E., M.E. Cooper, 2007. Introduction to Veterinary and Comparative Forensic Medicine. Wiley-Blackwell, USA.

Recommended Books:

  1. Herenda, D.C. and D.A. Franco. 1991. Food Animal Pathology and Meat Hygiene. Mosby Year Book. London.

  2. FAO, 2000. Manual on meat inspection for developing countries, 2nd Ed., Vol. 119, Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations, Rome, Italy.

  3. Grist, A., 2004. Poultry Inspection: Anatomy, Physiology and Disease condition, 2nd Ed., Nottingham University Press.

Learning outcomes:
At the end of the course, the student will be able to:

  1. Describe basics of plain and contrast radiographic techniques.

  2. Diagnose different medical and surgical ailments through radiographic presentations as seen on radiographs.

  3. Demonstrate practical skills in general abdominal sonography.

  4. Demonstrate practical skills for performing a survey radiographic exposure and film processing.


Scope of diagnostic imaging in veterinary practice; Radiographic terminology and basic principles to study radiographs; Nature and production of X-rays; Radiographic image formation; Radiographic hazards and protection; Radiography of the skeletal system; Plain and Contrast radiography of Urinary System; Plain and Contrast radiography of Gastro-intestinal System; Plain and Contrast radiography of Respiratory System; Principles of Diagnostic Ultrasound including indications and techniques; Ultrasound Artifacts; Sonography of the General Abdomen: Liver, Pancreas, Adrenals and Spleen; Sonographic features of Gastrointestinal Tract; Sonographic features of Urinary Tract & Reproductive Tract; Sonography of Musculoskeletal System; Sonographic features of Eye and Orbit; Imaging of Heart and Doppler Ultrasound; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI); CT Scan.


X-ray machine and its working; Dark room requirements and maintenance; Exposure factors and processing of films; Contrast Radiography techniques; Examination and evaluation of radiographs; Techniques for radiography of appendicular and axial skeleton; Imaging of the general abdomen; Imaging of liver and spleen; Imaging of gastrointestinal tract and pancreas; Imaging of urinary tract; Imaging of reproductive tract; Imaging of musculoskeletal system; Imaging of head; Imaging of cardiovascular system; Use of ultrasonography equipment; Imaging of clinical cases presented to the clinics of the Department.


  1. Thrall, D.E., 2002. Textbook of Veterinary Diagnostic Radiology. 4th ed. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, USA.

Recommended Books:

  1. Penninck, D., and M-A d’ Anju, 2008. Atlas of Small Animal Ultrasonography. Blackwell Publishing Co., Oxford. UK.

  2. Mannion, P., 2006. Diagnostic Ultrasound in Small Animal Practice. Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford, UK.

  3. Kealy, J. K., and H. McAllister, 2004. Diagnostic Radiology and Ultrasonography of the Dog and Cat. 4th ed. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, USA

  4. Farrow, C. S., 2003. Veterinary Diagnostic Imaging: the Dog and Cat. Mosby Inc., W. B. Saunders Co. Ltd., USA.

  5. Cartee, R. E., B. A. Selcer, J. A. Hudson, S. T. Finn-Bodner, M. B. Mahaffey, P. L. Johnson and K. W. Marich, 1995. Practical Veterinary Ultrasound. Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, USA.

  6. Singh, A. P., and J. Singh. 1995. Veterinary Radiology. CBS Publishers & Distributors, New Delhi, India.

Learning outcomes:
At the end of the course, students will be able to:

  1. Perform disease diagnosis and treatment of clinical cases of alimentary, respiratory, cardiovascular, hemopoietic and lymphatic systems in small and large animals.

  2. Exhibit social behaviors with colleagues, clients, and patients consistent with those expected of a member of the veterinary community. Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the societal responsibilities of veterinarians locally, nationally and globally

  3. Demonstrate basic knowledge and understanding of first aid and emergency care of animal diseases.

  4. Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the rationale use of therapeutics and their availability in the market.

  5. Demonstrate basic knowledge and understanding of disposal of biomedical wastes in veterinary hospitals and associated hazards.

  6. Development of core competencies in clinical case recording.


Exercises in diagnosis and treatment of clinical cases of diseases of alimentary system, respiratory system, cardiovascular system, hemopoietic and lymphatic system in livestock and pets, Communication skills (Veterinarian-client interaction), First aid procedures and emergency medicine, Practice of feeding of sick animals, Practical antimicrobial therapy/rationale therapeutics, Generic and trade names of drugs along with their doses, Disposal of biomedical wastes in veterinary hospitals, Hazards of biomedical wastes and their impact on environment, Basic concept of civic engagement, Deworming procedure and doses for different species of animals/pets/birds, Professional development and social responsibilities of veterinarian, Preparation of case records, case follow up etc., Recording of minimum 10 cases at pet center under the supervision of teacher and making a presentation after consulting veterinary information resources like journals, books and internet etc., Study tours to livestock farms and Veterinary Hospitals.

