The villains in the short story “A View to a Kill” are faceless assassins, though the story started out as a backstory for Hugo Drax. In the film, Christopher Walken plays Max Zorin with cool charm and chilling menace. Zorin is the result of a Nazi experiment to boost intelligence at the foetal stage conducted by his father-figure Hans Glaub, aka Dr Carl Mortner, played by Willoughby Gray. A side-effect of the treatment has left Zorin a ruthless psychopath. Backed by the KGB, he takes over the microchip industry in France and England, making him a multimillionaire. But this is not enough. He plans to flood Silicon Valley, to give him and his criminal associates a world monopoly. Bond naturally thwarts his plans and Zorin dies with a smile on his face as he falls to his death from the top of the Golden Gate Bridge.
Von Hammerstein, Major Gonazles, Aris Kristatos and friends
In “For Your Eyes Only”, M tells Bond about the ex-Gestapo man von Hammerstein, his henchman Gonzales and the two other Cuban hit men. In Vermont, Bond only sees them at a distance. Von Hammerstein is about five foot four with the physique of a boxer, though his stomach is going to fat and is barely concealed under a narrow strip of black fabric. Thick black hair covers his chest, shoulders, arms and legs, but there is no hair on his face or head – not even eyebrows. His eyes are piggish and close-set; his face square like a Prussian officer’s and his lips thick, wet and crimson. There is a deep dent at the back of his shiny whitish yellow skull – possibly a wound or the result of trepanning – and he wears a large gold wristwatch on a gold bracelet. Bond is relieved that von Hammerstein looks as unpleasant as he did in M’s dossier.
The three Cubans are small and dark. Gonzales is neat and well dressed. The other two look like peasants and Bond concludes that the girls with them are cheap Cuban whores. Bond and Judy make short work of the four killers.
Only one of these villains appears in the movie. The Cuban hit man who murders the Havelocks is called Hector Gonzales, played by Stefan Kalipha. Bond finds himself up against two other hit men – Eric Kriegler, played by John Wyman, a KGB man who doubles as an East German skier, and Emile Leopold Locque, played by Michael Gothard, who kills Bond’s contact in Cortina, Ferrara, and the Countess Lisl. Bond eventually pursues Locque’s car on foot and, when it is balanced on the edge of a cliff, kicks it over.
But the real villain is Aris Kristatos, played by Julian Glover, who is borrowed from the short story “Risico”. There he is a contact given to Bond by the CIA and has big hairy hands. It turns out he is a drug smuggler working for the KGB. In the movie, the British had awarded him the King’s Medal for his resistance to the Nazis during their occupation of Greece. Again he is a drug smuggler and has stolen the ATAC machine to sell to the Soviets. He is killed by Colombo, his former comrade in the Resistance.
Dominic Greene and General Medrano
There is no discernible killer in the short story “Quantum of Solace”. In the movie, however, there is Dominic Greene, played by French actor Mathieu Amalric, the businessman posing as an environmentalist who aims to take over the utilities in Bolivia. He said he based his performance on Tony Blair and Nicolas Sarkozy. As part of the plot, Greene plans to install General Medrano, played by Joaquin Cosio, as president. He is a rapist and murderer who killed the family of Camille Montes when she was a child.
Although the villain of “The Hildebrand Rarity” is not a power-mad megalomaniac, he is certainly unpleasant. Milton Krest regularly beats his wife with a stingray’s tail he calls his “Corrector” and boasts about it. He is also defrauding the IRS by claiming his round-the-world jaunts are research trips. So no one is at all concerned when he is murdered.
In the book Thunderball, Emilio Largo is number one in SPECTRE. Like other Bond villains he is a large man, but big-boned with no fat on him. He has fenced for Italy in the Olympic foils, but did not make the swimming team for the Australian crawl. Only weeks before he met Bond he had won the senior class in the Nassau water-ski championships and his muscles bulged under his sharkskin jacket. Even his hands are athletic, twice the normal size for a man of his stature.
