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THE GREAT NATION: FRANCE FROM LOUIS XV TO NAPOLEON (1715-99)

GUIDE TO FURTHER READING

A. Primary Sources

B. Secondary Sources

Abbreviations
0. General

0.1 Overviews
0.2 Politics and the State
0.3 Kingship and Ceremony
0.4 Religion
0.5 Social and Economic
0.6 International Affairs and the Armed Forces

1. France in 1715
1.1 Louis XIV
1.2 Versailles and Court Culture under Louis XIV
1.3 The Making of Absolute Monarchy and the Nobility
1.4 War, Diplomacy and Foreign Policy before 1715
1.5 Opposition to Louis XIV
1.6 Protestantism before 1715

2. The Regency and the Advent of Fleury (1715-26)
2.1 The Regent and High Politics
2.2 Nobility and the Parlements
2.3 Jansenism to c. 1750
2.4 Population, Economy and Finance on the Eve of the Regency
2.5 John Law and the System
2.6 Louis XV and the Advent of Fleury

3. Fleury's France (1726-43)
3.1 Fleury and his Ministry
3.2 Administration

4. Unsuspected Golden Years (1743-56)
4.1 Louis XV and Government before the Seven Years War
4.2 War and Diplomacy
4.3 Rural France in Perspective
4.4 Trade, Industry and the Towns

5. An Enlightening Age
5.1 The Enlightenment: General
5.2 Diderot and the Encyclopédie
5.3 The Bourgeois Public Sphere
5.4 Religion, Nature and Science
5.5 Enlightenment Politics

6. Forestalling Deluge (1756-70)
6.1 Politics from the 1750s to the Triumvirate
6.2 The Seven Years War
6.3 State Finance from c. 1750
6.4 Choiseul and Post-War Recovery

7. The Triumvirate and its Aftermath (1771-84)
7.1 The Maupeou Revolution
7.2 Turgot, Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette
7.3 The American War and State Finances
7.4 The Nobility

8. Bourbon Monarchy on the Rack (1784-8)
8.1 The Economy
8.2 The Social and Cultural Origins of the Revolution
8.3 Calonne and the Pre-Revolution

9. Revolution in Political Culture (1789-91)
9.1 The French Revolution: General
9.2 The French Revolution: Collections of Primary Sources
9.3 The French Revolution: Local Studies
9.4 The Political Crisis of 1789
9.5 Peasants and Towns in Revolt
9.6 The Work of the Constituent Assembly
9.7 (I) Counter-Revolution: General
9.7 (II) Counter-Revolution: The Religious Issue
9.7 (III) Counter-Revolution: The Vendée and Peasant Royalism

10. War and Terror (1795-9)
10.1 The Legislative Assembly
10.2 The Overthrow of the Monarchy and the Emergence of Terror
10.3 War and Diplomacy
10.4 The Great Terror and the Fall of Robespierre

11. The Unsteady Republic (1795-9)
11.1 Thermidorian and Directorial Politics
11.2 The Revolution and the Economy
11.3 The Culture of the Revolution

Conclusion: The Brumaire Leviathan and la Grande Nation

A. PRIMARY SOURCES

The range of primary sources available is immense, particularly on the period after 1750. I can only indicate here those sources on which I have drawn most heavily in constructing the political narrative.

Saint-Simon's memoirs, available in numerous editions, is a brilliant source for bridging the end of the reign of Louis XIV with the Regency. For the latter, see the wonderful correspondence of the Princesse Palatine, the Regent's mother, sampled in Lettres de Madame, duchesse d'Orléans, née princesse Palatine, ed. O. Amiel (Paris, 1981). Useful too are Mémoires de la régence de SAR Monseigneur le duc d'Orléans durant la minorité de Louis XV, roi de France (3 vols., La Haye, 1742-3); Mehmed efendi, Le Paradis des infidèles. Un ambassadeur ottoman en France sous la Régence (Paris, 1981); and Madame de Staal-Delaunay, Mémoires, ed. G. Doscot (Paris, 1970). Unpublished primary sources of particular value for this and the subsequent period are the memoirs of the duke d'Antin (Bibliothèque Nationale, Manuscrits français. Nouvelles acquisitions français 23729-37) and those of Richer d'Aubé, 'Réflexions sur le Gouvernement de France' (ibid., Nouvelles acquisitions françaises 9511-16).

