Grammatica de interlingua de Alexander Gode &

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§135 Le THEORIA DE CONSTRUCTION DE PAROLAS se refere al section "Introduction" del Interlingua-English Dictionary, pp. xlv-xlix. [*1*]

Le PRINCIPIO BASIC DE CONSTRUCTION PRACTIC DE PAROLAS in Interlingua es analoge. Omne le formationes nove debe clarmente esser modellate super un patrono in le vocabulario establite. Un description del patronos structural le plus commun in le vocabulario establite coincide con le prescription que governa nove formationes.

[*1*] Le observationes sequente pote servir pro elucidar le problema. In un discussion de, que nos dice le verbo anglese, il es costumari prender un varietate de formationes sub le titulo de "formas finite special." Assi {interests} per exemplo es nominate le forma del tertie persona tempore presente del verbo {to interest}. Sed etiam le participios {interesting} e {interested} es tractate como formas del verbo ben que illos functiona bastante liberemente como adjectivos independente e pote etiam esser nominate derivatos. Il ha nihil improprie in isto, sed si le adjectivos {interesting} e {interested} es reguardate como formas special de {to interest}, alora il non es facile comprender proque il non pote esser permittite parlar non solmente, que nos dice, de {teaches}, {reteach}, {taught}, {teaching}, sed etiam de {teacher}, {teachings}, {teachery}, {teacherly}, {teacheress}, {school-teaching}, etc. como formas special de {to teach}.

Iste maniera satis original de reguardar "derivatos" es extrememente utile in un lingua auxiliar proque illo projecta un lumine multo clar super le principios de construer parolas libere- e autonomemente. Justo como in anglese nemo consulta un dictionario pro assecurar se si ille pote usar le forma {weighs} super le base del infinitivo {to weigh}, assi nemo - si anglese esseva un lingua auxiliar construite - deberea sentir le necessitate de consultar un dictionario ante construer vocabulos del typo {roachy} (de {roach} copiante le modello de {lousy}) o {deedlessness} (de {deedless}).

In anglese o in qualcunque altere lingua traditional, le convention e usage pone un limite impediente a iste typo de construction de vocabulos. Non es assi in Interlingua. Hic le limite es ponite per utilitate e claritate.

Le prime de iste punctos, illo de "utilitate", a pena ha necessitate de commentario ulterior. Interlingua - como qualcunque lingua traditional - pote construer grande numeros de "formas special" (o derivatos) de que on nunquam ha necessitate. Un {rainer} - pro usar un exemplo anglese - es 'un homine qui pluvia', sed pro le majoritate de gente il es un surprisa que iste parola es de facto listate in dictionarios.

Le prerequirimento de claritate duce al formulation que in le lingua auxiliar solo ille elementos formative pote esser tolerate in formationes libere e autonome que generalmente appare in omne partes del lingua con valores clarmente definibile. Si le formation anglese {mountibund} es impossibile, le ration non es que {to mount} e {-ibund} non occurre. Illos occurre. Sed {-ibund} es incapabile de formation active proque su occurrentia in {moribund} e {furibund} non revela un valor facilemente definibile.

Formationes libere debe esser si clar que il pare perfectemente logic parlar de illos como "formas special" del parola de base del qual illos es derivate.

In le paragraphos sequente le typos structural le plus importante es describite, illustrate, e applicate a nove formationes sub le titulos listate infra.



















§ 135. For the THEORY OF WORD BUILDING reference is made to the Interlingua-English Dictionary, "Introduction", pp. xlv-xlix.


The BASIC PRINCIPLE OF PRACTICAL WORD BUILDING in Interlingua is analogical. Every new formation must clearly be patterned after a model in the established vocabulary. A description of the most common structural patterns in the established vocabulary coincides with the prescription governing new formations.


[*1*] The following observations may serve to elucidate the problem. In a discussion of let us say the English verb it is customary to take up a variety of formations under the heading of "special finite forms." Thus "interests" for instance is called the third-person present-tense form of the verb "to interest." But also the participles "interesting" and "interested" are treated as forms of the verb although they function quite freely as independent adjectives and might as well be called derivatives. There is nothing wrong in this, but if the adjectives "interesting" and "interested" are regarded as special forms of "to interest," then it is not easy to see why one should not be allowed to speak not only let us say of "teaches, reteach, taught, teaching" but also of "teacher, teachings, teachery, teacherly, teacheress, school-teaching, etc." as special forms of "to teach."