Recommended Books:

  1. Radostitis, O.M., C.C. Gay, K.W. Hincheliff and P. D. Constable., 2007. Veterinary Medicine, 10th Ed. Saunders Elsevier, PA, USA.

  2. Kelly, W. R., 1984. Veterinary Clinical Diagnosis. 3rd Ed. Bailliere Tindall & Corsell, London, U. K.

  3. Kahn C.M., 2010. The Merck Veterinary Manual. 10th Ed. Merch & Company., INC, Whitehouse Station, N.J., USA.

  4. Pinsent, P.J.N. and C.J. Fulle, 1997. Outline of Clinical Diagnosis in Horse. Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK.

  5. Howard J.L, 1999. Current Veterinary Therapy, Food Animal Practice. W.B. Saunders, Co., U.S.A.

  6. Hungerford. T.G., 1991, Hungerford’s Diseases of Livestock 9th Ed. McGraw Hill Book Company, Sydney, Australia.

  7. Smith B.P., 1990. Large Animal Internal Medicine. The C.V. Mosby Company, Baltimore.

Learning outcomes:
At the end of the course, students will be able to:

  1. Perform general examination of the clinical cases of different animals

  2. Perform medication of traumatic animals

  3. Demonstrate clinical procedures to treat animals.


General Examination, Asepsis & Antiseptics, Wound management, Antiseptics used in clinics, Bandages and bandaging techniques, Routes of Drug administration, Animal Chipping.

Students will be required to record a minimum of 10 clinical cases (history taking, clinical findings, laboratory investigation, diagnosis, differential diagnosis treatment and discussion) in each clinic case under the supervision of a teacher.
Recommended Books:

  1. Venugopalan, A. 2000. Essentials of Veterinary Surgery. 8th ed. Oxford and IBH Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi, India.

  2. Kumar, A. 1997. Veterinary Surgical Techniques. Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi, India.

  3. Harari, J. 1993. Surgical Complications and Wound Healing in the Small Animal Practice, W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, USA.

  4. Kelly, W. R. 1984. Veterinary Clinical Diagnosis. 3rd Ed. Bailliere Tindall, London, UK.

Learning outcomes:
At the end of the course, students will be able to:

  1. Explain the importance of history taking for a clinical case.

  2. Describe the protocol for approaching clinical cases at reproduction clinic


Steps to identify a clinical case of reproduction, Approach to clinical case and pre-requisites for handling, Palpation & identification of female reproductive system on table, Technique of rectal palpation in domestic animals, Identification of parts of reproductive tract in live animals, Identification of ovarian structures in live animals, Determination of stage of estrus cycle in live animals, Development of models for estrus detection, Selection of a bull for breeding, Functioning of Semen Production Units.

Recommended Books:

  1. Zemjenis, R., 1970. Diagnostic & Therapeutic Techniques in Animal Reproduction. Williams & Wilkins Company, Baltimore

  2. Morrow, D.A., 1986. Current Therapy in Theriogenology, II. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia

  3. Ahmad, M. and M.A. Saji, 1997. Manual for Breeding Soundness of Dairy Bulls for use in A.I. Livestock and Dairy development Department, 16-Cooper Road, Lahore

Learning outcomes:
At the end of the course, students will be able to:

  1. Describe current status of meat production in Pakistan.

  2. Identify indigenous and exotic breeds,

  3. Describe appropriate and cost effective management, feeding and processing system of meat production.

  4. Establish a successful meat production unit through application of modern management techniques and practices.


Status of meat production in Pakistan, issues and potential of meat industry in Pakistan, meat type breeds of farm animals, meat production systems, factors affecting carcass and meat quality; management of meat animals, feeding management for optimum growth, grazing systems, management and supplementary feeding, growth rate and fattening potential of male calves, feed additives, hormones and probiotics for growth, management during inclement weather. breeding and reproduction of meat animals, modern abattoirs, slaughtering methods and post slaughter changes in carcass, carcass grades and spoilage of meat, meat hygiene, storage and preservation, Establishing commercial beef/mutton farms, record keeping, data handling and feasibility reports, keeping herd/flock healthy.


Meat Production Systems, practical demonstrations on early feeding, raising orphan and multiple birth lambs/kids, Creep feeding, dehorning, castration and weaning; preparing beef animals for shows, dentition for age determination; practical tips for housing of beef animals, feasibility reports for beef/mutton production; ante-mortem inspection, Carcass evaluation, Carcass grades and cuts, Beef grades, Shearing and handling wool. Vaccination schedule for meat animals; maintenance of farm records; visit to farms, abattoir and market.


  1. Alvi, A. S., 1991. Meat Production and Technology in Pakistan, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad.

Recommended Books:

  1. Ensminger, M. E., 1996. Beef Cattle Science. The Interstate Printers and Publisher, Danville, Illinois, USA.

  2. Mackintosh, J.B., 1983. Sheep production in Pakistan, PARC, Islamabad.

  3. Anwar, A. H., 1996. Meat Hygiene and Inspection. Dept. Veterinary Parasitology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.