On the period from the death of Louis XIV to the Seven Years War, see esp. R.L. de Voyer de Paulmy, marquis d'Argenson, Journal et mémoires, ed. E.J.B. Rathery (9 vols., Paris 1859-67); J. Buvat, Journal de la Régence, 1715-23, ed. E. Campardon (2 vols., Paris, 1865); C.P. d'Albert, duc de Luynes, Mémoires sur la cour de Louis XV (1735-58), ed. L. Dussieux & E. Soulié (17 vols., Paris, 1860-5); E.J.F. Barbier, Histoire chronologique et anecdotique du règne de Louis XV, ed. A. de La Villegille (4 vols., Paris, 1847-56); Mathieu Marais, Journal et mémoires de Mathieu Marais sur la régence et le règne de Louis XV, ed. M. de Lescure (4 vols., Paris, 1863-8); P. Narbonne, Journal des règnes de Louis XIV et XV de l'année 1701 à l'année 1744 (Paris, 1866); and F.J. de Pierre, cardinal de Bernis, Mémoires et lettres, 1715-58, ed. F. Masson (2 vols., Paris, 1858).

For later in the eighteenth century, down to 1789, see also Mémoires du duc de Choiseul, ed. J.P. Guicciardi (Paris, 1982); marquis de Bombelles,  Journal, ed. J. Grassion & F. Durif (2 vols., Geneva, 1978-82); duc de Croy, Journal inédit du duc de Croy, 1718-84, ed. vicomte de Grouchy & P. Cottin (4 vols., Paris, 1906-07); F.V. Toussaint, Anecdotes curieuses de la cour de France sous le règne de Louis XV (Paris, 1908); Félix, comte de France d'Hézèques, Souvenirs d'un page de la cour de Louis XVI (Paris, 1904). More street-level views are aired in S.P. Hardy, Mes loisirs: journal d'événements tels qu'ils parviennent à ma connaissance, M. Tourneux & M. Vitrac (eds) (Paris, 1912); J.L. Ménétra, Journal of My Life, ed. D. Roche (New York, 1986); and F.Y. Besnard, Souvenirs d'un nonagénaire (2 vols., Paris, 1880). A superb, panoramic source too is L.S. Mercier, Tableau de Paris (12 vols., Amsterdam, 1782-9), extracts of which are available as Panorama of Paris, ed. J.D. Popkin (Philadelphia, 1999).

After 1789,  the embarras de richesses becomes even more overwhelming. B.J. Buchez & P.C. Roux (eds), Histoire parlementaire de la Révolution française, ou Journal des assemblées nationales depuis 1789 jusqu'en 1815 (40 vols., Paris, 1834-8) is an improbable salmagundy of Revolutionary goodies, less consistent however than the utterly overwhelming Archives parlementaires de 1787 à 1860 (96 volumes to date, Paris, 1867-1990). One of my favourite texts is Nicolas Ruault, Gazette d'un parisien sous la Révolution: lettres à son frère, 1783-96 (Paris, 1976). Others include A. Young, Travels in France in the Years 1787, 1788 and 1789, ed. C. Maxwell (Cambridge, 1929) (superb on rural France and the atmosphere of Revolution);  marquis de Ferrières, Correspondance inédite , 1789, 1790, 1791, H. Carré, ed. (Paris, 1932 (excellent on the Constituent Assembly); Gouverneur Morris, A Diary of the French Revolution (2 vols., Westport, Ct, 1972) (the US envoy, down to 1792); M.A. Baudot, Notes historiques sur la Convention nationale, le Directoire. l'Empire et l'exil des votants (Paris, 1893) (extraordinary lapidary statements and anecdotes); P. de Vaissière, Lettres d'aristocrates. La Révolution racontée par des correspondances privées, 1789-94 (Paris, 1907) (stunningly graphic and moving accounts, from prison or emigration); L.S. Mercier, Le Nouveau Paris (1797); and Chateaubriand's posthumous Mémoires d'outre-tombe (a fantasist, but a brilliant one).

