Grammatica de interlingua de Alexander Gode &



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I.C Derivation ab verbos
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§145 Le suffixos usate in DERIVAR NOVE VOCABULOS AB VERBOS es generalmente connectite al thema verbal per medio de elementos transitional le quales non es le mesme pro omne verbos ni pro omne suffixos.

Il es costumari citar le elementos transitional como parte del suffixos postverbal con le resultato que illos practicamente omnes appare sub plure formas variante (como -ation, -ition, -ion, etc.) Exceptiones es le suffixos constante -ada, -age, e -eria. Con omne formas variabile reducite a lor portion non-variabile, le suffixos postverbal es: -ada, -age, -eria, -nte, -ntia, -mento, -bile -ion, -ive, -ura, -or, -ori, -orio, -e.

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Prime thema
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§146 Il pote esser dicite que omne verbo ha duo formas distincte sub le quales illo pote entrar in un derivato de suffixo postverbal. Le prime de iste formas o themas combinatori es sempre le infinitivo minus le desinentias infinitive -ar, -er, o -ir. Le suffixos que se combina con iste thema es -ada, -age, -eria, -nte, -ntia, -mento, -bile. Le ultime quatro de istes require un "elemento transitional." In le caso de verbos in -ar, illo es sempre -a; in le caso de verbos in -er, illo es -i pro -mento e -bile, e -e pro -nte e -ntia; in le caso de verbos in -ir, illo es -i pro -mento e -bile, e -ie pro -nte e -ntia. Pro illustrationes, vide §152.

§147 Assi le formas complete del suffixos postverbal que se combina con le infinitivo minus le desinentia infinitive (prime thema) es:


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Derivation from verbs
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§ 145. I.C.- The suffixes used in DERIVING NEW WORDS FROM VERBS are generally linked to the verbal stem by means of transition features which are not the same for all verbs nor for all suffixes.

It is customary to cite the transition features as part of the postverbal suffixes with the result that practically everyone of them appears under several variant forms (as -ation, -ition, -ion, etc.). Exceptions are the constant suffixes -ada, -age, and -eria. With all variable forms reduced to their non-variable portion, the postverbal suffixes are:

-ada -ion -age -ive -eria -ura -nte -or -ntia -ori, -orio -mento -e -bile


 
 
 

§ 146. Every verb may be said to have two distinct forms under which it can enter into a postverbal suffix derivative. The first of these combining forms or stems is always the infinitive less the infinitive endings -ar, -er, or -ir. The suffixes which combine with this stem are -ada, -age, -eria, -nte, -ntia, -mento, -bile. The last four of these require a "transition feature." In the case of verbs in -ar, it is always -a-; in the case of verbs in -er, it is -i- for -mento and -bile and -e- for -rite and -ntia; in the case of verbs in -ir, it is -i- for -mento and -bile and -ie- for -nte and -ntia. For illustrations, see § 152.

§ 147. Thus the full forms of the postverbal suffixes which combine with the infinitive less the infinitive ending (first stem) are:


suffixo (-ar) (-er) (-ir)

------- ------- ------- -------

-ada -ada -ada -ada

-age -age -age -age

-eria -eria -eria -eria

-nte -ante -ente -iente

-ntia -antia -entia -ientia

-mento -amento -imento -imento

-bile -abile -ibile -ibile


Sub iste formas le suffixos individual es tractate infra. Nota que -ante e su variantes es participios presente e como tales es tractate in §94 supra.

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Secunde thema
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§148 Le secunde forma o thema combinatori es o irregular - in qual caso illo es listate in le Interlingua-English Dictionary (vide, per exemplo, sub figer, verter, cognoscer, etc.)1 - o resulta del prime thema per le addition de -at in le caso de verbos in -ar, o -it in le caso de verbos in -er e -ir. Le suffixos que se combina con le secunde thema es: -ion, -ive, -ura, -or, -ori, -orio, -e.

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1 Pro un exposition descriptive de secunde themas irregular, vide Appendice 1. - Un systema collateral de tractar themas irregular - que es a adoptar o rejectar systematicamente, sed non a miscer casualmente con le systema delineate in le texto - se basa super un quadruple in loco de un triple gruppamento de verbos. Le gruppos con infinitivos in -ar e -ir remane inalterate.

Le gruppo de verbos listate in le Interlingua-English Dictionary con infinitivos terminante in -er es subdividite in

(a) infinitivos que remane inalterate,
(b) infinitivos in -ere que non es accentuate.

Le gruppo de verbos con infinitivos in -ere non-accentuate coincide quasi completemente con ille verbos que es listate in le Interlingua-English Dictionary (e describite in Appendice 1) como habente infinitivos in -er e un secunde thema irregular. Quando iste systema es adoptate, il seque (con le duo modificationes date infra) que tote le verbos in -ere ha secunde themas irregular. Pro establir le nove gruppo complete de verbos in -ere, illo debe (a) esser facite includer un numero de verbos que es listate in le Dictionario sin un secunde thema irregular, e (b) esser reducite per alicun verbos que jam appare in le Dictionario con un thema irregular.

