GSAC XVIII Round 2
1. The Oren-Nayar model is a generalization of the Lambertian model of this phenomenon’s diffuse form. The waves involved in this phenomenon lie in the same plane as the normal to the medium interface, and this phenomenon does not occur for a particular polarization at Brewster’s angle. A wave undergoes the “total internal” variety of this phenomenon at the critical angle, and the angle at which this phenomenon occurs is equal to the angle of incidence. FTP, name this change in direction of a wave back into the original medium, easily observable using mirrors.
2. Some sources identify this figure as the offspring of Schoeneus or of Clymene and Iasus, and the sons of Thestius were killed in a controversy over this figure. During games honoring King Pelias, this figure triumphed over Peleus. Sexual indiscretion in the temple of Zeus led to this figure’s transformation into a lioness, and she was awarded the hide of the Calydonian boar by Meleager. For 10 points, name this Arcadian huntress who was distracted by three golden apples, causing her to lose a footrace to her future husband Hippomenes.
3. The first act of this opera concludes with the duet Viene la sera, and the theme of robins building their nests is recalled prior to the aria Un bel di vedremo. The protagonist is initially denounced by her uncle the Bonze and later refuses Sharpless’s advice that she marry Prince Yamadori. At the opera’s close, she stabs herself behind a screen with her father’s dagger after meeting her husband’s American wife Kate. For 10 points, name this opera in which Lieutenant Pinkerton abandons the title character Cio-Cio-San, a work of Giacomo Puccini.
ANSWER: Madame Butterfly
4. The highest point in this country's Beskid Mountains is Mount Babia in its southeast, and Mount Rysy, this country's highest point, lies in the High Tatras Mountains in the southwest. Among this country's sixteen provinces is Masovia, and a city formerly known as Breslau is the capital of the Lower Silesia province. The western border of this country is known as the Oder-Neisse line, and the Carpathian Mountains make up this country’s southern border. The Vistula River is found in, For 10 points, what Central European country which borders Germany on the west and contains the cities of Krakow and Warsaw.
ANSWER: Republic of Poland
5. This thinker discussed “useful labor” and “simple labor power” in a work also analyzing absolute surplus value, and this thinker attacked the individualistic theories of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon in The Poverty of Philosophy. This thinker theorized that people’s social consciousness arose from their relations to modes of production, and he also proposed the concept of the “dictatorship of the proletariat” and interpreted history as a series of class struggles. For 10 points, name this German author of Capital who collaborated with Friedrich Engels on The Communist Manifesto.
ANSWER: Karl Marx
6. One regime in this country collapsed after Prime Minister Bakhtiar and his Regency Council were unable to govern, and this country recaptured Khorramshahr in 1982 after failing to defend it from an attack across Khuzestan. Operation Ajax overthrew this country’s Prime Minister Mossadegh, but more recent instability in this country was caused by Mir Hossein Mousavi’s defeat in a 2009 presidential election, which sparked the “Green Revolution”. For 10 points, name this Middle Eastern country currently fronted by President Ahmadinejad and whose Shah was overthrown in a 1979 revolution by Ayatollah Khomeini.
7. Multiplying one of these by RT raised to the delta-n power yields a different one of these, and standard enthalpy change over R times T-squared is set equal to the change in the natural logarithm of one of these with respect to temperature in the Van’t Hoff equation. These are calculated as the product of the concentrations of the products over the product of the concentrations of the reactants when the reverse and forward reactions are proceeding at equal rates. Including acid and base dissociation varieties, For 10 points, name these constants denoted by K.
ANSWER: Equilibrium Constant
8. After the protagonist of this work refuses to pay his bill at an inn, one of his friends is tossed in a blanket as punishment. The protagonists flee to the mountains after deciding to free a group of galley slaves, and one of them is only able to spend a week governing his promised island. The student Samson Carrasco, after assuming the persona of the Knight of the White Moon, defeats the title character, who idealizes the peasant-girl Dulcinea and enlists Sancho Panza as his squire. For 10 points, name this novel about a delusional old man obsessed with chivalric romances written by Miguel de Cervantes.
