The microenvironment of the progenitor cell favors differential development of what two cell series?
Granulocytic (myeloid) series
In addition to the differentiation of granulocytes and monocytes, what also stimulates specific differentiation such as the development of eosinophils?
Colony Stimulating Factor
The development, distribution, and destruction of neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils are collectively referred to as what?
What location in the body do neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils begin as multipotential cells?
What location in the body do these cells continue through the processes of differentiation, multiplication and maturation?
After developing into either band or segmented forms, mature cells enter into what location in the body?
What is the first identifiable cell in the granulocytic series?
Myeloblast make up what percentage of the total nucleated bone marrow cells?
How long does this stage last?
Approximately 15 hours
What cell in this this bone barrow stage lasts about 24 hours and is approximately 3% of the nucleated bone marrow cells?
This cell is approximately 12% of the proliferative cells existing in the bones marrow stage.
The stage from myelocyte to _______ last an average of 4.3 days. Once this stage has been reached, cells have undergone four or five cell divisions. The proliferative ends.
Once the cell line becomes committed to developing in to a myeloblast, the maturational development from the myeloblast through the myelocyte stage and the mitotic division take place in what is referred to as the bone marrow’s ______ ______. This is also called the mitotic pool and includes cells callable of DNA synthesis.
Following the proliferative stage, granulocytes enter a ____-_____ compartment .
The metamyelocytes and band forms mature into segmented granulocytes in this compartment of the bone marrow. The relative proportions of the cells are approximately 45%______, 34%_____, and 20%______, respectively.
35% Band from neutrophils
20% Segmented neutrophils
Segmented neutrophils in the maturation-storage compartment are frequently referred to as the ___ ___.
This constitutes a 4 to 8 day supply of neutrophils.
It is estimated that neutrophilic granulocytes normally remain in the maturation-storage phase for 7 to _ days.
7 to 10 days
Eosinophils remain for about 2.5 days. And basophils remain in this phase for the shortest period of approximately __ hours.
Certain characteristics and physiological regulators promote movement of the granulocytes through the ____ wall of the bone marrow, which, is normally an anatomical barrier.
As cells mature, they are able to move through the sinusoid of the bone marrow because of a ___ oversize cell size, a ___ nuclear cytoplasmic ratio, and ____ flexibility and mobility.
The peripheral blood circulation is subsequently divided into two pools of equal size. A ___ pool and a ___ pool.
The marginating granulocytes adhere to the ___ of the blood vessels.
Mature granulocytes in the peripheral blood are only in transit to their potential sites of action in the ___.
The process were movement of granulocytes from the circulation pool to the peripheral occur is called?
The average life span of segmented neutrophilic granulocyte in the circulating blood is about 7 to 10 hours. Once mature cells have migrated in to the tissues, their life spanis considered to be several days unless the cells encounter ___, ___, or ___.
antigens, toxins, or microorganisms
Eosinophils are in the peripheral blood for a few hours and are believed to reside in the ____ for several days.
Basophils have an average circulating time of about 8.5 hours. If excessive numbers of eosinophils are preens because of a disease state, damage or degenerated eosinophils give rise to ____-____ ____ found in the body secretions such as the sputum and stool.
If cells are not prematurely destroyed while defending the body, they sew sloughed off with various body secretions, such as the ___, ____, or
Two stages of granulocytes are observed ion the circulating blood. _____ form and ______ (polymorphonuclear) form.
segmented (polymorphonuclear) form
Both the band form of neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils and, in the final stage of maturation, the segmented neutrophils, and basophils are the cell forms normally found in the ___ ___.
Which mature form of granulocyte typically has an elongated nucleus?
Which mature form of granulocyte has a characteristic multilobed nucleus?
What are the antibacterial substances rich within the granules of segmented neutrophils?
Lysosomal hydrolases, Lysozyme, Myeloperoxidase
How do Eosinophilic granules differ from Neutrophilic granules?
Neutrophilic granules contain Lysozymes
What are the two types of Eosinophilic granules?
Small round granules and large crystalline granules
Which type of Eosinophilic granule does not contain crystalloids?
Small round granules
What are the characteristics of small round granules of mature Eosinophils?
Which test assesses the killing ability of granulocytes?
Nitroblue tetrazolium test (NBT)
How many lobes does a mature segemented neutrophil have?
Counting the number of lobes in a mature segmented neutrophil can be performed to determine the ______________?
Hypersegmentation index (NHI)
Conditions such as Sepsis and chronic nephritis will create a shift in what direction?
The NHI is clinically useful in the diagnosis of_________
B12 and folic acid deficiency
What are the three types of ways to calculate Neutrophilic Hypersegmentation Index?
Percentage of neutrophils with five or more lobes
This method of NHI calculations is determined counting the number of lobes in a number of neutrophils and dividing by the total number of neutrophils
This method of NHI calculations is done by counting the number of lobes in randomly selected segmented neutrophils. Add up the total number of lobes for each segmented neutrophils counted and divide by the total number of cells counted.
Percentage of neutrophils with five or more lobes
This method of NHI calculations uses a minimum of 200 segmented cells.
An NHI value greater than 16.9 indicates _________?
What kind of disorder of granulocytes range from general increases or decreases in the total leukocyte count?
Nonmalignant disorders of granulocytes
What is an example of a qualitative disorder of granulocytes