This somewhat unconventional way of looking at "derivatives" is extremely useful in an auxiliary language because it casts a very clear light on the principles of free or autonomous word building. Just as in English no one consults a dictionary to ascertain whether he may use the form "weighs" on the basis of the infinitive "to weigh," so no one -- if English were a constructed auxiliary language -- should feel the need to consult a dictionary before building words of the type of "roachy" (on "roach" after the model of "lousy") or "deedlessness" (on "deedless").

In English or any other traditional language convention and usage will set a hampering limit to this type of word building. Not so in Interlingua. Here the limit is set by usefulness and clarity.

The first of these points, that of "usefulness," is hardly in need of further comment. Interlingua – like any traditional language – can build large numbers of "special forms" (or derivatives) which no one ever needs. A "rainer" – to use an English example – is "man who rains," but to most people it will come as a surprise that this word is actually listed in dictionaries.

The prerequisite of clarity leads to the formulation that in the auxiliary language only those formative elements can be tolerated in free or autonomous formation which appear throughout the language as a wbole with clearly definable values. If the English formation "mountibund" is impossible, the reason is not that "to mount" and "-ibund" fail to occur. They do. But "-ibund" is incapable of active formation because its occurrence in "moribund" and "furibund" does not give it an easily definable value.

Free formations must be so clear that it makes perfect sense to speak of them as "special forms" of the base word from which they are derived.

In the succeeding paragraphs the most important structural types are described, illustrated, and applied to new formations under the headings listed below.


















I Derivation

§136 Le termino DERIVATION es usate hic pro referer al formation de vocabulos per medio de suffixos. In le derivation, le parte de discurso del formation resultante es determinate per le suffixo. Substantivos e adjectivos que consiste de thema e termination perde le termination in le processo derivational. Le termination del derivato es parte del suffixo. Terminationes in iste senso es, in le caso de substantivos e adjectivos, le vocales final -a, -e, -o, e desinentias foranee como latin -us, -um, o grec -os, -is, etc. Pro verbos, vide §146 infra.

§137 In le plus de casos, le junction de thema e affixo es un question de juxtaposition simple.

Quando le thema termina in -i e le suffixo comencia con le mesme vocal, le derivato complete es scribite con un singule -i:

rubie + -ificar -> rubificar: facer rubie.

Nota que le addition de suffixos con vocales initial a themas que termina in -c pote cambiar le sono de ille consonante. Quando per derivation un originalmente dur -c (como in franc) precede -i o -e, le pronunciation cambia usualmente a un -c molle (como in Francia). Inversemente, quando un originalmente molle -c (como in cortice) per derivation precede un -a o -o, le pronunciation cambia usualmente a un -c dur (como in cortical). Nonobstante, un -c molle remane molle ante le suffixos -ada, -ata, -age, -alia, -astro, -astra e debe esser scribite -ci:

nuce + -ada -> nuciada.

Similarmente un -c dur remane dur ante le suffixos -eria, -ero, -esc, -ese, -essa, -etta, -ette, -etto, -iera, -iero, -issime, -issimo e debe esser scribite -ch:

porco + -eria -> porcheria: boteca de porco.

Nota que le apparente irregularitate de un exemplo como ric -> ricchessa es a causa del facto que -cc es scribite -c quando illo appare in le fin de un parola.

Vocabulos que termina in -age (sia iste gruppo de sonos un suffixo o non) retene le pronunciation molle de -g (como -z in anglese {azure}) in derivatos basate super illos. Quando le suffixo comencia in -a o -o, le -g es reimplaciate per -gi:

orange + -ada -> orangiada: bibita de orange;

orange + -eria -> orangeria: conservatorio de oranges.