(a) Le gruppo de verbos in -ere include le verbos sequente que non ha secunde themas irregular:


Under these forms the individual suffixes are treated below. Note that -ante and its variants are present participles and as such are treated in § 94 above.
 
 
 
 

§ 148. The second combining form or stem is either irregular -- in which case it is given in the Interlingua-English Dictionary (see, for instance, under figer, verter, cognoscer, etc.)* -- or results from the first stem by the addition of -at- in the case of verbs in -at and of -it- in the case of verbs in -er and -it. The suffixes which combine with the second stem are -ion, -ive, -ura, -or, -ori, -orio.

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*For a descriptive survey of irregular second stems, see Appendix I. -- A collateral system of dealing with irregular stems -- to be adopted or rejected systematically but not to be mixed haphazardly with the system outlined in the text- is based on a fourfold in lieu of a threefold grouping of verbs. The groups with infinitives in -at and -it remain unaffected.

The group of verbs listed in the Interlingua-English Dictionary with infinitives ending in -er is subdivided in

(a) infinitives which remain unaffected and
(b) infinitives in unstressed -ere.

The group of verbs with infinitives in unstressed -ere coincides almost completely with those verbs which are listed in the Interlingua-English Dictionary (and described in Appendix I) as having infinitives in -er and an irregular second stem. When this system is adopted, it follows (with the two qualifications given below) that all verbs in -ere have irregular second stems. To establish the complete new group of verbs in -ere, it must (a) be made to include a number of verbs which are listed in the Dictionary without an irregular second stem and (b) be reduced by some verbs which do appear in the Dictionary with an irregular stem.

(a) The group of verbs in -ere does include the following verbs which have no irregular second stem:


addere, appetere, arguere, congruere; incumbere, e succumbere; edere [mangiar], edere [editar], essere, fremere, furere, lambere, molere, perdere, petere, rendere, strepere, tremere, vergere, vivere, --- e lor compositos / and their compounds.

(b) Le gruppo de verbos in -ere non include le verbos sequente que ha secunde themas irregular:

(b) The group of verbs in -ere does not include the following verbs which do have irregular second stems:

censer, compler, deler, docer; adherer, coherer, e inherer; indulger, luger, miscer, morder, mover, mulger, pender, posseder, rider, seder; assider, dissider, presider, resider, subsider, e obsider; sorber, sponder, suader, tener, tonder, torquer, torrer, vider, --- e lor compositos / and their compounds.

In reguardo de omne derivatos, le verbos in -ere non-accentuate seque le patrono describite in le texto pro verbos in -er accentuate. Omne le participios passate in -ite (sia de verbos in -er o -ere) es accentuate super le tertie syllaba ab le fin e non es afficite per le orthographia collateral discutite in §15h supra.
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§149 Per ligar le elementos -at e -it con le suffixos listate, un exposition de formas resulta in le qual le distinction inter le prime e secunde thema debe esser mantenite solo pro verbos con un secunde thema irregular. Le formas es:

In regard to all derivatives the verbs in unstressed -ere follow the patterns described in the text for verbs in stressed -er. All past participles in -ite (whether from verbs in -er or -ere) are stressed on the third syllable from the end and are not affected by the collateral spelling discussed in § 15h above.
---
§ 149. By linking the elements -at- and -it- with the suffixes listed, a survey of forms results in which the distinction between first and second stem need be maintained only for verbs with an irregular second stem. The forms are:



Verbos regular Verbos irregular

(addite al prime thema) (addite al secunde thema)

(-ar) (-er, -ir) (-ar, -er, -ir)

----------------------- -------------------------

-ation -ition -ion

-ative -itive -ive

-atura -itura -ura

-ator -itor -or

-atori -itori -ori

-atorio -itorio -orio

-ate -ite -e




§150 Nota: Omne verbos pote esser tractate como regular con le resultato de duplettos como

facer (fac-/fact-) -> factor o facitor; tender (tend-/tens-) -> tenditor o tensor: uno qui tende; etc.

In nove formationes le variante regular es generalmente preferite. Le suffixo -ate e su variantes forma adjectivos participial como tractate in §95 supra. Le suffixo -bile, que se combina regularmente con le prime thema, es ligate al secunde thema irregular quando illo termina in -pt, -st, -s, -ss, o -x.

§151 Concernente le uso del formas infinitive complete como substantivos, vide §83 supra.



§ 150. Note: All verbs may be treated as regular with the result of doublets like

facer 'to make') factor or facitor 'maker'; tender 'to stretch' > tenditor or tensor 'stretcher (one who stretches)'; etc.

In new formations the regular variant is generally preferred. The suffix -ate and its variants form participial adjectives as treated in § 95 above. The suffix -bile which combines regularly with the first stem, is joined to the irregular second stem when it ends in -pt-, -st-, -s-, -ss-, or -x-.

§ 151. On the use of the full infinitive forms as nouns, see § 83 above.





§152 Substantivos e adjectivos es derivate ab verbos per medio del suffixos listate infra. Le desinentias infinitive in parentheses post le variantes de suffixo identifica le classe de verbos regular al qual le uso de un suffixo particular es restringite. Le variantes de suffixo que es restringite in uso a combinationes con secunde themas irregular es explicitemente identificate como tales.

