Hazard Assessment and Personal Protective Equipment Reference Guide (osha)

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Hazard Assessment


Personal Protective Equipment

Reference Guide (OSHA)
What are some of the common causes of head injuries?

  • Impact to the head due to falling or flying objects.

  • Impact to the head due to falls.

  • Impact to the head due to walking into or raising up against objects.

How do the components of a typical hard hat protect the wearer against injury?

  • The rigid outer shell is designed to resist and deflect blows to the head.

  • The inner suspension (webbing) is designed to act as a shock absorber and to reduce the force transmitted to the wearer’s head.

How should hard hats be worn and maintained?

  • Adjust the inner suspension (webbing) of the hat so the hat sits comfortably, but securely on your head.

  • Wear hats with the brim to the front. Never wear the hat backwards, even if the suspension has been reversed.

  • Inspect the rigid outer shell of the hat for cracks, gouges and dents. Replace if damaged.

  • Inspect the inner suspension (webbing) for frayed or broken straps and components. Replace if damaged.

  • Clean the hard hat at least once a month (or as needed) to remove oil, grease, chemicals, and sweat.

  • Clean the hat by:

  • Soaking it in a solution of mild soap and warm water for 5-10 minutes.

  • Rinsing it with clear water.

  • Drying it by wiping with a clean cloth and air-drying.

  • Following the manufacturer's recommendations for cleaning, if different than above.

  • Store the hat in a clean, dry, and cool location because sunlight and heat can damage the suspension of the hat.

  • Never paint, scratch or drill “air holes” in the hat.

  • Never carry personal belongings such as cigarettes, lighters or pens in the hat.

What are some of the common causes of eye injuries?

  • The eye being struck by flying objects such as metal fragments, dust, debris, molten metal, slag, etc.

  • The eye being struck by swinging objects such as chains and ropes.

  • The eye being damaged as a result of one walking or falling into an object or projection.

  • The eye being splashed with chemicals, molten metal and other hazardous materials.

  • The eye viewing radiant energy sources from electric-arc welding operations.

How do the components of typical eye protection equipment protect the wearer against injury?

  • Safety glasses may look similar to regular glasses; however, safety glasses are much stronger and more resistant to impact and heat than regular glasses. In addition, safety glasses are equipped with side shields that provide protection from hazards that may not be directly in front of the wearer.

  • Goggles surround the eye area and provide more protection in situations where the wearer might encounter splashing liquids, fumes, vapors, powders, dusts, and mists. Goggles designated as chemical splash goggles are designed to provide protection against splashing hazards. Goggles designated as burning goggles with a minimum #5 shaded lens are designed to provide protection when performing oxygen/acetylene operations.

  • Face shields offer the wearer full face protection and are often used around operations that expose the wearer to molten metal, chemical splashes, or flying particles. Always wear safety glasses or goggles when using a face shield for added protection. Face shields alone are not considered adequate eye protection.

  • Welding helmets provide the wearer both face and eye protection. Welding helmets use special absorptive lenses that filter the intense light and radiant energy that is produced during electric-arc welding operations. Always wear safety glasses or goggles when using a welding helmet.

How should eye protection equipment be maintained?

  • Keep eye protection equipment clean and free from dust, oil, grease, etc.

  • Clean the eye protection equipment with mild soap and water. Special wipes that are designed for cleaning protective eye equipment can also be used. Never use abrasive soaps, rough paper, or cloth towels since these items will scratch and damage the equipment.

  • Always keep eye protection equipment in good working condition, repairing or replacing it if it becomes damaged.

  • Store eye protection equipment in a sanitary, cool, dry area away from moisture.

  • Always read the manufacturer's directions and warnings before using any eye protection equipment.

What precautions should be followed when wearing contact lens?

  • Contact lens should not be worn when using a full-face respirator.

  • Wear contacts with caution when working in areas where there might be exposure to fumes, dusts, powders, vapors, chemical splashes, molten metals, or intense heat, light or glare.

  • If any foreign material gets under a contact lens, take time to remove and clean the lens. (Follow the cleaning and caring instructions that are prescribed for the contact lens.)

  • Be aware that some chemicals can react with contact lens and cause permanent injury.

  • Keep an extra pair of contact lens or a pair of prescription glasses handy in case a contact lens is lost or damaged while at work.

What are some of the common causes of injury to the feet?

  • Impact from falling objects, equipment, etc.

  • Compression from rolling objects, machinery, etc.

  • Splashes and spills from acids, caustics and molten metal.

  • Slips, trips and falls due to lubricants, water, soaps, chemicals, trash, debris, etc.

How should foot protection equipment be selected and maintained?

  • Select and use the right kind of footwear for the job to be performed.

  • Steel toe footwear provides protection from falling and rolling hazards.

  • Latex/rubber footwear provides protection against chemicals and for extra traction on slippery surfaces.

  • PVC footwear provides protection from moisture and for improved traction.

  • Vinyl footwear provides protection from solvents, acids, alkalies, salts, water, and grease.

  • Electrical hazard footwear, insulated with tough rubber, provides protection from electric shock and burns.

  • Avoid footwear made of leather if working around acids or caustics. These chemicals quickly eat through the leather.

  • Select footwear that fits properly.

  • Inspect footwear before using them. Look for holes and cracks that might leak.

  • Replace footwear that is worn or torn.

  • After working with chemicals, hose footwear with water to rinse away any chemicals or dirt before removing the footwear.

  • Always store footwear in a clean, cool, dry, ventilated area.

What standard must seat belts in off-road vehicles or machines meet?

  • OEM standards.

  • SAE J386 requirements.

How should seat belts/tethers be maintained?

  • Inspect the personal restraint system (seat belts and tethers) of vehicles to ensure the belts and tethers are easily accessible, free from lubricants and excessive dirt, and free from rips and tears.

  • Replace worn or damaged belts with replacement belts that meet the requirements of SAE J386 and OEM standards.

  • Confirm the applicability of tethers with the equipment manufacturer. Install, maintain and replace tethers if needed in accordance with OEM standards.

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