B. SECONDARY SOURCES

I have chosen to highlight works in English wherever possible.

Abbreviations:



AESC    Annales. économies. Sociétés. Civilisations

AHR      American Historical Review

AHRF    Annales histororiques de la Révolution française

AMWS  Annual Meeting of the Western Society for French History.    Proceedings

BJRL     Bulletin of John Rylands Library

EHR       English Historical Review

FH         French History

FHS       French Historical Studies

HJ          Historical Journal

JEcH      Journal of Economic History

JMH      Journal of Modern History

P&P       Past and Present

RH         Revue historique

RHMC   Revue d'histoire moderne et contemporaine

TAPS     Transactions of the American Philosophical Society

TRHS  Transactions of the Royal Historical Society

0. GENERAL

0.1 Overviews A. Cobban, A History of Modern France, vol. 1: Old Régime and Revolution, 1715-99 (Harmondsworth, 1957) is the only work to have the chronology of the present volume. For the Revolution, see below, but general treatments of the Bourbon polity over the eighteenth century include W. Doyle (ed.), Old Régime France, 1648-1788 (Oxford, 2001); E. Le Roy Ladurie, The Ancien Régime. A History of France, 1610-1774 (Oxford, 1996); D. Roche, France in the Enlightenment (Cambridge, Mass., 1998); C.B.A. Behrens, The Ancien Régime (London, 1967); and J.B. Collins, The State in Early Modern France (Cambridge, 1995). J. de Viguerie, Histoire et dictionnaire du temps des Lumières, 1715-89 (Paris, 1995) is a superb general work of reference. See also D. Richet, La France moderne. L'Esprit des institutions (Paris, 1973); R.Descimon and A. Guéry, 'Un état des temps modernes', in A. Burguière and J. Revel (eds), Histoire de la France. L'état et les pouvoirs (Paris, 1989); M. Fogel, L'état dans la France moderne (de la fin du XVe au milieu du XVIIIe siècle) (Paris, 1992); J. Meyer, Le Poids de l'état (Paris, 1983); and J. Cornette, Absolutisme et lumières, 1652-1783 (Paris, 1993). The pathbreaking collection, P. Nora (ed.), Les Lieux de mémoire (3 vols., new edn, Paris, 1997), provides fresh angles of vision on numerous features of the Bourbon polity. See esp. from Vol. 1, 'Les sanctuaires royaux' (C. Beaune), 'Reims, ville du sacre' (J. Le Goff), 'Des limites d'état aux frontières nationales' (D. Nordman), 'Versailles, fonctions et légendes' (H. Himmelfarb); from Vol. 2, 'La chaire, la tribune, le barreau' (J. Starobinski), 'Francs et Gaulois' (K. Pomian), 'Port-Royal' (C. Maire); and from Vol. 3, 'Le roi' (A. Boureau), and 'L'état' (A. Guéry).