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Substantivos derivate ab verbos
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-ada = continuate o prolongate action de ...; p.ex. cavalcar: ir a cavallo -> cavalcada: action de cavalcar;


nove formation: currer -> currada;
Nota: Pro formationes ab substantivos, vide §138. Pro synonymos e quasi-synonymos, vide §154.
 
 

-age = action o processo de ...; p.ex. acierar: laminar con aciero -> acierage: placage de aciero;


nove formationes: borrar -> borrage: (action de) borrar; contrafacer -> contrafaciage;
Nota: Pro formationes ab substantivos, vide §138; scribite -agi ante -a o -o de suffixo additional. Pro synonymos e quasi-synonymos, vide §154.

-amento (-ar), -imento (-er, -ir) = action o resultato de ...; p.ex. arrangiar -> arrangiamento; abolir -> abolimento;


nove formation: fagottar: ligar in fasces -> fagottamento; fulger -> fulgimento;
Nota: Pro synonymos e quasi-synonymos, vide §154.
 
 

-ante (-ar), -ente (-er), -iente (-ir) = uno qui o lo que...; p.ex. brillar -> brillante; studer -> studente; emollir [Medicina] -> emolliente;


nove formationes: formar -> formante; diriger -> dirigente: director, conductor, gerente; inhibir -> inhibiente;
Nota: In forma identic con le participio presente del qual illo es un substantivation. Vide §93, specialmente le nota. In signification similar a -ator etc. sed accentuante le progresso del action.
 
 
 

-antia (-ar), -entia (-er), -ientia (-ir) = stato o qualitate de ...; p.ex. tolerar -> tolerantia; adolescer: devenir adulte -> adolescentia; experir -> experientia;


nove formationes: irradiar -> irradiantia; arder -> ardentia; inciper -> incipientia;
Nota: Identic in forma con derivato in -ia del participio presente. Vide §93, specialmente le nota, e §141.
 
 
 

-ation (-ar), -ition (-er, -ir) = action o resultato de ...; p.ex. installar -> installation; adder -> addition; audir -> audition;


nove formationes: atomisar -> atomisation; amollir -> amollition; In le caso de verbos que ha un secunde thema irregular, le variante curte -ion es usate con ille thema. P.ex. convenir (-ven-/-vent-) -> convention,
nove formationes: derelinquer (-linqu-/-lict-) -> dereliction; consentir (-sent-/-sens-) -> consension;
Nota: Pro synonymos e quasi-synonymos, vide §154.
 
 
 

-ator (-ar), -itor (-er, -ir) = uno qui, o lo que ...; p.ex. administrar -> administrator; accelerar -> accelerator; consumer -> consumitor; expedir -> expeditor;


nove formationes: ponderar -> ponderator; siccar -> siccator; urger -> urgitor; compartir -> compartitor; In le caso de verbos que ha un secunde thema irregular, le variante curte -or es usate con ille thema. P.ex. distribuer (-tribu-/-tribut-) -> distributor;
nove formationes: franger (-frang-/-fract-) -> fractor; exhaurir (-haur-/-haust-) -> exhaustor;
Nota: In signification similar a -ante etc. le qual es preferite in le caso de verbos in -escer. Le correspondente forma feminin es -atrice etc.
 
 
 
 
 

-atorio (-ar), -itorio (-er, -ir) = loco ubi, installation o instrumento con le qual, ... es facite; p.ex. laborar -> laboratorio; abatter: -> abattitorio; audir -> auditorio;


nove formationes: fumar -> fumatorio; biber -> bibitorio; blanchir -> blanchitorio; In le caso de verbos que ha un secunde thema irregular, le variante curte -orio es usate con ille thema. P.ex. scriber (-scrib-/-script-) -> scriptorio;
nove formation: calefacer (-fac-/-fact-) -> calefactorio: installation pro calefacer;
 
 
 
 
 
 

-atrice (-ar), -itrice (-er, -ir) = un femina qui ...; p.ex. imperar -> imperatrice; consumer -> consumitrice; expedir -> expeditrice;


nove formationes: crear -> creatrice; moner -> monitrice; audir -> auditrice; In le caso de verbos que ha un secunde thema irregular, le variante curte -rice es usate con ille thema, a condition que illo termina in -t. Con altere themas irregular, le formation es a evitar. - P.ex. ager (ag-/act-) -> actrice;
nove formation: sarcir (sarc-/sart-) -> sartrice;
Nota: Synonymo del correspondente forma masculin, -ator etc., modificate per le suffixo -essa.
 
 
 

-atura (-ar), -itura (-er, -ir) = action o resultato de ...; p.ex. filar -> filatura; crear -> creatura; vestir -> vestitura;


nove formationes: martellar -> martellatura; nutrir -> nutritura; In le caso de verbos que ha un secunde thema irregular, le variante curte -ura es usate con ille thema. P.ex. miscer (misc-/mixt-) -> mixtura; aperir (-per-/-pert-) -> apertura;
nove formationes: tanger (tang-/tact-) -> tactura; sarcir (sarc-/sart-) -> sartura;
Nota: Pro synonymos e quasi-synonymos, vide §154.
 