ANSWER: Don Quixote de la Mancha
9. The buildup to this war included the Dartford coup and attempts to remove Edmund Duke of Somerset from the government, and those efforts by Duke Richard led to Parliament designating his son as heir to the throne in the Accord. Although Richard was ambushed and killed at Wakefield, his son won at Towton and was crowned. In this war, Henry VI’s attempt to regain the throne was crushed at Tewkesbury by Edward IV, but Edward’s successor was defeated at Bosworth Field. Including the death of Richard III, For 10 points, name this English dynastic war between the Houses of York and Lancaster.
ANSWER: War of the Roses
10. In one poem by this author, the narrator determines to “Raise up thy thoughts above the sky that dunghill mists away may fly” and concludes by stating “The world no longer let me love, my hope and treasure lies above”. That poem also contains the lines “Adieu, adieu, all’s vanity” and “My pleasant things in ashes lie”. Another poem by this author claims “My love is such that rivers cannot quench” and begins “If ever two were one, then surely we”. The author of “Verses Upon the Burning of Our House” and “To My Dear and Loving Husband”, For 10 points, name this colonial American poet.
ANSWER: Anne Bradstreet
11. Some members of this phylum go through the alternative dauer stage during development. Along with rotifers, these organisms are capable of temporarily suspending life processes in a process known as cryptobiosis. They are included with arthropods in a group of animals which shed their cuticles, Ecdysozoa. One member of this phylum comes in a “wild type” N2 strain, was introduced by Sydney Brenner as a model organism, and was the first multicellular organism to have its genome sequenced. Including C. Elegans, For 10 points, name this phylum of roundworms.
ANSWER: Nematoda [accept Nematodes]
12. In one work by this author, Creusa attempts to poison the title character, who is in reality her lost son with Apollo, and in another, Agave kills her son Pentheus for opposing the new religion worshipping Dionysus. In addition to Ion and The Bacchae, a gold headband causes the flaming deaths of Glauce and Creon in a play by this author which sees the title character flee in a dragon-drawn chariot sent by Helios after murdering her children to spite her lover Jason. For 10 points, name this Greek playwright of Medea.
13. In one battle in this war, regulars under John Ross routed a force of several thousand militia under William Winder, and pirates aided one side in winning a battle at Chalmette. The future victor at Veracruz was wounded in this war’s bloodiest battle. During this war, Creek Indians were defeated at Horseshoe Bend, and an invasion of the Niagara peninsula was stopped although Tecumseh was killed at the Thames. Lundy’s Lane, Bladensburg, and the Battle of Lake Erie occurred in, For 10 points, this war which saw Andrew Jackson save New Orleans from the British after this war was ended with the Treaty of Ghent.
ANSWER: War of 1812
14. One band from this city recruited William DuVall after their lead singer died of a drug overdose in 2002. The listener is instructed to “feed my eyes” and asked “can you sew them shut?” by Jerry Cantrell and Layne Staley in that band’s song “Man in the Box”. Another band from this city recently produced the album Backspacer, including the single “The Fixer”. That band’s 1991 debut album Ten generated the hits “Jeremy” and “Even Flow”. For 10 points, name this grunge capital which produced Alice in Chains and Pearl Jam, the largest city in Washington.
15. In one work, this philosopher uses the analogy of lambs and eagles to compare blame exchanged between strong and weak humans and attributes ascetic ideals to the “slave” version of the titular concept. In another work, he equates life with the “will to power”. In addition to On the Genealogy of Morals and Beyond Good and Evil, the concepts of “eternal recurrence” and the Übermensch are presented by the titular Persian prophet in another work by this philosopher. For 10 points, name this German philosopher who declared “God is dead” and wrote Thus Spoke Zarathustra.
