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Fall 2004 CVA Lecture Study Guide 2
The test will consist of a variety of formats including short answer, essay, definitions, possibly more objective questions as well (multi-choice, T,F, etc).


  1. Read Chapters over the Skeleton and Muscle. Use my lecture notes as a guide to your reading.

  2. Definitions: Ligament, Tendon, Bone, Connective Tissue, Mesenchyme, Myoblast, Scleroblast, Fibroblast, collagen, Osteoprogenitor, Osteoblast, Chondroblast, Odontoblast, Ameloblast, Enamel, Dentin, Cartilage, Bone, Appositional growth, perichondrium, periosteum, lacuna, osteoclasts, endosteum, bone remodeling, canaliculi, lamellae, hydroxyapatite, Haversian canal, volkman’s canal, osteon, Haversian system,

  3. Be able to draw a flowchart of the histogenesis of skeletal tissues. What is the point of no return for cell specialization? Why are fibroblasts so important in the histogenesis of skeletal tissues?

  4. Use the example of chondrification to expound on histogenesis of skeletal tissues. What about bone? What about muscle?

  5. What are the functions of bone?

  6. What is the difference between membrane bone and compact lamellar bone?

  7. How do Newton’s laws of motion and Darwinian Evolution interact? Where does the external environment come into play?

  8. What is the ground reaction force?

  9. What is the relationship between stress and strain? Be able to draw and label a graph associated with this relationship. How does this relate to bone modeling and remodeling?

  10. What are the different types of stresses and strains placed on connective tissue? How does connective tissue respond to these forces over the course of a day? Over the course of a lifetime? Throughout a lineage? Among different places in the body (hint: think about layering of CT and the differences among dense, loose, regular and irregular CT)? Among clades?

  11. What is the collagen to elastin ratio? Where in the body would you expect it to be high? Low?

  12. Define: membrane bone, dermal bone, Neurocranium, osteoid, trabeculae, cartilage replacement bone, joint, synarthrosis, synchondrosis, symphasis, functional synarthrosis, diarthrosis, synovial joint, sesamoid bone, ball and socket joint, pivot joint, hinge joint, gliding joint, epiphasis, diaphasis, epiphseal plate, hyaline cartilage, fibrocartilage

  13. Explain long bone development.

  14. Define: Neurocranium, Dermatocranium, Splanchnocranium, basal plate, Ethmoid plate prechordal cartilage, parachordal cartilage, olfactory capsule, olfactory epithelium (sac), otic capsule, inner ear chamber, sclera of eye, hypophyseal fenestra, otocyst, retina.

  15. Why is it important there is a fenestra retained in the ventral portion of a developing chondrocranium? What is Rathke’s pouch?

  16. What is the developmental relationship between the roof of the oral cavity and the infundibulum of the brain in vertebrates? What are the functional ontogenetic consequences of epithelial tissue and nervous tissue interacting this way to produce the Hypophysis (pituitary)?

  17. How is the notochord incorporated into the Neurocranium?

  18. I thought our skull was ossified, why is a large part of it called a chondrocranium?

  19. By the way, Lacerta is a lizard genus.

  20. Be able to identify the Neurocranial ossification centers on a diagram. Which bones do these become in a generalized bony vertebrate?

  21. What is an occipital condyle? Can you draw a simple phylogeny of the vertebrates (using hagfish, ratfish, Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes, Amphibia, Reptilia, Chelonia, Mammalia) and then map the number of occipital condyles onto that phylogeny?

  22. Define: cribiform palate, ethmoturbinal bones, roofing bones, marginal bones, primary palate bones, operculum fontanel.

  23. What is the basic pattern of the evolution of roofing bones?

  24. What is the ontogenetic and phylogenetic significance of the pterygoquadrate (palatocradrate) cartilage?

  25. Define: Meckels’ cartilage, basibranchial series, hypobranchial series, ceratobranchial series, epibranchial series, hyoid arch, palatoquadrate, branchial arches, hyobranchial skeleton

  26. Outline the evolution of the secondary palate in mammals.

  27. Be able to label the hyobranchial skeleton of Squalus.

  28. Outline the evolution of the jaw in vertebrates.

  29. Appendicular skeleton. What is the typical pattern of the tetrapod limb?

  30. What is serial homology? How does this concept relate to the tetrapod limb?

  31. Define propodium, epipodium autopodium.

  32. Be able to draw and label the basic structure of the vertebrate appendages.

  33. What is polydactyly? Polyphalangy?

  34. What are the functions of muscle?

  35. Define: sarcolemma, sarcoplasm, tendon, ligament, aponeurosis, fascia, insertion, origin, flexor, extensor, adductor, abductor, levator, depressor, protractor, retractor, sphincter, constrictor, dilator, supinator, pronator, antagonist, synergist

  36. How do we name muscles?

  37. Compare the three main muscle types.

  38. What are the investments of muscle? Be able to label these on a graph. Why, energetically, are these important? Define the terms associated with muscular investment.

  39. Oh yeah, I misinformed you myosin are the thick inner filaments and actin is the outer skeleton of the sarcomere. Z-line proteins interact with both filaments and define the ends of the basic contractile unit of muscle.

  40. What are the different morphologies of muscle?

  41. Explain the trade-off between range of motion and force of contraction of a muscle.

  42. Presentations; review the information covered in the presentations (link at the course website).

  43. That is plenty for one test. Save the Digestion material for the final.


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