 
 
 
 

-eria 1. = loco ubi ... es facite; p.ex. distillar -> distilleria;


nove formationes: blanchir -> blancheria; piscar -> pischeria: loco a piscar; 2. = arte, mestiero, commercio, o practica de ...; etiam: le producto de tal travalio; p.ex. brodar -> broderia;
nove formation: robar -> roberia;
Nota: Pro formationes ab substantivos, vide §138. Pro synonymos e quasi-synonymos, vide §154.
 
 

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Adjectivos derivate ab verbos
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>-abile (-ar), -ibile (-er, -ir) = que pote esser ...te; que es digne a ...; p.ex. observar -> observabile; admirar -> admirabile; leger -> legibile; audir -> audibile;


nove formationes: exaggerar -> inexaggerabile; financiar -> financiabile; finir -> finibile; franger -> frangibile; In le caso de verbos que ha un secunde thema irregular, le forma -ibile es usate con ille thema quando illo termina in -s, -pt, -st, o -x. P.ex. perciper (-cip-/-cept-) -> perceptibile;
nove formation: tonder (tond-/tons-) -> intonsibile; Vide etiam §150 supra.
 
 
 
 
 

-ante (-ar), -ente (-er), -iente (-ir) = que ...; p.ex. abundar -> abundante; coherer: -> coherente; obedir -> obediente;


nove formationes: florar -> florante; subscriber -> subscribente; inhibir -> inhibiente;
Nota: Identic con participio presente. Vide §93, specialmente le nota.
 
 
 
 

-ate (-ar), -ite (-er, -ir)


1. = essente ...te; p.ex. concentrar -> concentrate; addormir -> addormite; posseder -> possedite;
nove formationes: civilisar -> civilisate; perder -> perdite; prohibir -> prohibite;
2. = habente ...te; p.ex. mediar -> mediate; tacer: esser silente -> tacite;
nove formationes: germinar -> germinate; jacer -> jacite; cader -> cadite; faller -> fallite;

In le caso de verbos que ha un secunde thema irregular, le variante curte -e es usate con ille thema. P.ex. confunder (-fund-/-fus-) -> confuse;


nove formation: scriber (scrib-/script-) -> scripte;
Nota: Identic con le participio passate. Vide §§95-97.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

-ative (-ar), -itive (-er, -ir)


1. = tendente a ...; p.ex. sedar -> sedative; depler -> depletive; fugir -> fugitive;
nove formationes: isolar -> isolative;, moner -> monitive; finir -> finitive;
2. = habente le function de ...; p.ex. demonstrar -> demonstrative; compler -> completive; partir -> partitive;
nove formationes: alligar -> alligative; circumjacer -> circumjacitive; guarnir -> guarnitive;

In le caso de verbos que ha un secunde thema irregular, le variante curte -ive es usate con ille thema. P.ex. reciper (-cip-/-cept-) -> receptive; defender (-fend-/-fens-) -> defensive;


nove formationes: eveller (-vell-/-vuls-) -> evulsive; exhaurir (-haur-/-haust-) -> exhaustive;
 
 
 
 

-atori (-ar), -itori (-er, -ir) = pertinente a, o serviente pro, le action de ...; p.ex. circular -> circulatori; merer -> meritori; transir -> transitori;


nove formationes: ventilar -> ventilatori; coercer -> coercitori; In le caso de verbos que ha un secunde thema irregular, le variante curte -ori es usate con ille thema. P.ex. deluder (-lud-/-lus-) -> delusori;
nove formationes: sentir (-sent-/-sens-) -> sensori; accender (-cend-/-cens-) -> accensori;
Nota: Frequentemente servi como le adjectivo general que refere a substantivos in -ion.

§ 152. Nouns and adjectives are derived from verbs by means of the suffixes listed below. The infinitive endings in parentheses following the suffix variants identify the class of regular verbs to which the use of a particular suffix is restricted. The suffix variants restricted in use to combinations with irregular second stems are explicitly identified as such.
 

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Nouns derived from verbs
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-ada n 'continued or prolonged action of ...ing' e.g. cavalcar 'to ride on horseback' > cavalcada 'horseback ride';


new formation: currer 'to run' > currada 'running, run'
Note: For formations from nouns, see § 138. For synonyms and quasi-synonyms, see § 154.
 

-age n 'action or process of ...ing' e.g. acierar 'to plate with steel' > acierage 'steel plating';


new formations: borrar 'to stuff' > borrage '(action of) stuffing'; contrafacer 'to counterfeit' > contrafaciage 'counterfeiting'
Note: For formations from nouns, see § 138; spelled -agi- before -a- or -o- of additional suffix. For synonyms and quasi-synonyms, see § 154.

-amento (-ar), -imento (-er, -ir) n 'action or result of ...ing' e.g. arrangiar 'to arrange' > arrangiamento 'arrangement'; abolir 'to abolish' > abolimento 'abolishment';


new formation: fagottar 'to fagot, bind into bundles' > fagottamento 'fagoting'; fulger 'to flash' > fulgimento 'flash, fulguration'
Note: For synonyms and quasi-synonyms, see § 154.