ANSWER: Friedrich Nietzsche
16. The last king of this country was Thibaw, whose father Mindon had convened the Fifth Buddhist council. Those two rulers were of the Konbaung Dynasty, which followed a dynasty founded by King Tabinshwehti, the Toungoo dynasty. This country’s first dynasty united this country by conquering the Mon, but Mongol invasions ended that dynasty, the Pagan. Conquered by Britain in the 1800s after three wars, For 10 points, name this Southeast Asian country currently ruled by Than Shwe’s military junta and home to democratic activist Aung San Suu Kyi.
ANSWER: Burma [accept Myanmar]
17. This man’s paper on Hilbert’s Entscheidungsproblem proved that no algorithm exists which can decide whether or not a mathematical assertion has a proof, a conclusion he arrived at independently of Alonzo Church. This man proved the impossibility of a general solution to the halting problem, and he proposed criteria for artificial intelligence in his namesake “test”. The theorizer of a device which operates with symbols on a strip of paper, For 10 points, name this British computer scientist known for his namesake “machines”.
ANSWER: Alan Turing
18. In the background of this painting, a barebacked blond child faces away from the viewer as a similar child dressed in grey stares at the central scene, and both of those children are embraced by a woman in green and blue. To the right, a seated woman with a turquoise headband leans her head and hand on the shoulder of another, and the main figures in this work are framed by three grey arches behind them. In the center, a black-bearded man draped in red holds up three swords as the three armor-clad title figures salute. For 10 points, name this painting depicting three Roman brothers by Jacques-Louis David.
ANSWER: Oath of the Horatii [accept Le Serment des Horaces]
19. This text relates the story of a stone striking the iron and clay feet of a statue composed of various metals, and this text includes an analysis of Jeremiah’s prediction of seventy years of desolation. Three men are preserved when throne into a furnace in this work which includes the vision of combat between a ram and goat. This text also relates the writing on the wall at Belshazzar’s feast and the title character’s survival after being thrown into the den of lions. For 10 points, name this book of the Bible whose title character interprets dreams for the kings of Babylon.
ANSWER: Book of Daniel
20. One character in this play accuses his friend of being deaf during that friend’s confusion as to his identity when asked to “glean what afflicts me”. Another character in this play is stabbed with a retractable dagger after first being discovered playing music in a barrel. In addition to meeting an obscene troupe of players, one of the protagonists questions the laws of probability after a flipped coin repeatedly comes up heads, and after witnessing the corpse of Polonius, the protagonists are sent to be executed in England. For 10 points, name this play about two Danish courtiers from Hamlet written by Tom Stoppard.
ANSWER: Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead
TB. Unlike in adults, in fetuses this molecule does not bind to 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, or DPG, due to its lack of beta subunits, and this molecule is subject to the Bohr effect and the Haldane effect. People with thalassemia produce an abnormal form of this protein which is broken down to produce biliverdin and bilirubin in succession, and this protein contains an iron atom in the center of each of its four porphyrin rings. For 10 points, name this oxygen transport protein found in red blood cells.
1. For 10 points each, name some major Australian cities.
 This is Australia’s largest city and the capital of New South Wales. It contains a notable opera house designed by Jorn Utzon which sits on Bennelong Point on this city’s harbor.
 This capital of Queensland recently suffered from flooding of its namesake river. It contains the Shrine of Remembrance for ANZACs and the Riparian Palaza its tallest building.
 This city is the capital of Western Australia and was founded in 1827 by James Stirling. It sits upon the Swan River and its suburbs include Kwinana, Fremantle, and Welshpool.
2. Molecules are bombarded with high-energy electrons to form molecular ions which undergo fragmentation in this procedure’s “mass” variety. For 10 points each:
 Name this technique of studying matter via its interactions with electromagnetic radiation of varying frequency and often interpreted with a namesake absorption graph.