§ 136. I. -- The term DERIVATION is here used to refer to word building by means of suffixes. In derivation the part of speech of the resulting formation is determined by the suffix. Nouns and adjectives consisting of stem and termination lose the latter in the derivational process. The termination of the derivative is part of the suffix. Terminations in this sense are, in the case of nouns and adjectives the final vowels a, e, o, and foreign endings like Latin -us, -um or Greek -os, -is, etc. For verbs, see § 146 below.


§ 137 In most instances the joining of stem and affix is a matter of simple juxtaposition.

When the stem ends in -i- and the suffix begins with the same vowel, the full derivative is spelled with only one -i-: rubie 'red' plus -ificar > rubificar 'to redden, make red.'

Note that the addition of suffixes with initial vowels to stems ending in -c- may change the sound value of that consonant. When through derivation an originally hard c (as in franc) comes to precede i or e, its pronunciation changes as a rule to soft c (as in Francia). Inversely, when an originally soft c (as in cortice 'bark') comes through derivation to precede an a or o, its pronunciation changes as a rule to hard c (as in cortical). However, a soft c remains soft c before the suffixes -ada, -ata, -age, -alia, -astro, -astra and must be spelled -ci-: nuce 'nut' plus -ada > nuciada.

Similarly hard c remains hard c before the suffixes -eria, -ero, -esc, -ese, -essa, -etta, -ette, -etto, -iera, -iero, -issime, -issimo and must be spelled -ch-: porco 'pig' plus -eria > porcheria 'pork shop.'

Note that the seeming irregularity of an example like ricchessa 'riches' < ric 'rich' is due to the fact that cc is spelled c when it appears at the end of a word.

Words ending in -age (whether this group of sounds be a suffix or not) retain the soft pronunciation of -g- (like z in 'azure') in derivatives based on them. When the suffix begins in a or o, the g is replaced by -gi-: orange plus -ada > orangiada; but orange plus -erin > orangerin 'orange greenhouse.'

I.A Derivation ab substantivos

I.A.a Substantivos derivate ab substantivos

§138 Substantivos es derivate AB SUBSTANTIVOS per medio del suffixos listate infra. Concernente substantivos que representa feminas, parallel a substantivos in -o que representa homines, vide §24 supra.

-ada 1. = producto facite de ...; p.ex. limon -> limonada;

nove formation: persica -> persicada: bibita de persica; 2. = fila/serie de ...; p.ex. columna -> columnada: fila/serie de columnas, colonnada;
nove formation: fenestra -> fenestrada: fila/serie de fenestras; Nota: Pro derivatos ab verbos, vide §152.

-age (pronunciation: -aje) = collection de ...; p.ex. folio -> foliage;

nove formation: fructo -> fructage; Nota: Scribite -agi ante -a o -o de suffixo additional. Pro derivatos ab verbos, vide §152.

-alia = collection sin valor de ...; p.ex. ferro -> ferralia: (partes de) materiales de ferro que non plus es usabile;

nove formation: papiro -> papiralia: papiro o documentos sin utilitate o non plus usabile; etiam: vetule papiros, pila de papiros de travalio, etc.

-ano 1. = nativo, citatano, o habitante de ...; p.ex. Africa -> africano;

nove formation: Atlanta -> atlantano;
2. = lingua de ...; p.ex. Italia -> italiano;
nove formation: Samoa -> samoano;
3. = adherente o discipulo de ...; p.ex. Mohammed -> mohammedano;
nove formation: Wesley -> wesleyano; discipulo de Wesley

Nota: Usate con nomines de locos e personas. In le caso de nomines de locos que non termina in -a o -o como etiam de omne nomines de personas, le variante euphonic -iano es preferite; p.ex. Marte -> martiano.

Le forma adjective correspondente es -an (-ian). In le sensos (1) e (3) le forma feminin es -ana (-iana). In le sensos (1) e (2) synonymo de -ese. In le sensos (1) e (3) synonymo de -ita.

-ario I. = persona concernite con o characterisate per ...; p.ex. mission -> missionario;

nove formation: ferrovia -> ferroviario;

Nota: Synonymo de -ero e -ista, le quales differe de -ario in que -ero accentua affaires professional, durante que -ista suggere le preoccupation (professional o recreational) de un persona con un systema, un scientia, un arte, etc. Formas parallel in e -ario e -ero es frequentemente possibile. Le forma adjective correspondente es -ari. Le forma feminin es -aria.