-ante (-ar), -ente (-er), -ientia (-ir) n 'one who or that which is ...ing or ...s' e.g. brillar 'to shine' > brillante 'brilliant'; studer 'to study' > studente 'student'; emollir [Med.] 'to soften, to mollify' > emolliente 'emollient';


new formations: formar 'to form' > formante 'formant'; diriger 'to direct, guide, manage'> dirigente 'director conductor, manager'; inhibir 'to inhibit' > inhibiente 'inhibiter, inhibitor'
Note: In form identical with the present participle of which it is a substantivization. See § 93, especially the note. In meaning akin to -ator etc. but stressing the cut progress of the action.

-antia (, -entia (-er), -ientia (-ir) n 'state or quality of... ing' e.g. tolerar 'to tolerate' > tolerantia 'tolerance'; adolescer 'to grow up, to become adolescent' > adolescentia 'adolescence'; experir 'to try' > experientia 'experience';


new formations: irradiar 'to irradiate' > irradiantia 'irradiance'; arder 'to burn' > ardentia 'ardency'; inciper 'to begin' > incipientia 'incipience, incipiency'
Note: Identical in form with derivative in '-ia from the present participle. See § 93, especially the note, and § 141.

-ation (-ar), -ition (-er, -ir) n 'action or result of ...ing' e.g. installar 'to install' >> installation; adder 'to add' > addition; audir 'to hear' > audition;


new formations: atomisar 'to atomize' > atomisation 'atomization'; amollir 'to soften' > amollition 'softening'
In the case of verbs which have an irregular second stem, the short variant -ion is used with that stem. E.g. convenir (-ven-/-vent-) 'to convene' > convention;
new formations: derelinquer (-linqu-/-lict-) 'to forsake' > dereliction; consentir (-sent-/-sens-) 'to consent' > consension 'consenting, consent.'
Note: For synonyms and quasi-synonyms, see § 154.

-ator (-at), -itor (-er, -ir) n 'one who, or that which ...s' e.g. administrar 'to administrate' > administrator; accelerar 'to accelerate' > accelerator; consumer 'to consume' > consumitor 'consumer'; expedir 'to send off' > expeditor 'sender';


new formations: ponderar 'to ponder' > ponderator 'ponderer'; siccar 'to dry' > siccator 'drier'; urger 'to urge' > urgitor 'urger'; compartir 'to partition' > compartitor 'partitioner' In the case of verbs which have an irregular second stem, the short variant -or is used with that stem. E.g. distribuer (-tribu-/-tribut-) 'to distribute' > distributor;
new formations: franger (-frang-/-fract-) 'to break' > fractor 'breaker'; exhaurir (-haur-/-haust-) > exhaustor.
Note: In meaning akin to -ante etc. which is to be preferred in the case of verbs in -escer. The corresponding feminine form is -atrice etc.

-atorio (-ar), -itorio (-er, -ir) n 'place where, installation or instrument with which, ...ing is done' e.g. laborar 'to work' > laboratorio 'laboratory'; abatter 'to knock or cast down' > abattitorio 'slaughterhouse'; audit 'to hear' > auditorio 'auditorium';


new formations: fumar 'to fume, smoke' > fumatorio 'smoke house, smoking room, etc.'; biber 'to drink' > bibitorio 'drinking place'; blanchir 'to bleach' > blanchitorio 'bleaching ground' In the case of verbs which have an irregular second stem, the short variant -orio is used with that stem. E.g. scriber (-scrib-/-script-) 'to write' > scriptorio 'writing desk';
new formation: calefacer (-fac-/-fact-) 'to heat' > calefactorio 'heating plant.'

-atrice (-ar), -itrice (-er, ir) n 'a woman who ...s' e.g. imperar 'to rule over' > imperatrice 'empress'; consumer 'to consume' > consumitrice '(woman) consumer'; expedir 'to send off' > expeditrice '(woman) sender';


new formations: crear 'to create' > creatrice 'creatress'; moner 'to admonish' > monitrice '(woman) admonisher'; audir 'to hear' > auditrice '(woman) hearer' In the case of verbs which have an irregular second stem, the short variant -rice is used with that stem, provided it ends in -t-. With other irregular stems, the formation is to be avoided. E.g. ager (ag-/act-) 'to act' > actrice 'actress';
new formation: sarcir (sarc-/sart-) 'to mend' > sartrice 'dressmaker, seamstress.'
Note: Synonym of the corresponding male form, -ator etc., modified by the suffix -essa.

-atura (-ar), -itura (-er, -ir) n 'action or result of ...ing' e.g. filar 'to spin' > filatura '(act of) spinning'; crear 'to create' > creatura 'creature'; vestir 'to dress' > vestitura 'clothing';


new formations: martellar 'to hammer' > martellatura 'hammering'; nutrir 'to nourish' > nutritura '(act of) nourishing, nutrition' In the case of verbs which have an irregular second stem, the short variant -ura is used with that stem. E.g. miscer (misc- / mixt-) 'to mix' > mixtura 'mixture'; aperir (-per- / -pert-) 'to open' > apertura 'opening';
new formations: tanger (tang- / tact-) 'to touch' > tactura 'touching'; sarcir (sarc- / sart-) 'to mend' > sartura 'mending, repair.'
Note: For synonyms and quasi-synonyms, see § 154.