ANSWER: Spectroscopy [accept Spectrometry]
 In this type of spectroscopy, dipole moment changes and atoms vibrate about covalent bonds as the compound absorbs light of lower frequency than visible light.
ANSWER: IR Spectroscopy [accept Infrared Spectroscopy]
 In this other type of spectroscopy, protons absorb radio waves in the presence of an applied field, changing their spin to flip to a higher-energy state.
ANSWER: NMR Spectroscopy [accept Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy]
3. This U.S. President promulgated a namesake doctrine on European interference in the Western Hemisphere. For 10 points each:
 Name this President, a Democratic-Republican, who succeeded James Madison and had earlier been Minister to France and Senator from Virginia.
ANSWER: James Monroe
 Monroe’s presidency coincided with this U.S. political era, which saw minimal controversy and Democratic-Republican domination with the decline of the Federalists.
ANSWER: The Era of Good Feelings
 The Era of Good Feelings was ended by the 1824 presidential election, which saw this party form and split from the Democratic-Republicans to support John Quincy Adams.
ANSWER: National Republican Party
4. This work clarifies a psychological model laid out in the author’s earlier essay Beyond the Pleasure Principle. For 10 points each:
 Name this essay whose first title concept differs from the primitive latter title concept by its distinction of reality from fiction.
ANSWER: The Ego and the Id [accept equivalents; accept Das Ich und das Es]
 The Ego and the Id was written by this German psychologist who theorized five stages of psychosexual development and founded psychoanalysis.
ANSWER: Sigmund Freud
 Freud’s seminal work dealt with the interpretation of these entities which are the subject of Hobson and McCarley’s activation-synthesis theory.
5. This religious text includes twenty-one hymns called Yashts and a section on ritual and civic law called the Vendidad. For 10 points each:
 Name this text, the current version of which was compiled under the Sassanids. A related collection of minor texts is called the Khurda or “little” one.
 The Avesta is the scripture of this dualistic Persian religion founded in the sixth century B.C. by a namesake prophet. Its rituals include worship at fire temples.
 Often depicted as a winged sun-disc, this chief deity of Zoroastrianism is identified with Spenta Mainyu and opposed by Angra Mainyu, also called Ahriman.
ANSWER: Ahura Mazda [accept Ormazd]
6. In What Is It Like to Be a Bat?, Thomas Nagel refuted the physicalist objection to this position which has predicate-based and property-based variants. For 10 points each:
 Name this philosophical position which asserts the independence of mental and physical phenomena.
 This French philosopher and mathematician was a proponent of dualism. He may be most famous for stating “I think, therefore I am” in his Discourse on Method.
ANSWER: Rene Descartes
 In this work, Descartes uses the modal argument to advocate dualism and rejects Aristotle’s qualitative physics. It is divided into six of the title entities.
ANSWER: Meditations on First Philosophy [accept Meditationes de Prima Philosophia]
7. In this novel, Gibreel Farishta shoots his producer Whisky Sisodia. For 10 points each:
 Name this novel also following the star of The Aliens, Saladin Chamcha, and his wife Pamela Lovelace. Ayatollah Khomeini issued a fatwa against this novel’s author.
ANSWER: The Satanic Verses
 The Satanic Verses was written by this British-Indian author who wrote of Flapping Eagle’s search for the Stone Rose in Grimus as well as writing Midnight’s Children.
ANSWER: Salman Rushdie
 This other Indian novelist wrote of the twins Estha and Rahel, whose mother Ammu is the lover of the untouchable Velutha, in The God of Small Things.
ANSWER: Arundhati Roy
8. This poem includes a section on “Imagination and Taste, How Impaired and Restored” and describes the author’s residence in Cambridge and France. For 10 points each:
 Name this long autobiographical poem subtitled “The Growth of a Poet’s Mind”.