He has the type of face you see on Roman coins, with a hooked nose and a lantern jaw. It is sunburnt mahogany brown and clean shaven, though he has long sideburns. His eyes are brown and slow-moving, like those of a furry animal. His hair glistens with pomade. His thick, curled lips are those of a satyr. Otherwise he is compared to a centurion, an adventurer, a pirate and a gentleman crook with an entrée into café society on four continents. He claims to be the last of a line of Roman grandees whose wealth he has inherited. In fact, he started out as a black-marketeer in post-war Naples and moved on to become a smuggler in Tangier and a jewel thief on the Riviera. Unmarried, he has a heart of ice, nerves of steel, a spotless police record and the ruthlessness of Himmler – the perfect man to run SPECTRE. He also has an animal quality that makes him irresistible to women. Consequently, this wealthy Nassau playboy is a great womanizer.
In the movie, Largo is played by Sicilian actor Adolfo Celi and retains much of the charm of the villain in the book. However, he has been demoted to SPECTRE number two under Blofeld. But he has lost none of the ruthlessness, ordering the murder of Count Lippe and Domino’s brother, as well as torturing Domino herself.
In Never Say Never Again, the role is reprised by Austrian actor Klaus Maria Brandauer as Maximilian Largo. He has returned to SPECTRE number one as head of extortion, though Blofeld still appears in overall control. This Largo is not Italian and is said to have been born in Bucharest in 1945.
In the book The Man with the Golden Gun, Francisco “Pistols” Scaramanga is a Cuban assassin who is believed to have killed and maimed several British secret agents. Born to a Catalan family, Scaramanga had spent his childhood with a travelling circus where his father Enrico was manager. With little formal education, he trained as a trick shot. He was also a stand-in strongman for an acrobatic troupe, taking the place of the bottom man in the human pyramid. And he appeared as an elephant boy, riding the bull elephant named Max. One day, when Max was on heat, he threw the sixteen-year-old Scaramanga, trampled the crowd and made off down a railway line outside Trieste. The carabinieri caught up with him. Not realizing that the frenzy was now over, they opened fire, injuring the elephant and sending him into a fury again. Max fled back to the circus, where the young Scaramanga calmed him. At this point the police came storming in and the police captain emptied his revolver into the elephant’s face. As Max lay dying, Scaramanga grabbed a pistol, shot the police captain through the heart and escaped into the night.
From Naples, he stowed away to the US. Entering the country illegally, he became a petty criminal before going to work as an enforcer for the Spangled Mob in Nevada. However, he got involved in a duel with Ramon “The Rod” Rodriguez of the Detroit Purple Gang, putting two bullets in his heart at twenty paces before Rodriguez could loose one off in reply. Scaramanga was given $100,000 to leave the country. He worked for several Las Vegas interests in the Caribbean, as well as the dictators Rafael Trujillo in the Dominican Republic and Fulgencio Batista in Cuba. Though he was an assassin for Batista, he also worked undercover for Fidel Castro. After the revolution, Scaramanga settled in Havana as chief foreign enforcer for the Department of State Security and, through them, the KGB. He had killed two Secret Service agents in Havana and one each in Jamaica, Trinidad and Guyana. The Secret Service’s area inspection officer had also been maimed by bullet wounds in both knees, forcing him to retire. He had claimed victims in Panama, Haiti and Martinique too.
His trademark golden gun fires heavy, soft, bullets with a 24-carat gold core jacketed with silver, which Scaramanga makes himself. The tips are cross-cut, so it spreads like a dum-dum to give the maximum wounding effect. With no police record he needs no disguises and the myth surrounding him gives him complete freedom of movement in the area of the Caribbean he considers his territory. He travels on a number of passports, including Cuban diplomatic papers. He also has various credit cards and a numbered bank account in Zürich.
Now aged about thirty-five, he is six foot three inches tall, slim and fit. He has a gaunt face with light brown eyes, and ears that lie very flat to the side of his head. He has a pencil moustache, long sideburns and crew-cut reddish brown hair. His hands are large; his nails manicured. He is ambidextrous and his distinguishing mark is a third nipple about two inches below his left breast. Scaramanga’s file notes that, in voodoo, this is considered a sign of invulnerability and great sexual prowess. He is an insatiable but indiscriminate womanizer, invariably having sexual intercourse before a killing in the belief that it will improve his aim – a common conviction among golfers, tennis players, marksmen and others.
However, a former Regius professor of history at Oxford who the Secret Service employs as an analyst does not believe that Scaramanga possesses a very high libido and Time magazine suggested that he was a homosexual because he could not whistle. The analyst concluded that the death of Max had traumatized the youthful Scaramanga and that, in his opinion, Scaramanga is a paranoiac in subconscious revolt against the father figure – that is, the figure of authority – and a sexual fetishist with homosexual tendencies.