0.2. Politics and the State A superb conspectus over government from the royal point of view is provided in M. Antoine, Louis XV (Paris, 1989: infuriatingly it has no footnotes. Readers will forgive Antoine's vehement anti-parlementary bias). See too his Le dur métier du roi: études sur la civilisation politique de la France d'Ancien Régime (Paris, 1986). Helpful too are J. Barbey, ?tre Roi. Le roi et son gouvernement en France de Clovis à Louis XVI (Paris, 1992), B. Basse, La Constitution de l'ancienne France (Paris, 1986) and, from an older tradition, F. Olivier-Martin, L'Organisation corporative de la France d'Ancien Régime (Paris, 1938). R. Bonney, L'Absolutisme (Paris, 1989) is a useful introduction. The works of Roland Mousnier exaggerate the absolutism of absolute monarchy, but still are eminently consultable: The Institutions of France under the Absolute Monarchy, 1589-1789 (2 vols., Chicago, 1979, 1984). M. Antoine, Le Gouvernement et l'administration sous Louis XV. Dictionnaire biographique (Paris, 1978) is a fine work of reference. For government functions, see also M. Antoine, Le Conseil du Roi sous le règne de Louis XV (Geneva, 1970); F. Mosser, Les Intendants de finance au XVIIIe siècle: Les Lefèvre d'Ormesson et le 'départment des impositions' (1715-77) (Geneva, 1978); Y. Durand, Les Fermiers généraux au XVIIIe siècle (Paris, 1971); and G.T. Mathews, The Royal General Farms in Eighteenth-Century France (New York, 1958). On a crucial aspect of state and society, W. Doyle, Venality: The Sale of Offices in Eighteenth-Century France (Oxford, 1996). See too id., Officers, Nobles and Revolutionaries: Essays on Eighteenth-Century France (London, 1995). H. Root, The Fountain of Privilege: Political Foundations of Markets in Old Regime France and England (Berkeley, Ca, 1994) is an excellent revisionist work. [For finance, see also 2.3, 2.5, 6.3, 7.3, 8.3]

For the outreach of government, see V.R Gruder, The Royal Provincial Intendants: A Governing Elite in Eighteenth-Century France (Ithaca, NY, 1968) and, among case studies,  F.X. Emmanuelli, Un Mythe de l'abolutisme bourbonien: l'intendance du milieu du XVIIe siècle à la fin du XVIIie siècle (Aix-en-Provence, 1981); H. Monin, Essai sur l'histoire administrative du Languedoc pendant l'intendance de Basville (Paris, 1884); and H. Fréville, L'Intendance de Bretagne, 1689-1790: essai sur l'histoire d'une intendance de pays d'état au XVIIIe siècle (3 vols., Rennes, 1953). On representative estates, see J.R. Major, Representative Government in Early Modern France (New Haven, Ct, 1980). An excellent case study is provided by G. Bossenga, The Politics of Privilege: Old Régime and Revolution in Lille (Cambridge, 1991). See too M. Bordes, L'Administration provinciale et municipale en France au XVIIIe siècle (Paris, 1972). Essential on the Parlement of Paris is J. de Flammermont, Les Remontrances du parlement de Paris au XVIIIe siècle (3 vols., Paris, 1888-98). See too J. Shennan, The Parlement of Paris (London, 1968); F. Bluche, Les Magistrats du parlement de Paris au XVIIIe siècle (2nd edn, Paris, 1986); and D. Bell, Lawyers and Citizens: The Making of a Political Elite in Old Régime France (Oxford, 1994).