ANSWER: The Prelude
 This other poem imagines “some Hermit’s cave, where by his fire the Hermit sits alone” and comments that “Five years have passed” since visiting the title location.
ANSWER: “Lines Composed a Few Miles Above Tintern Abbey”
 The Prelude and Tintern Abbey were written by this English Romantic poet who collaborated with Samuel Taylor Coleridge on Lyrical Ballads.
ANSWER: William Wordsworth
9. Andrew Wiles used Ken Ribet’s proof of the epsilon conjecture together with the Taniyama-Shimura conjecture to prove this theorem. For 10 points each:
 Name this theorem proposed by a French mathematician which states that x to the n plus y to the n equals z to the n has no nonzero solutions if n is greater than two.
ANSWER: Fermat’s Last Theorem
 Fermat’s little theorem states that a to the power of one of these numbers minus a is divisible by that number. A number of this type is only divisible by itself and one.
ANSWER: Prime Numbers
 This Greek mathematician proposed an easily illustrated algorithm for finding prime numbers known as his namesake “sieve”.
10. During this Indian dynasty, the decimal system was developed. For 10 points each:
 Name this Indian dynasty from the 300s to the 600s A.D. which is known for its advancements in science and culture. Its rule reached its greatest extent under Samudra.
 This other Indian dynasty preceded the Gupta and was founded in the wake of Alexander the Great’s death by Chandragupta.
ANSWER: Mauryan [accept Maurya]
 This Mauryan emperor was famous for his patronage of Buddhism, which he adopted in the wake of his conquest of Kalinga. His namesake wheel appears on the Indian flag.
ANSWER: Ashoka [accept Asoka]
11. The French won a victory at Agnadello while acting as a member of this alliance. For 10 points each:
 Name this alliance named for a city in France, formed by France, Aragon, the Holy Roman Empire, and the Papacy against the aggression of a certain Italian city.
ANSWER: The League of Cambrai
 The League of Cambrai was formed against this Italian city and trading center, notable for its canals and gondolas.
 This “Warrior Pope” was central to the formation of the League against Venice, but he switched sides as it collapsed in 1510. He also patronized such artists as Michelangelo.
ANSWER: Julius II [prompt on Julius]
12. Worship of this god originated at Nekhen, and his four sons were identified with the canopic jars. For 10 points each:
 Name this falcon-headed Egyptian god of the sky who built a ship of wood disguised as stone for a race against Set.
 This consort of Horus associated with the sistrum was the goddess of love, fertility, and mining, had a cult in Dandarah, and was depicted as a cow.
 This creator god portrayed as a mummified human manifested himself as the bull Apis. His worship along with that of Sekhmet and Nefertem spread from Memphis.
13. In this work, Ezra Mannon returns from the Civil War to be poisoned by his wife Christine, whose affair with Captain Brant enrages Lavinia. For 10 points each:
 Name this trilogy of plays consisting of Homecoming, The Hunted, and The Haunted.
ANSWER: Mourning Becomes Electra
 Doctor Hardy recommends that the tubercular Edmund be sent to a sanatorium in this play following the Tyrone family, whose matriarch Mary is a morphine addict.
ANSWER: Long Day’s Journey Into Night
 This playwright who depicted Nina Leeds’ illegitimate son in Strange Interlude wrote Mourning Becomes Electra and Long Day’s Journey Into Night.
ANSWER: Eugene O’Neill
14. After the team he managed qualified for the 2010 World Cup, this man told members of the press to “suck it, and keep on sucking it.” For 10 points each:
 Name this captain of the 1986 World Cup champion team who scored a goal known as the “Goal of the Century” in a quarterfinal against England.
ANSWER: Diego Maradona
 Maradona captained and managed the team from this country who lost 4-0 to Germany in a 2010 quarterfinal and whose recent players include forward Lionel Messi.
 Just prior to the “Goal of the Century”, Maradona scored an illegal yet unpenalized goal known by this nickname. Messi replicated the play in a 2007 game against Spain.