-eria n 1. 'place where... is done' e.g. distillar 'to distill' > distilleria 'distillery';


new formations: blanchir 'to bleach' > blancheria 'bleachery'; piscar 'to fish' > pischeria 'fishing place'; 2. 'art, craft, trade, or practice of ...ing; also: the product of such work' e.g. brodar 'to embroider' > broderia 'embroidery';
new formation: robar 'to rob' > roberia 'robbery'
Note: For formations from nouns, see § 138. For synonyms and quasi-synonyms, see § 154.

----------------------------- Adjectives derived from verbs -----------------------------

-abile (-ar) -ibile (-er,-ir) adj 'that can be ...ed; that is worthy to be ...ed' e.g. observar 'to observe' > observabile 'observable'; admirar 'to admire' > admirabile 'admirable'; leger 'to read' > legibile 'readable, legible'; audir 'to hear' > audibile 'audible';
new formations: exaggerar 'to exaggerate' > inexaggerabile 'inexaggerable'; financiar 'to finance' > financiabile 'financeable, that can be financed'; finir 'finish' > finibile 'finishable,'; franger 'to break' > frangibile 'frangible, breakable' In case of verbs which have an irregular second stem, the form -ibile is used with that stem when it ends in -s-, -pt-, -st-, or -x-. E.g. perciper (-cip-/-cept-) 'to perceive > perceptibile 'perceptible';
new formation: tonder (tond-/tons-) 'to cut' 'intonsibile 'uncuttable.' See also § 150 above.

-ante (-ar), -ente (-er), -iente (-ir) adj '...ing, that ...s' e.g. abundar 'to abound' > abundante 'abounding, abundant'; coherer 'to cohere, be coherent' > coherente 'coherent'; obedir 'to obey' > obediente 'obedient';


new formations: florar 'to flower, to flourish' > florante 'flowering, flourishing'; subscriber 'to subscribe' > subscribente 'subscribing'; inhibit 'to inhibit' > inhibiente 'inhibiting'
Note: Identical with present participle. See § 93, especially the note.

-ate (-ar), -ite (-er, -ir) adj


1. '...ed, being...ed' e.g. concentrar 'to concentrate' > concentrate 'concentrated'; addormir 'to put to sleep' > ardormite 'asleep'; posseder 'to possess' > possedite 'possessed';
new formations: civilisar 'to civilize' > civilisate 'civilized'; perder 'to lose' > perdite 'lost'; prohibir 'to prohibit, forbid' prohibite 'prohibited, forbidden';
2. '...ed, having ...ed' e.g. mediar 'to mediate' > mediate 'mediate'; tacer 'to be silent' > tacite 'tacit';
new formations: germinar 'to germinate' > germinate 'germinated'; jacer 'to lie' > jacite 'lying down'; cader 'to fall' > cadite 'fallen'; faller 'to fail' > fallite 'failed, that has failed'

In the case of verbs which have an irregular second stem, the short variant -e is used with that stem. E.g. confunder (-fund-/-fus-) 'to confuse' > confuse 'confused';


new formation: scriber (scrib- / script-) 'to write' > scripte 'written.'
Note: Identical with the past participle. See §§ 95-97.

-ative (-ar), -itive (-er, -ir) adj


1. 'tending to ...' e.g. sedar 'to soothe' > sedative; depler 'deplete' > depletive; fugir 'to flee' > fugitive;
new formations: isolar 'to isolate' > isolative; moner 'to admonish' > monitive 'admonitive'; finir 'to finish' finitive 'concluding';
2. 'having the function of ...ing' e.g. demonstrar 'to demonstrate' > demonstrative; compler 'to complete' > completive; partir 'to part, divide' > partitive;
new formations: alligar 'to bind' > alligative 'binding'; circumjacer 'to surround' > circumjacitive 'surrounding'; guarnir 'to decorate, trim' > guarnitive 'decorative'

In the case of verbs which have an irregular second stem, the short variant -ive is used with that stem. E.g. reciper (-cip-/-cept-) 'to receive' > receptive; defender (-fend-/-fens-) 'to defend' > defensive;


new formations: eveller (-vell-/-vuls-) 'to tear out' > evulsive 'tending to tear out'; exhaurir (-haur-/-haust-) 'to exhaust' exhaustive.

-atori (-at), -itori (-er, -ir) adj 'pertaining to, or serving for, the action of ...ing' e.g. circular 'to circulate' > circulatori 'circulatory'; merer 'to merit' > meritori 'meritorious'; transit 'to go across' > transitori 'transitory';


new formations: ventilar 'to ventilate' > ventilatori 'ventilatory'; coercer 'to coerce' > coercitori 'coercive' In the case of verbs which have an irregular second stem, the short variant -ori is used with that stem. E.g. deluder (-lud-/-lus-) 'to delude' > delusori 'delusory';
new formations: sentir (-sent-/-sens-) 'to feel' > sensori 'sensory'; accender (-cend-/-cens-) 'to light, ignite' > accensori 'lighting, igniting.'
Note: Frequently serving as the general adjective relating to nouns in -ion.