II. 1. = collection de ...; p.ex. vocabulo -> vocabulario; herba -> herbario;

nove formationes: proverbio -> proverbiario: collection de proverbios; insecto -> insectario;


2. = loco que contine ...; p.ex. grano -> granario;

nove formation: feno -> fenario: deposito de feno;

-astro 1. = persona inferior o sin valor; p.ex. poeta -> poetastro: poeta inferior;

nove formation: judice -> judiciastro: judice incompetente;

2. = apparentate per remaritage del patre o del matre; p.ex.

patre -> patrastro;

Nota: Usate con substantivos que indica esseres masculin. Le feminino correspondente es -astra.

-ata = contento de o quantitate continite in ...; p.ex. coclear -> coclearata;
nove formation: calice -> caliciata;

-ato = function, stato, rango, jurisdiction, periodo de officio, o territorio de ...; p.ex. duce -> ducato: territorio o position/rango de duce; novicio -> noviciato: periodo de initiation;

nove formationes: capitano -> capitanato; discipulo -> discipulato: stato de esser un discipulo;

-eria (pronunciation: -ería, con accento super -i)

1. = loco ubi ... es facite, fabricate, retenite, o vendite; p.ex.
lacte -> lacteria;
nove formation: instrumento -> instrumenteria: boteca de instrumentos;
2. = arte, mestiero, o practica de laborar con ...; etiam: le producto de tal labor; p.ex. drappo -> drapperia;
nove formation: arco -> archeria;
3. = conducta de ... o conducta como illo de ...; p.ex. diabolo -> diaboleria;
nove formation: clown -> clowneria;
Nota: In le sensos (1) e (2) le forma correspondente de agente es -ero. Coincide con -ero plus -ia. Pro derivatos ab verbos, vide §152.

-ero = uno qui labora con o commercia/negotia in ...; p.ex. barba -> barbero; banca -> banchero;

nove formation: ambulantia -> ambulantiero: chauffeur de ambulantia;
Nota: Derivatos additional in -ia coincide con formationes in -eria. Adjectivos correspondente es sovente formate in -ari. Le feminino correspondente es -era. Synonymo de -ario e -ista.

1. = nativo, citatano, o habitante de ...; p.ex. Geneva -> genevese;

nove formation: Salamanca -> salamanchese;
2. = lingua de ...; p.ex. Japon -> japonese;
nove formation: Brooklyn -> brooklynese;
Nota: Nulle forma distincte pro le feminino, sed cf. le synonymos -ano, -iano. In senso (1) etiam synonymo de -ita. Identic in forma e correspondente in signification a -ese adjectival (vide §139).

-essa 1. = ... feminin; p.ex. tigre -> tigressa;

nove formation: vulpe -> vulpessa; 2. = sposa de ...; p.ex. conte -> contessa;
nove formationes: mayor: burgomaestro -> mayoressa; inca -> inchessa: sposa del Inca;
Nota: Synonymo de -a que debe esser preferite quando le masculino termina in -o. Vide §24.

-eto = boschetto de arbores del specie ...; p.ex. pino -> pineto;

nove formation: orangiero -> orangiereto;

-etto, -etta = ... parve o minor; p.ex. hacha -> hachetta; pacco -> pacchetto;

nove formationes: boteca -> botechetta: parve boteca; uxor -> uxoretta: parve uxor; poeta -> poetetto, poetetta: parve poeta;
Nota: Le -o e -a final exprime masculin e feminin. Quando nulle sexo es involvite, -etta es usate con substantivos in -a, -etto in omne altere casos.

I. (pronunciation: -ia, non accentuate) = pais, provincia, o region del ...s, o nominate secundo ...; p.ex. arabe -> Arabia;

nove formationes: Tocharo -> Tocharia; Wilson -> Wilsonia;
Nota: Usate con nomines de populos e personas; pro derivatos ab adjectivos, vide §141.