0.3 Kingship and ceremony Crucial here in recent years has been the work of the 'neo-ceremonialists', who, following the pioneering work of E. Kantorowicz, The King's Two Bodies: A Study in Medieval Political Theology  (Princeton, NJ, 1957) have stressed the political and constitutional role of public ceremony. Among Anglo-Americans, important in this respect are R. Giesey, The Royal Funeral Ceremony in Renaissance France (Geneva, 1960) S. Hanley, The Lit de Justice of the Kings of France: Constitutional Ideology, Legend, Ritual and Discourse (Princeton, NJ, 1983), and R.A. Jackson, Vive le Roi! A History of the French Coronation from Charles V to Charles X (Chapel Hill, NC, 1984), and these may be supplemented by A. Boureau, Le Simple Corps du roi. L'impossible sacralité des souverains français (XVe-XVIIIe siècles) (Paris, 1988). Indispensable too is M. Bloch, The Royal Touch. Sacred Monarchy and Scrofula in England and France, (London, 1973). See too H.H. Rowen, The King's State: Proprietary Dynasticism in Early Modern France (New Brunswick, 1980); A. Boureau & C.S. Ingerflom (eds), La Royauté sacrée dans le monde chrétien (Paris, 1989); M. Valensise, 'Le sacre du roi: stratégie symbolique et doctrine politique de la monarchie française', AESC, 41 (1986); and Le Sacre des rois (Actes du colloque international d'histoire sur les sacres et couronnements royaux, Reims, 1975). On the political culture of the king's body more generally, see too the excellent essays in S.E. Melzer & K. Norberg (eds), From the Royal to the Republican Body. Incorporating the Political in Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century France (Berkeley, 1998). Also influenced by this approach is M. Fogel, Les Cérémonies de l'information dans la France du XVIe au milieu du XVIIIe siècle (Paris, 1989).

0.4 Religion J. Delumeau, Catholicism between Luther and Voltaire (London, 1977) is a pioneering study of religious mentalités. R. Taveneaux, Le Catholicisme dans la France classique, 1610-1715 (2 vols., Paris, 1980), F. Lebrun, ?tre chrétien en France sous l'Ancien Régime (Paris, 1996) and P. Loupès, La Vie religieuse en France au XVIIIe siècle (Paris, 1993) are handy overviews, all influenced by Delumeau's approach. More oriented on the clergy is B. Plongeron, La Vie quotidienne du clergé français au XVIIIe siècle (Paris, 1974). See too the superb overview of J. McManners, Church and Society in Eighteenth-Century France (2 vols., Oxford, 1998). On Jansenism, though focussed on 1789, D. Van Kley, The Religious Origins of the French Revolution from Calvin to the Civil Constitution, 1560-1791 (New Haven, 1996) reels back into the sixteenth century. [For other works on Jansenism, see 2.3, 6.1]. R. Briggs, Communities of Belief: Cultural and Social Tensions in Early Modern France (Oxford, 1989) is a highly useful collection of essays on different aspects of religious history, while G. Bouchard, Le Village immobile. Senneley-en-Sologne au XVIIIe siècle (Paris, 1972) is an exemplary local study. On post-Tridentine 'baroque piety', see esp. M. Vovelle, Piété baroque et déchristianisation en Provence au XVIIIe siècle (Paris, 1973), which also highlights the growth of religious unbelief. On political aspects of the latter phenomenon, J. Merrick, The Desacralization of the French Monarchy in the Eighteenth Century (Baton Rouge, La, 1990). On Protestantism, the venerable E.G. Léonard, Histoire générale du protestantisme (3 vols., Paris, 1961-4) is still usable, though see too D. Ligou, Le Protestantisme en France de 1598 à 1715 (Paris, 1968).

0.5 Social and Economic Although becoming dated, excellent syntheses on French social and economic history are provided by F. Braudel & E. Labrousse (eds), Histoire sociale et économique de la France. ii. 1660-1789 (Paris, 1970); P. Goubert, The Ancien Régime (New York, 1970); and P. Goubert and D. Roche, Les Français et l'Ancien Régime (2 vols., Paris, 1984). These update (but largely stay within the paradigm mapped out in) the classic E. Labrousse, Esquisse du mouvement des prix et des revenus en France au XVIIIe siècle (Paris, 1933) and id., La Crise de l'économie française à la fin de l'Ancien Régime et au début de la Révolution (Paris, 1944). For demographic issues, these works may be supplemented by J. Dup?cquier (ed.), Histoire de la population française. ii. De la Renaissance à la Révolution (Paris, 1988) and iii. De 1789 à 1914 (Paris, 1988). More recent short overviews are P. Butel, L'économie française au XVIIIe siècle (Paris, 1993) and F. Bayard & P. Guignet, L'économie française au XVIe-XVIIe-XVIIIe siècles (Paris, 1991). [See also 4.48.1, 11.2]