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Suffixos postverbal adjective
-----------------------------

§153 Il ha cinque SUFFIXOS POSTVERBAL ADJECTIVE.

(1) -abile, -ibile exprime que le action pote o poterea o deberea esser applicate a un cosa o persona:

causar - causabile: miraculos es causabile solmente per fortias supernatural [miraculos pote esser causate solmente per fortias supernatural]

(2) -ante, -ente, -iente exprime que un cosa o persona exeque le action del verbo: causar - causante: le factor causante le accidente [le factor que causa le accidente]

(3) -ate, -ite, -e exprime que un action, que non plus es in progresso, concerneva un cosa o persona: causar - causate: le accidente causate per su negligentia [le accidente que su negligentia causava]

(4) -ative, -itive, -ive exprime que un cosa o persona tende a, es apte a, etc. exequer le action del verbo: causar - causative: le distinction de plure factores causative [le distinction de plure factores que tende a causar, es probabile o apte a causar un certe resultato]

(5) -atori, -itori, -ori exprime que un cosa o persona ha de un modo o un altere relation a, o connexion con le action del verbo: causar - causatori: le aspecto causatori del problema [le aspecto del problema que concerne como illo esseva causate]



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Postverbal adjective suffixes
-----------------------------

§ 153. There are five POSTVERBAL ADJECTIVE SUFFIXES:

1. -ante (-ente, -iente);
2. -ative (-itive, -ire);
3. -atori (-itori, -ori);
4. -ate (-ite, -e);
5. -abile (-ibile).

They express in this order:

1. that a thing or person is performing the action of the verb (causar -- causante 'causing': le factor causaute le accidente 'the factor which causes the accident');

2. that a thing or person tends to, is apt to, etc. perform the action of the verb (causar- causative 'causative': le distinction de plure factores causative 'the distinction of several factors which tend to cause, are likely or apt to cause a certain result'):

3. that a thing or person is somehow related to, or connected with, the action of the verb (causar -- causatori 'causatory': le aspecto causatori del problema 'the aspect of the problem which has to do with how it was caused');

4. that the action, no longer in progress, was applied to a thing or person (causar--causate 'caused': le accidente causate per su neglecto 'the accident which was caused by his negligence, which his negligence caused');

5. that the action can or could or ought to be applied to a thing or person (causar--causabile 'causable': miraculos es causabile solmente per fortias supernatural 'miracles can be caused only by supernatural forces').




-------------------------------
Suffixos postverbal substantive
-------------------------------

§154 Del SUFFIXOS POSTVERBAL SUBSTANTIVE, plures exprime aspectos plus o minus distincte del action del verbo. Illos es:

1. -ada;
2. -age;
3. -eria;
4. -amento (-imento);
5. -ation (-ition, -ion);
6. -atura (-itura, -ura); al quales pote esser addite
7. -antia (-entia, -ientia) e
8. le desinentia del infinitivo usate como un substantivo, -ar (-er, -ir).

Lor distinction es sovente un caso de nuances accentuate, e in satis multe casos un formation pote assumer le loco del altere sin cambio perceptibile de signification. Le uso de illos omnes con le mesme verbo pote difficilemente esser obtenite sin artificio, sed pote servir pro definir lor connotationes individual de valor.

Con procurar como un exemplo fortuite, le resultante postverbal substantivos de action es:
1. procurada;
2. procurage;
3. procureria;
4. procuramento;
5. procuration;
6. procuratura;
7. procurantia;
8. procurar.

(1) -ada exprime action complite e vidite como un integritate, o in su resultatos o como un continuitate comprensive. Illo se presta facilemente a esser usate in le plural. Procurada - pote significar un procuration excessive a que on refere con emphase super su successo o rendimento.

(2) -age exprime action complite o essente complite e vidite como un singule resultato o como un integre serie de tales. Illo ha un tendentia a remaner sufficientemente abstracte pro resister a pluralisation. Procurage - pote significar le procedura de procurar alique con emphase implicate super effortio, expensa, etc. involvite o le occupation de un persona concernite con procurar cosas, tal occupation essente vidite como consistente de un serie de proceduras de procurage.

(3) -eria exprime action vidite como parte de un commercio, occupation, campo de interprisa, etc. involvente etiam le production correspondente o in toto o in pecias individual. Procureria - pote significar le practica (con omne su implicationes) de un persona le occupation de qui es procurar cosas. Isto es a parte del signification plus crystallisate del loco de commercio de un tal persona.

(4) -amento exprime action vidite con referentia a su effectos e resultatos. Procuramento - pote significar procuramento como un acto o action e le effortio(s) pro procurar alique.

(5) -ation exprime action o un action vidite como un processo concrete que pote esser repetite e a que assi pote esser referite in le plural. Procuration - significa procurar como un execution definite.

(6) -atura exprime action vidite con referentia a su producto individual e assi ille producto ipse como etiam, con extension, le activitate del qual le producto individual pote presentar se como un symbolo. Procuratura - pote significar le facto de procurar como etiam un organisation o officio instaurate pro procurar provisiones pro certe requirimentos.

(7) -antia exprime action vidite como le stato del agente qui lo exeque. Procurantia - pote significar procurar como un assignation que pone certe exigentias super le persona involvite.