II. (pronunciation: -ía, con accento super -i)

1. = qualitate, stato, o jurisdiction de ...; p.ex. abbate -> abbatia;
nove formation: capitano -> capitania;
2. = arte, scientia, o practica, etiam profession, establimento, etc. de ...; p.ex. geologo -> geologia; idolatra -> idolatria;

nove formationes: radiotoxicologo -> radiotoxicologia; heliolatra: adorator del sol -> heliolatria: adoration del sol; bottinero -> bottineria: mestiero o boteca de bottinero;

Nota: Usate principalmente con parolas jam composite. Coincide con -eria quando usate con formationes in -ero. Pro derivatos ab adjectivos, vide §141.

-ica = scientia o studio de ...; p.ex. electron -> electronica; nove formation: phonema -> phonemica;

Nota: Usate principalmente in formationes parallel a adjectivos in -ic (vide §139) e substantivos in -ico.

-ico = uno qui es experte in le arte o scientia de ...; p.ex. historia -> historico;

nove formation: theoria -> theorico;
Nota: Usate principalmente in formationes parallel a adjectivos in -ic (vide §139).

1. = que contine, coperi, o protege ...; p.ex. sucro -> sucriera: scutella/bassinetto a sucro;

nove formation: bira -> biriera: latta de bira;
2. = campo, mina, petreria, etc. ubi ... cresce o es discoperite; p.ex. ris -> risiera: campo de ris;
nove formation: baca -> bachiera: parve terreno de bacas;

-iero = arbore, arbusto, planta, etc. portante o producente ...s; p.ex. amandola -> amandoliero: arbore de amandolas;

nove formation: corco -> corchiero: arbore de corco;
Nota: Le nomines de fructos in -a sovente ha parallel nomines de arbores in -o; p.ex. persica-persico; pira-piro. In tal casos, le formation in -iero es synonyme con illo in -o.

-il = loco ubi ... es retenite; p.ex. can -> canil;

nove formation: tauro -> tauril: clausura de/pro tauros;
Nota: Usate con nomines de animales.

-ina = substantia facite de..., characterisante, habente/con relation a, etc. ...; p.ex. caseo -> caseina;

nove formation: globulo -> globulina;
Nota: Usate principalmente como suffixo technic (chimic).

-ismo 1. = stato o practica de esser un ...; p.ex. despota -> despotismo;

nove formation: gigante -> gigantismo;

2. = [Medicina] condition anormal resultante de excesso de ...; p.ex. plumbo -> plumbismo: intoxication de plumbo;

nove formation: caffeina -> caffeinismo;

3. = doctrina o practica de, o concernite con ...; p.ex. Calvin -> calvinismo;

nove formation: Tito -> titoismo;

4. = alique characteristic de ..., o del lingua de ...; p.ex. hellen -> hellenismo;

nove formation: Brooklyn -> brooklynismo;
Nota: Frequentemente parallel a substantivos in -ista e a verbos in -isar e subjecte a interpretation como derivato de -isar con le signification: action, processo, practica, etc. de ...isar. Pro derivatos ab adjectivos, vide §141.

1. = uno qui practica le arte o scientia de ...; p.ex. biologia -> biologista; tympano -> tympanista: percussionista;

nove formationes: radiographia: photographia de radio-x -> radiographista: photographo de radio-x; saxophono -> saxophonista;
2. = adherente del doctrina de ...; p.ex. Calvin -> calvinista; evolution -> evolutionista;
nove formation: Cesare -> cesarista; collaboration -> collaborationista;
Nota: Frequentemente parallel a substantivos in -ismo e verbos in -isar e subjecte a interpretation como derivato de -isar con le signification: uno qui ...isa o crede in ...isar. In senso (1) synonymo de -ario e -ero. Pro derivatos ab adjectivos, vide §141.

1. = habitante, citatano, o nativo de ...; p.ex. Neapole -> neapolita;

nove formation: Brooklyn -> brooklynita;
2. = membro, adherente, o partisano de ...; p.ex. Jacobo -> jacobita;
nove formation: Truman -> trumanita;
Nota: Nulle distinction in forma de masculin e feminin, sed cf. le synonymos -ano, -iano. In senso (1) etiam synonymo de -ese.

