Health and wellness 1/2013 Health and wellness



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HEALTH AND WELLNESS 1/2013

Health and wellness

Chapter III


1Department of Dental Anatomy Medical University of Wroclaw

1Zakład Anatomii Stomatologicznej
Uniwersytetu Medycznego we Wrocławiu

2Chair and Department of Dentofacial Orthopedics and Orthodontics Medical University of Wroclaw

2Katedra i Zakład Ortopedii Szczękowej i Ortodoncji
Uniwersytetu Medycznego we Wrocławiu
PIOTR CZYRSKI1, MAREK PUŻYŃSKI1, BEATA KAWALA2, WIESŁAW KURLEJ1

An evaluation of posture and stomatognathic system disturbances in 6-year-old children

Ocena postawy ciała i zaburzeń układu stomatognatycznego

u sześcioletnich dzieci

Faulty posture may be observed in different periods of human life. The investigation of faulty posture in the preschool period is very important due to correction procedures in this range. Moreover, 6-year-old children observe the tendency to change milk teeth to adult ones which enhances the importance of posture evaluation in context of stomatognathic system disturbances. The evaluation of changes in stomatognathic system in context of other body disturbances is very relevant from the preventive point of view. There are many methods of evaluating the body posture, however there is a deficiency in proper norms for utilitarian purposes [1].

This paper aims at evaluating body posture and stomatognathic system disturbances in 6-year-old children. It also aims at finding associations between the body posture screened statically and dynamically by use of stabilogram, as well as establishing connections between these features and stomatognathic system disturbances.

MATERIAL AND METHODS


The research has been carried out among ninety 6-year-old children (45 boys and 45 girls) attending kindergarten in Siechnice. The most relevant morphological features of those children have been measured (weight and height) to state their BMI indicator. The research has been carried out in bright and warm room in the natural environment for preschool students. The device applied for research was posturographic net (10x10cm) used as a background for taking pictures. Children were told

to stand in their natural manner with their eyes oriented towards the digital camera placed 2m from them in tripod. The posture has been evaluated depending on the changeability of following features proposed by Kasperczyk [2], with personal modification:



  1. Head position has been evaluated on the following criteria: 0 - the face does not exceed the contour of breast bone, 1 - the face insignificantly exceeds the contour of breast bone, 2 - the face is forwarded and slanted downwards

  2. Shoulders position has been evaluated on the following criteria: 0 - the line consolidating shoulders exceeds the neck contour, 1 - shoulders position is slightly asymmetric and moved towards neck contour, 2 - shoulders position is very asymmetric and exceeds neck contour.

  3. Wing bones position has been evaluated on the following criteria: 0 - as the unified back surface, 1 - as sticking out from the back surface (the one-finger distance), 2 - as significantly sticking out from the surface.

  4. Chest position has been evaluated on the following criteria: 0 - at the level of the chest, the more forwarded part of human body, 1 - chest is flattened, 2 - chest is flattened with features of rachitis.

  5. Stomach position has been evaluated on the following criteria: 0 - flattened, 1 - protuberant but not exceeding the chest, 2 - exceeding the chest

  6. Kyphosis and lordosis configuration has been evaluated depending on its anomaly from slightly shaped outline (category - 0) as slightly enlarged (category - 1) and significantly enlarged (category - 2), or as slightly flattened (category - 1) or completely flattened (category - 2).

  7. Scoliosis has been evaluated on the following criteria: 0 - appropriate, 1 - slight, 2 - inappropriate.

  8. Knees position has been evaluated on the following criteria: 0 - appropriate, straight legs (knees and heels are joined), 1 - askew, knees are joined but feet are slightly remote (or the other way round), 2 - askew, knees are joined but knees are slightly remote (or the other way round)

  9. Foot arch has been evaluated on the following criteria; 0 - appropriate, 1 - quite flattened, 2 - very flattened.

The body posture has been precisely evaluated in the cervical-thoracic vertebrae through an analysis of pictures taken in a coronal plane. The measures have been based on the classical anthropometric points. [4] and body posture [6]. In the conducted survey, parents of those children have alternatively assessed the observance of: headaches; ears pains, spine pains, limbs pains (including paraesthesia). They also evaluated the observance of disparities based on external symptoms such as: thumb sucking, putting lips (tongue) back and forward; snoring (puffing) and gnashing of teeth during a sleep. They also assessed the accurateness, duration and manner of given birth (assistance - vacuum, Caesarean section). The professional stomatologist has evaluated the occurrence of alternatively morphological features of disparities: signs or scars of nibbling in oral muscous membrane, overgrowth of crestal bone, overgrowth of angle of mandible, improper abrasion of corona dentis, scalloping (the crest on the sides of tongue) [5]. Stabilographic analysis has been carried out by the use of stabilogram, and embraced the variables of body balance. Obtained information has been generated electronically [7]. The lack of norms in the range of stabilographic analysis has prodded into such research [3].


RESULTS

Table I. Statistic features of studied children (M - male, F - female)


Features

N



s

xmin

xmed

xmax

Age

F

45

6,3

1,9

5

6

8

M

45

6,2

1,6

5

6

8

Total

90

6,3

1,7

5

6

18

Height (cm)

F

45

115

10

99

116

130

M

45

115

10

95

115

125

Total

90

115

10

97

116

129

Weight (kg)

F

45

26

7,6

15

23

41

M

45

28

4,3

16

23

37

Total

90

27

5,9

16

23

39

BMI (kg/m2)

F

45

19,7

2,6

15,3

17,1

24,3

M

45

21,2

1,9

17,7

17,4

23,7

Total

90

20,4

2,3

17,0

17,1

23,4

Regarding all the features both groups of studied children (boys and girls) are homogeneous (tab. I)



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