0.6 International Affairs and the Armed Forces There is solid coverage from J. Black, From Louis XIV to Napoleon: The Fate of a Great Power (London, 1999); id., Natural and Necessary Enemies: Anglo-French Relations in the Eighteenth Century (London, 1986); L. Bély, Les Relations internationales en Europe (XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles) (Paris, 1992); and J. Black (ed.), The Origin of Wars in Early Modern Europe (Edinburgh, 1987). See too J. Bérenger & J. Meyer, La France dans le monde au XVIIIe siècle (Paris, 1993) and F. Cardini, La Culture de la guerre (Xe-XVIIIe siècles) (Paris, 1992). P. Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000 (New York, 1987) is an interesting speculative study. Essential for the army is A. Corvisier, L'Armée française de la fin du XVIIe siècle au ministère de Choiseul. le soldat (2 vols.; Paris, 1964), and see too E.G. Léonard, L'Armée et ses problèmes au XVIIIe siècle (Paris, 1958) and M.S. Anderson, War and Society in the Old Régime, 1618-1789 (Stroud, 1998). On the navy, P. Bamford, Forests and French Sea-Power, 1660-1789 (Toronto, 1956). [See also 1.4, 6.2, 7.3, 10.3]

CHAPTER ONE: FRANCE IN 1715

1.1 Louis XIV D.J. Sturdy, Louis XIV (Basingstoke, 1998) is a useful up-to-date survey. The thematic approaches of P. Sonnino (ed.) The Reign of Louis XIV (London, 1990), J. Rule (ed.), Louis XIV and the Craft of Kingship  (Ohio, 1969) and R. Hatton (ed.), Louis XIV and Absolutism (London 1976) make them particularly useful. Full-dress biographies include J.F. Bluche, Louis XIV (Oxford, 1990); P. Goubert, Louis XIV and Twenty Million Frenchmen (London, 1970); J.C. Petitfils, Louis XIV (Paris, 1995); and J.B. Wolf, Louis XIV (London, 1970). The drama of the king's death may be followed in countless memoirs: besides Saint-Simon see esp. Baron de Breteuil, Mémoires, ed. E. Lever (Paris, 1992) and La Mort de Louis XIV. Journal des Anthoine, ed. E. Drumont (Paris, 1880), and for the context of the king's health, M. Caroly, Le Corps du Roi Soleil. Grandeur et misères de Sa Majesté Louis XIV (Paris, 1990). See also the king's own thoughts on kingship, available in P. Sonino (ed.), Mémoires for the Instruction of the Dauphin by Louis XIV (New York, 1970).

1.2 Versailles and Court Culture under Louis XIV P. Burke, The Fabrication of Louis XIV (London, 1992) is a stimulating introduction, which draws on the pioneering but still useful N. Elias, The Court Society (Oxford, 1983) plus a good deal of excellent recent scholarship. This includes J.M. Apostolides, Le Roi-machine. Spectacle et politique au temps de Louis XIV (Paris, 1981); L. Marin, Portrait of the King (Minneapolis, 1988); J.P. Neraudau, L'Olympe du Roi-Soleil: mythologie et idéologie royale au Grand Siècle (Paris, 1986); and D.L. Rubin (ed.), Sun King: The Ascendancy of French Culture during the Reign of Louis XIV (London, 1992). Also worthy of note is N. Ferrier-Caverivière, L'Image de Louis XIV dans la littérature française de 1660 à 1715 (Paris, 1981) and id., Le Grand roi à l'aube des Lumières, 1715-51 (Paris, 1985).