(8) -ar exprime action como action, il es, vidite como un phenomeno abstracte que non pote esser pluralisate. Procurar - significa le (action de) procurar.
Nota: Le distinction logic inter le plure substantivos postverbal de action not pote esser continuate longe. In practica, le selection de un o le altere formation es sovente governate per considerationes non-logic, lo que non los rende minus vital. Lor importantia e effecto coincide, in general, con le usage anglese.


------------------------
Postverbal noun suffixes
------------------------

§ 154. Of the POSTVERBAL NOUN SUFFIXES several express more or less distinct aspects of the action of the verb. They are:

1. -ada;
2. -age;
3. -eria;
4. -amento (-imento);
5. -ation (-ition, -ion);
6. -atura (-itura, -ura); to which may be added
7. -antia (-entia, -ientia) and
8. the ending of the infinitive used as a noun, -ar (-er, -ir).
 

Their distinction is often a matter of nuances emphasized, and in a good many instances one formation may take the place of another without appreciable shift of meaning. The use of all of them with one and the same verb can hardly be achieved without artifice but may serve to define their individual connotations of value.


 

With procurar 'to procure' as a random example, the resulting postverbal action nouns are:


1. procurada;
2. procurage;
3. procureria;
4. procuramento;
5. procuration;
6. procuratura;
7. procurantia;
8. procurar.

1. -ada expresses action done and viewed as a whole, either in its results or as one sweeping continuity. It lends itself readily to being used in the plural. Procurada might signify a procurement spree referred to with emphasis on its success or yield.


 

2. -age expresses action done or being done and viewed as a single achievement or as a whole series of such. It tends to remain sufficiently abstract to resist pluralization. Procurage might signify the procedure of procuring something with implied emphasis on the effort, expense, etc. involved or the occupation of a person concerned with procuring things, such occupation being viewed as consisting of a series of procurage procedures.


 

3. -eria expresses action viewed as part of a business, occupation, field of endeavor, etc. involving as well the corresponding production either as a whole or in individual pieces. Procureria might signify the practice (with all its implications) of a person whose business it is to procure things. This aside from the more crystallized meaning of the place of business of such a person.

4. -amento expresses action viewed with reference to its effects and results. Procuramento might signify procurement as an act or action and the endeavor to procure something.

5. -ation expresses action or an action viewed as a tangible process which can be repeated and hence referred to in the plural. Procuration means procuring as a definite performance.


 

6. -atura expresses action viewed with reference to its individual product and hence that product itself as well as, by extension, the activity of which the individual product may stand as a symbol. Procuratura might signify the fact of procuring as well as an organization or office set up to procure supplies for certain requirements.

7. -antia expresses action viewed as the state of the agent performing it. Procurantia might mean procuring as an assignment which makes certain demands upon the person involved.

8. -ar expresses action as action, that is, viewed as an abstract phenomenon which cannot be pluralized. Procurar signifies procuring.

Note: The logical distinction between the several postverbal action nouns cannot be carried very far. In practice the choice of one or the other formation is often governed by non-logical considerations which are not therefore less vital. Their import and effect coincide, broadly speaking, with English usage.




==============
II Composition
==============

§155 Le termino COMPOSITION es usate hic pro referer al formation de vocabulos per le combination de un vocabulo e un prefixo, o de duo vocabulos complete. In ambe casos le portion prefixate del composito modifica le secunde elemento le qual determina le parte de discurso del vocabulo resultante. Nota que le secunde elemento sovente se establi como representante un date parte del discurso solmente per le processo de composition. P.ex. in rehabilitar, le prefixo pare modificar un verbo habilitar, sed illo de facto se establi directemente super le base de habile. In le expositiones sequente iste phenomeno ha essite considerate normal e dunque non necessita commento special. Vide etiam §163 infra.


 

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II.A Composition per medio de prefixos
--------------------------------------

§156 Il es conveniente distinguer inter PREFIXOS GENERAL e TECHNIC. Le distinction seque nulle regula rigide sed resulta del facto (le qual pare esser characteristic de omne linguas moderne e certemente non es un tracto distinctive de Interlingua) que terminologias scientific opera con prefixos que es rarmente incontrate in le vocabulario general quotidian.



===========
COMPOUNDING
===========

§ 155. II. -- The term COMPOUNDING is here used to refer to word building by the combination of one word and a prefix or of two full-fledged words. In either case the prefixed portion of the compound modifies the second element which determines the part of speech of the resulting formation. Note that the second element often establishes itself as representing a given part of speech only through the compounding process. E.g. in rehabilitar 'to rehabilitate,' the prefix seems to modify a verb habilitar 'to habilitate' but it actually establishes itself directly on the basis of habile 'able.' In the following surveys this phenomenon has been considered normal and therefore not in need of special comment. See also § 163 below.


 
 
 
 
 

§ 156. II.A.--It is convenient to distinguish between GENERAL and TECHNICAL PREFIXES. The distinction follows no hard-and-fast rule but results from the fact (which seems to be characteristic of all modern languages and is certainly no distinctive feature of Interlingua) that scientific terminologies operate with prefixes which are rarely found in the general everyday vocabulary.





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