In the movie, Scaramanga’s biography is slightly different. He is the son of a Cuban ringmaster and a British snake charmer. By the age of ten, he was a trick shot and, after a bull elephant went berserk one day after a handler’s mistreatment, it was the handler he shot. After becoming a paid gunman, he was recruited by the KGB who trained him in Europe. He went freelance in the late 1950s and was currently charging a million dollars a hit. There are no known photographs, but somehow the British Secret Service knows about the supernumerary nipple. Again, he has sex with his mistress Andrea Anders before he kills, to improve his aim.
Scaramanga, played by Christopher Lee, wears casual sports clothes and entertains himself in the “fun house”, killing victims laid on by his servant Nick-Nack – who hopes Scaramanga will die so he can inherit. Scaramanga is an excellent shot, priding himself on needing only one bullet to do any job. He even removes the cork from a bottle of champagne at some distance when Bond arrives at his island home. Scaramanga is charming and witty, and feels some affinity with Bond – which Bond does not reciprocate. In the final shoot-out, it is, of course, Scaramanga who dies.
General Orlov and Kamal Khan
The villain in the short story “Octopussy” is Major Dexter Smythe, who Bond is sent to arrest. No megalomaniac, he is not a true Bond villain and even gets a sympathetic mention in the film. The movie’s top villain is General Orlov, played by Steven Berkoff. He believes that the nuclear incident he intends to manufacture in a US airbase in West Germany will force NATO to disarm, allowing the Soviet Union to invade Western Europe. He is aided in this by Kamal Khan, played by Louis Jordan, a corrupt Afghan prince who double-crosses Octopussy, his partner in a smuggling racket. Like other Bond villains, Khan can’t help cheating when he is gambling – this time at backgammon. His loyal henchman is Gobinda, who tries to kill Bond several times. He and Khan die in the final sequence.
General Koskov, Necros and Brad Whitaker
The Living Daylights’ short story does not have a villain either. The movie has several. There is General Georgi Koskov, played by Dutch actor Jeroen Krabbé) who fakes his defection to the West to get MI6 to assassinate General Leonid Pushkin who is about to arrest him for stealing government money. His henchman is Soviet assassin Necros, played by German actor Andreas Wisniewski, who springs Koskov from the MI6 safe house. After a fight in the back of a cargo plane with Bond, he falls to his death.
But the real Bond-style megalomaniac in the film is Brad Whitaker, played by the Texas-born Joe Don Baker who would return as Jack Wade, Bond’s CIA contact in Goldeneye and Tomorrow Never Dies. Whitaker is an arms dealer and military fanatic who plays out war games in his home in Tangier. He surrounds himself with wax figures of his military heroes – Hitler, Napoleon, Attila the Hun, Julius Caesar – each with Whitaker's own face. It turns out that Whitaker was an army cadet who was expelled from West Point for cheating, but he continues to wear a uniform, insignia and medals which he is not entitled to. He is killed when Bond’s exploding key chain tips over a cabinet commemorating the Battle of Waterloo and a bust of Wellington falls on him.
Franz Sanchez and associates
In Licence to Kill, the villain is drug lord Franz Sanchez, played by Robert Davi. He whips his girlfriend with a stingray’s tail, borrowed from Milton Krest in “The Hildebrand Rarity”, and has her lover’s heart cut out. But he is also cultured, polite and witty. He rewards loyalty and keeps his word, even when it costs him millions. Bond sets him on fire.
The name Milton Krest is also borrowed from the short story. However, the character played by Anthony Zerbe is not a tax-fiddling millionaire. He runs a small marine-engineering firm that is a front for drug running. He dies when Bond hides drugs money in a decompression chamber and Sanchez pushes him in afterwards. He inflates and explodes.
Then there is Ed Killifer, played by Everett McGill, the DEA man who springs Sanchez and has Felix Leiter thrown to the sharks. Bond arranges for him to suffer the same fate, but more permanently. The ex-Contra assassin Dario, played by Benicio Del Toro, recognizes Bond in the drugs laboratory and is pushed into the shredder. William Truman-Lodge, played by Anthony Starke, is the financial wizard behind Sanchez’s operation. When Bond begins to destroy the operation, he panics and Sanchez machine-guns him. Professor Joe Butcher, played by singer Wayne Newton, is a televangelist who solicits donations for the retreat near Isthmus City that is a front for Sanchez’s drugs laboratory. His broadcasts also signal the daily price of cocaine to international buyers.