1.3. The Making of Absolute Monarchy and the Nobility  An astringently critical approach is provided by D. Parker, The Making of French Absolutism (London, 1983), and id., Class and State in Ancien Régime France: The Road to Modernity? (London, 1996). Traditions of aristocratic opposition may be followed in the excellent A. Jouanna, Le Devoir de la révolte. La noblesse française et la gestation de l'état moderne, 1559-1661 (Paris, 1989), which may be complemented by O. Ranum's The Fronde: A French Revolution, 1648-52  (New York, 1993). R.C. Mettam, Power and Faction in Louis XIV's France (Oxford, 1988) highlights the interpenetration of court and administration under Louis XIV, while S. Kettering, Patrons, Brokers and Clients in Seventeenth-Century France (Oxford, 1986) is useful on the provinces.  Vital too in this respect is W.J. Beik, Absolutism and Society in Seventeenth-Century France: State Power and Provincial Aristocracy in Languedoc (Cambridge, 1985: a path-breaking study). On the Intendants, see esp. R. Bonney, Political Change in France under Richelieu and Mazarin, 1624-1661 (Oxford, 1978). For the Parlement, see A. Hamscher, 'The Conseil privé and the Parlements in the Age of Louis XIV: A Study in French Absolutism', TAPS, 77 (1987).

1.4  War, Diplomacy and Foreign Policy before 1715  Besides general works [at 0.6], see J. Cornette, Le Roi de guerre. Essai sur la souveraineté dans la France du Grand Siècle (Paris 1993); and R. Hatton (ed.), Louis XIV and Europe (London, 1976). Useful too are L. Bély, Espions et ambassadeurs au temps de Louis XIV (Paris, 1980); and for the navy, G. Symcox, The Crisis of French Sea Power, 1688-97: From the Guerre d'Escadre to the Guerre de Course (The Hague, 1974).

1.5 Opposition to Louis XIV     Important overviews are provided by L. Rothkrug, Opposition to Louis XIV. The Political and Social Origins of the French Enlightenment (Princeton, NJ, 1965); J. Klaits, Printed Propaganda under Louis XIV: Absolute Monarchy and Public Opinion (Princeton, NJ, 1977); and I.O. Wade, The Intellectual Origins of the French Enlightenment (Princeton, NJ, 1971). On the circle of the duke of Burgundy, see generally G. Tréca, Les Doctrines et les réformes de droit public en réaction contre l'absolutisme de Louis XIV dans l'entourage du duc de Bourgogne (Paris, 1909). See too La Découverte de la France au XVIIe siècle (IXe Colloque de Marseille: Marseille 1980). Other important studies include H.A. Ellis, Boulainvilliers and the French Monarchy. Aristocratic Politics in Early Eighteenth-Century France (Ithaca, NY, 1988); D. Venturino, 'L'ideologia nobiliare nella Francia del antico regime', Studi storici, 29 (1988); and T.E. Kaiser, 'The abbé de Saint-Pierre, public opinion and the reconstitution of the French monarchy', JMH, 55 (1983). On Fénelon, besides Francois de Fénelon, Telemachus, Son of Ulysses,ed . P. Riley (Cambridge, 1994), see V. Kapp, 'Télémaque' de Fénelon. La signification d'une oeuvre littéraire à la fin du siècle classique (Paris, 1982) and A.Chérel, Fénelon au XVIIIe siècle en France (Paris, 1917).

1.6 Protestantism before 1715 D. Parker, 'The Huguenots in seventeenth-century france', in A.C. Hepburn (ed.), Minorities in History (London, 1978) and  M. Prestwich (ed.), International Calvinism, 1534-1715, (Oxford, 1985). See too J. Garrisson, L'édit de Nantes et sa révocation (Paris, 1985); E. Labrousse, La Révocation de l'édit de Nantes (Paris, 1985); and M. Yardeni, Le Refuge protestant (Paris, 1985). [See too 0.4]

CHAPTER TWO: THE REGENCY AND THE ADVENT OF FLEURY




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