ANSWER: “Hand of God”
15. This character and the painter Mikhailov both create portraits of his lover. For 10 points each:
 Name this count, the initial beloved of his lover’s sister-in-law Kitty, who originally rejects Levin in hopes of this character proposing to her.
ANSWER: Alexei Vronsky
 Vronsky is the lover of this novel’s title character, the sister of Stiva Oblonsky, who commits suicide by throwing herself in front of a train.
ANSWER: Anna Karenina
 Anna Karenina was written by this Russian author of The Power of Darkness and War and Peace.
ANSWER: Leo Tolstoy
16. These phenomena arise from interference patterns caused by waves being reflected in a linear medium. For 10 points each:
 Name this type of wave whose nodes and antinodes remain stationary.
ANSWER: Standing Wave
 In this phenomenon which can be viewed in standing waves, a system vibrates at a natural frequency determined by its physical parameters, maximizing velocity amplitude.
 This name is given to the lowest resonant frequency of a standing wave. The wave’s harmonics are all multiples of this frequency.
ANSWER: Fundamental Frequency
17. The Persians seized Athens prior to this battle. For 10 points each:
 Name this 480 B.C. naval battle, in which the Greek fleet defeated a larger Persian fleet in confined waters between Piraeus and the namesake island to which the Athenians fled.
ANSWER: Battle of Salamis
 This Athenian admiral and statesmen led the Greek fleet after earlier convincing the Athenian assembly to fund its construction. He was later ostracized by Cimon.
 This Persian emperor, the son of Darius the Great, watched the Battle of Salamis from a throne on the shore and fled Greece after the defeat.
ANSWER: Xerxes the Great [accept Xerxes I; prompt on Xerxes]
18. Ornaments resembling eyes cover the gold dress of the subject of this artist’s Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I. For 10 points each:
 Name this Austrian painter of the Beethoven Frieze and a Portrait of Fritza Riedler who founded the Vienna Secession.
ANSWER: Gustav Klimt
 Klimt may be best known for this painting of an embracing couple which shares its name with statues by Brancusi and Rodin.
ANSWER: The Kiss [accept Der Kuss]
 A drawing called The Kiss was made by this Dutch-American abstract expressionist better known for Pink Lady and his Woman series.
ANSWER: Willem de Kooning
19. These organs force water through pores called hydathodes in a process called guttation. For 10 points each:
 Name this plant organ which has stomata and guard cells in its epidermis and carries out photosynthesis.
 Leaves contain palisade and spongy layers of this tissue, the primary site for gas exchange and photosynthesis.
 Mesophyll is composed of these thin cells, the main component of ground tissue, which also includes collenchyma and sclerenchyma.
20. This work’s composer was limited to thirteen musical parts by the size of the auditorium in which it premiered. For 10 points each:
 Name this ballet depicting a newlywed couple on the Pennsylvania frontier which was written for and choreographed by Martha Graham.
ANSWER: Appalachian Spring
 Appalachian Spring is a work of this American composer of Connotations for Orchestra, Lincoln Portrait, and Fanfare for the Common Man.
ANSWER: Aaron Copland
 This other Copland ballet includes such movements as Street in a Frontier Town, Prairie Night, and Gun Battle, and it depicts the death of the titular outlaw.
ANSWER: Billy the Kid
Extra. This author of the play Irene wrote about the titular Abyssinian prince in Rasselas. For 10 points each:
 Name this English author, the subject of a biography by James Boswell, who wrote A Dictionary of the English Language.
ANSWER: Samuel Johnson
 This later lexicographer compiled a Compendious Dictionary of the English Language and the more influential An American Dictionary of the English Language.
ANSWER: Noah Webster
 This author of the short stories The Boarded Window, Moxon’s Master, and The Damned Thing compiled a set of satirical definitions in his The Devil’s Dictionary.
ANSWER: Ambrose Bierce