Alex Trevelyan aka Janus
In Goldeneye, Bond pursues Russian Mafia boss Janus who, in reality, is his former double-O colleague Alec Trevelyan, played by Sean Bean. His motivation for betraying his country is that his parents were Lienz Cossacks who had collaborated with the Nazis during World War II. At the end of the war they had surrendered to the British, but were handed over to the Red Army, which massacred them. Trevelyan’s parents survived, but his father could not live with the shame and killed Trevelyan’s mother and himself.
Trevelyan is in league with General Ourumov, played by Berlin-born John Gottfried, who stages the fake execution of Trevelyan that Bond witnesses at the beginning of the film. A leading member of the Janus Crime Syndicate, he pretends to be making an inspection of the Severnaya tracking station that allows Xenia Onatopp to massacre the staff. Then he hands over the Goldeneye weapon to Trevelyan to exact his revenge on the City of London and make a fortune for all of them. They are aided by computer nerd Boris Grishenko, who is frozen solid by liquid nitrogen.
The villain of Tomorrow Never Dies is media-mogul Elliot Carver, played by Jonathan Pryce. He is another high-tech megalomaniac who somehow manages to recruit an army of uniformed men who are willing to give their life for him. He is intellectual, cultured, sarcastic and cold-blooded, sending professional assassin and amateur torturer Dr Kaufman, played by Vincent Schiavelli, to kill his wife Paris after Bond has slept with her. Carver is aided by his head of security, Aryan muscleman Stamper, played by German-born Götz Otto, and international techno-terrorist Henry Gupta, played by Ricky Jay.
Elektra King and Renard
Another terrorist is the villain of The World Is Not Enough. He is Renard aka Victor Zokas, played by Robert Carlyle. He carries a bullet in his head from an assassination attempt. This will kill him eventually, but in the meantime makes him impervious to pain, or indeed any sensation. Considered too dangerous to manage, he is cut loose by his KGB controllers. As a freelance terrorist, he kidnaps Electra King, played by Sophie Marceau, who suffers from Stockholm syndrome. She falls in love with her captor and, as a result, ruthlessly murders her father. She also wants to get her own back on M for advising her father not to pay the ransom to free her. A highly sexed woman, she teases Renard, who is in love with her but can do little about it as the bullet has left him both impotent and doomed. Bond makes love to her, then kills her.
Her devoted bodyguard Gabor, played by John Seru, is also killed in the denouement. Her sinister head of security Sasha Davidov, played by Ulrich Thomas, died earlier. Valentin Zukovsky’s amusing though treacherous bodyguard, Bullion, played by Goldie, also dies – at the hands of his own boss. And another would-be femme fatale also makes an appearance in the pre-title sequence. Credited only as the “Cigar Girl” and played by Maria Grazia Cucinotta, she offers her boss, the Swiss banker, a cigar before she kills him. She then tries to shoot Bond. He chases her down the Thames in Q’s mini-speedboat. She then tries to make off in a hot-air balloon, but when it is clear that she cannot escape, she shoots the balloon’s gas tank and blows herself up.
Colonel Moon aka Gustav Graves
In Die Another Day, Bond has seemingly disposed of villain Colonel Tan-Sun Moon, played by Will Yun Lee, in the pre-title sequence. The son of peace-loving North Korean General Moon, he was educated at Oxford and Harvard. He had been selling weapons for diamonds in order to enjoy the trappings of Western life and indulge his passion for expensive sports cars.
However, Moon is not dead at all. After revolutionary gene therapy, he reappears in the guise of Sir Gustav Graves, who claims to be an orphan brought up in the diamond mines of Argentina. Arriving in Britain, he is immensely rich. Though it is said he has discovered a diamond mine in Iceland, his wealth comes from African blood diamonds. Nevertheless, he is naturalized and knighted. He is also insufferably arrogant and believes himself to be an unbeatable swordsman until challenged by Bond.