-ite = rocca o altere mineral que contine ..., resimila ..., es characterisate per ..., ha relation a ...; p.ex. ligno -> lignite; meteoro -> meteorite;

nove formation: Wyoming -> wyomingite;
Nota: Usate principalmente in terminos technic (mineralogic).

-itis = maladia inflammatori de ...; p.ex. appendice -> appendicitis;

nove formation: esophago -> esophagitis;
Nota: Usate con nomines de partes del corpore, principalmente in terminos technic (medic).

-oide = alique como, o formate como ...; p.ex. anthropo- -> anthropoide; globo -> globoide;

nove formationes: entomo- -> entomoide; disco -> discoide;
Nota: Usate principalmente in terminos technic. Frequentemente a considerar como forma substantivate de adjectivos in -oide.

-osis = anormal o morbose condition, stato, o processo de...; causate per...; characterisate per...; p.ex. neuro- -> neurosis; tuberculo -> tuberculosis;

nove formation: halito -> halitosis;
Nota: Usate principalmente in parolas technic (medic). Le adjectivos correspondente es formate in -otic.

Derivation from nouns

§ 138. I.A.a. -- Nouns are derived FROM NOUNS by means of the suffixes listed below. On the formation of nouns representing females parallel to nouns in -o representing males, see § 24 above.

-ada 1. 'product made from ...' e.g. limon 'lemon' > limonada 'lemonade';
new formation: persica 'peach' > persicada 'peachade (peach drink)'; 2. 'series of ...' e.g. columna 'column' > columnada 'colonnade';
new formation: fenestra 'window' > fenestrada 'row of windows'
Note: For derivatives from verbs, see § 152.

-age (pron. -aje) 'collection of ...' e.g. folio 'leaf' > foliage;

new formation: fructo 'fruit' > fructage 'fruitage'
Note: Spelled -agi- before -a- or -o- of additional suffix. For derivatives from verbs, see § 152.

-alia 'worthless collection of ...' e.g. ferro 'iron' > ferralia 'scrap iron';

new formation: papiro 'paper' > papiralia 'waste paper'; also: 'old papers, heaps of working papers, etc.'

-ano 1. 'native, citizen, or inhabitant of ...' e.g. Africa > africano 'African';

new formation: Atlanta > aflantano 'Ariantan';
2. 'language of ...' e.g. Italia 'Italy' > italiano 'Italian';
new formation: Samoa > samoano 'Samoan';
3. 'adherent or follower of ...' e.g. Mohammed > mohammedano 'Mohammedan';
new formation: Wesley > wesleyano 'Wesleyan'

Note: Used with names of places and persons. In the case of place names not ending in -a or -o as also of all names of persons, the euphonic variant -iano is to be preferred, e.g. Marte 'Mars' > martiano 'Martian.'

The corresponding adjective form is -an (-ian). In senses (1) and (3) the corresponding feminine is -ana (-iana). In senses (1) and (2) synonym of -ese. In senses (1) and (3) synonym of -ita.

-ario I. 'person concerned with or characterized by ...' e.g. mission > missionario 'missionary';

new formation: ferrovia 'railroad' > ferroviario 'railwayman'

Note: Synonym of -ero and -ista which differ from it in that -ero stresses professional concern while -ista suggests a person's preoccupation (professional or avocational) with a system, a science, an art, etc. Parallel forms in both -ario and -ero are often possible. The corresponding adjective form is -ari. The corresponding feminine is -aria.


II. 1. 'collection of ...' e.g.

vocabulo 'word' > vocabulario 'vocabulary'; herba 'herb' > herbario 'herbarium';

new formations: proverbio 'proverb' > proverbiario 'collection of proverbs'; insecto 'insect' > insectario 'insectarium';

2. 'place containing ...' e.g. grano 'grain' > granario 'granary';
new formation: feno 'hay'> fenario 'hayloft, haymow'

-astro 1. 'inferior or worthless ...' e.g. poeta 'poet' > poetastro 'poetaster';

new formation: judice 'judge' > judiciastro 'blundering judge';

2. 'related through remarriage of a parent' e.g. patre 'father' > patrastro 'stepfather'


Note: Used with nouns indicating male beings. The corresponding feminine is -astra.