  4. Ensminger, M.E. and R.O. Parker, 1986. Sheep and Goat Science. Interstate Printers and publishers Inc. Danville, Illinois. USA.

  5. Steel, M., 1996. Goats. McMillan Education Ltd. London

  6. Devendra, C. and George B. McLeroy, 1982. Goat and sheep production in the tropics. Longman Group, the University of Wisconsin – Madison.

Learning outcomes:
At the end of the course, students will be able to:

        1. Describe the etiology, epidemiology, and clinical manifestations of metabolic disorders, deficiency diseases, plant/chemical toxicities and animal poisons in livestock and pets.

  1. Elucidate process of development of metabolic disorders and ill effects of nutritional deficiencies, plant/chemical toxins on animal’s body.

  2. Principles and tools for proper diagnosis and differential diagnosis of non-infectious diseases of animals.

  3. Demonstration of treatment protocols for metabolic and deficiency diseases in veterinary practice and use of different specific antidotes against plant and chemical toxicities.

  4. Describe interventions used to control and prevent disease, and improve animal at the individual and herd level.

  5. Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the infectious and non-infectious diseases of camels, dogs, cats and poultry.


While etiology and pathogenesis are reviewed, emphasis will be given on clinical signs, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment, control and prevention.
Metabolic diseases: (Parturient paresis, Downer cow syndrome, Lactation tetany of mares, Hypomagnesemic tetany, Ketosis, Pregnancy toxemia in sheep, Postparturient hemoglobinuria in cattle, Sporadic acute exertional rhabdomyolysis in horses, Atypical myopathy in grazing horses, Equine cushing’s disease); Diseases associated with nutritional deficiencies: (Cobalt deficiency, Copper deficiency, Iodine deficiency, Iron deficiency, Zinc deficiency, Manganese deficiency, Selenium and vitamin E deficiency, Dietary deficiency of phosphorus, calcium and vitamin D); Diseases associated with deficiencies of vitamins: (Vitamin A deficiency, Vitamin K deficiency, Thiamin deficiency, Riboflavin deficiency, Nicotinic acid deficiency, Pyridoxine deficiency, Pantothenic acid deficiency, Folic acid deficiency, Vitamin B12 deficiency); Diseases associated with physical agents: (Radiation injury, Lightening stroke and electrocution, Drowning, Frostbite); Diseases associated with inorganic and farm chemicals: (Lead poisoning, Arsenic poisoning, Selenium poisoning, Mercury poisoning, Copper poisoning, Sodium chloride poisoning, Zinc poisoning, Poisoning by anthelmintics, Organophosphates poisoning); Diseases associated with toxins in plants and animals: (Cyanogenic glycoside poisoning, Nitrate and nitrite poisoning, Bracken fern poisoning, Snakebite, Bee stings, Tick paralysis); Poisoning by mycotoxins: (Aflatoxicosis, Deg Nala disease); Diseases associated with allergy: (Autoimmune hemolytic anemia of the newborn, Pupura hemorrhagica);

Diseases of dogs and cats: (Leptospirosis, Rabies, Canine distemper, Infectious canine hepatitis, Borreliosis, Canine ehrlichiosis, Lahore canine fever, Parvovirus infection, Feline panleukopenia, Feline calcivirus infection, Ringworms, Ecto and endo parasitism);

Diseases of camel: (Trypanosomiasis, Filariasis, Mali, Kapauli, Contagious necrosis of skin, Kumree, Vail, Specific peritonitis, Meningitis, Camel pox, Influenza, Hemorrhagic disease, ecto and endo parasitism)

Diseases of poultry: {(Viral diseases:Newcastle disease, Avian influenza, Fowl pox, Marek’s disease, Lymphoid leucosis, Infectious bursal disease, Egg drop syndrome, Infectious laryngotracheitis, Infectious bronchitis, Hydropericardium syndrome, Inclusion body hepatitis, Avian infectious anemia, Femur head necrosis)}; {(Bacterial Diseases: Salmonellosis, Infectious coryza, Mycoplasmosis, Spirochaetosis, Fowl cholera, Colibacillosis, Staphylococcal, streptococcal and clostridial diseases)}; {(Fungal Diseases: Brooder’s pneumonia, Thrush, Mycotoxicosis)}; {(Parasitic Diseases: Diseases caused by protozoa, nematodes, cestodes and arthropods)}; {(Nutritional Diseases: Deficiencies/imbalances of vitamins, minerals, proteins and other nutrients)}; {(Miscellaneous Conditions: Poisoning and intoxications, Heat stress, Cannibalism)}:

  1. Radostitis, O.M., C.C. Gay, K.W. Hincheliff and P. D. Constable., 2007. Veterinary Medicine, 10th Ed. Saunders Elsevier, PA, USA.

Reference Books:

  1. Kahn C.M. 2010. The Merck Veterinary Manual. 10th Ed. Merch & Company., INC, Whitehouse Station, N.J., USA.
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