While excelling as a capitalist, Moon’s objective is to reunite North and South Korea under Communist rule, holding the West at bay with orbiting super-laser Icarus. He is added by his studded henchman Zao, Rick Yune. But the villains Moon and Zao find themselves up again Bond. They are bound to fail.
Chapter 10 – Never Say Never Again
James Bond novels did not stop with Ian Fleming’s death in 1964, or even with the posthumous publication of The Man with the Golden Gun in 1965 and Octopussy in 1966. Fleming himself left a scrapbook of ideas and the rudiments of unpublished short stories, which was sold at Sotheby’s for £14,300 in 1992. It was bought by two nieces and a nephew who were determined to keep it in the family. However, most of the rights to Fleming’s literal output had been assigned to Glidrose Productions, a company Fleming had bought after the completion of his first novel Casino Royale. It became Ian Fleming Publications in 1998.
In 1966, Glidrose commissioned South African novelist Geoffrey Jenkins to write a “continuation” novel called Per Fine Ounce. Jenkins had been a friend of Fleming’s at Kemsley where they both worked. According to Jenkins, the two of them had discussed the idea of a Bond novel set in South Africa in 1957. John Pearson found a synopsis among Fleming’s papers. The story concerned gold and featured gold bicycle chains, baobab tree coffins and the magical Lake Fundudzi. But when Jenkins finished the manuscript, it was rejected. Since then the manuscript has been lost, except for eighteen pages in the possession of Jenkins’s son David. Apparently, the double-O section was closed down. Bond defies M and, on a matter of principle, resigns from MI6 to pursue his mission in South Africa alone.
The following year, 003½: The Adventures of James Bond Junior was published in the UK by Jonathan Cape under the Glidrose copyright and in the US by Random House. The author was said to be one R.D. Mascott and there is some speculation about who he may be. The protagonist is supposed to be James Bond’s nephew, though Bond, according to You Only Live Twice, had no living relatives. Nevertheless, the child exhibits Bond’s guile and audacity. He even has a girlfriend.
Author Kingsley Amis was a James Bond fan and had approached Fleming before he died to write an article about him. This turned into a book, The James Bond Dossier. Jonathan Cape also paid Amis for editorial work on The Man with the Golden Gun which seems to have amounted to little more than a literary critique. Then in 1968, he was commissioned by Glidrose to write Colonel Sun under the pseudonym Robert Markham. This was first of the proper continuation novels.
In it, M is kidnapped from Quarterdeck, while Hammond and his wife are killed. The trail leads Bond and the lovely Ariadne Alexandrou, a Greek agent working for the Soviets, to the Aegean island of Vrakonisi, where a Russian-backed peace conference is taking place. Colonel Sun Liang-tan of the China’s People’s Liberation Army plans to wreck the conference, torture Bond to death and dump his body, along with M’s, so that the British get the blame. Bond and his sidekick Niko Litsas thwart Sun and his henchman, the German von Richter, and kill them. The book was well received, but Amis left it there.
In 1973, Glidrose allowed Fleming’s biographer John Pearson to publish James Bond: The Authorised Biography. The premise of the book is that M is persuaded to let Fleming write books about Bond and his exploits to convince SMERSH that he is an invention of the Secret Service; consequently, they will cease their efforts to kill him. Bond then gets involved in an operation to foil the seemingly indestructible Irma Bunt’s scheme to breed killer mutant desert rats in Australia.
Bond then makes an appearance in the 1977 John Steed – An Authorised Biography (Volume One – Jealous in Honour) about the hero of the classic British TV series The Avengers. According to the author Tim Heald, Steed met Bond at Eton in 1934. Since then their paths had crossed several times. They did not get on. There was no volume two.
The continuation series really got under way in 1981, when Glidrose approached John Gardner, author of the comic Boysie Oakes spy novels, to breathe new life into Bond. He began with Licence Renewed where physicist Anton Murik plans to blow up six nuclear power stations unless a ransom of $50 billion is paid, which he is going to use to build a truly safe reactor. Bond and Murik’s attractive ward Lavender “Dilly” Peacock put paid to his scheme. Bond kills Murik and his Scottish henchman Caber. In the Gardner books, Q Department is in the hands of Ann Reilly, Boothroyd’s young assistant who is dubbed Q’ute. Bond and Q’ute have a casual affair. And, with Gardner, Bond abandons the Walther PPK he has been using in the books since Dr No in favour of an ASP 9mm.