-ata 'contents of or quantity contained in one ...' e.g. coclear 'spoon' > coclearata 'spoonful';
new formation: calice 'chalice' > caliciata 'chaliceful'

-ato 'function, status, rank, jurisdiction, period of office, or territory of a ...' e.g. duce 'duke' > ducato 'duchy, dukedom'; novicio 'novice' > noviciato 'novitiate';

new formations: capitano 'captain' > capitanato 'captaincy'; discipulo 'disciple' discipulato 'discipleship'

-eria (pron. -er`ia)

1. 'place where ... is made, worked, kept, or sold' e.g. lacte 'milk' lacteria 'dairy';
new formation: instrumento 'tool' > instrumenteria 'tool shop';
2. 'art, craft, trade, or practice of working with...; also: the product of such work' e.g. drappo 'cloth' > drapperia 'drapery';
new formation: arco 'bow' > archeria 'archery';
3. 'behavior of a... or like that of a ...' e.g. diabolo 'devil' > diaboleria 'deviltry';
new formation: clown > clowneria 'clownery'
Note: In senses (1) and (2) the corresponding agent form is -ero. Coincides with -ero plus -ia. For derivatives from verbs see § 152.

-ero 'one who works with or deals in ...' e.g. barba 'beard' ) barbero 'barber'; banca 'bank' > banchero 'banker';

new formation: ambulantia 'ambulance' > ambulantiero 'ambulance driver'
Note: Further derivatives in -ia coincide with formations in -eria. Corresponding adjectives are often formed in -ari. The corresponding feminine is -era. Synonym of -ario and -ista.

1. 'native, citizen, or inhabitant of ...' e.g. Geneva > genevese 'Genevese';

new formation: Salamanca > salamanchese 'Salamanquese';
2. 'language of ...' e.g. Japon 'Japan' > japonese 'Japanese';
new formation: Brooklyn > brooklynese 'Brooklynese'
Note: No distinct form for the feminine, but cf. the synonyms -ano, -iano. In sense (1) also synonym of -ita. Identical in form and corresponding in meaning to adjectival -ese (see § 139).

-essa 1. 'female ...' e.g. tigre 'tiger' > tigressa 'tigress';

new formation: vulpe 'fox' > vulpessa 'vixen'; 2. 'wife of a ...' e.g. conte 'count' > contessa 'countess';
new formations: mayor > mayoressa 'mayoress'; inca 'Inca' > inchessa 'wife of the Inca'
Note: Synonym of -a which is to be preferred when the male ends in -o. See § 24.

-eto 'grove of... trees' e.g. pino 'pine' > pineto 'pine grove';

new formation: orangiero 'orange tree' > orangiereto 'orange grove'

-etto, -etta 'little, small, or minor ...' e.g. hacha 'ax' > hachetta 'hatchet'; pacco 'pack, bundle' > pacchetto 'package, packet';

new formations: boteca 'shop, store' > botechetta 'little shop'; uxor 'wife' > uxoretta 'little wife, wifie'; poeta 'poet' > poetetto, poetetta 'little poet, little poetess'
Note: The endings -o and -a express male and female. When no sex is involved, -etta is used with nouns in -a, -etto in all other cases.

(pron '-ia) 'country, province or region of the...s, or named for ...' e.g. arabe 'Arab' > Arabia;

new formations: Tocharo 'Tocharian' > Tocharia; Wilson > Wilsonia
Note: used with names of peoples and persons; for derivatives from adjectives, see § 141.

-ia (pron. -'ia)

1. 'state, quality, status or jurisdiction of (a, an) ...' e.g. abbate 'abbot' > abbatia 'abbacy, abbotcy';
new formation: capitano 'captain' > capitania 'captaincy, captainship';

2. 'art, science, or practice, also profession, establishment, etc. of (a, an) ...' e.g. geologo 'geologist' > geologia 'geology'; idolatra 'idolater' > idolatria 'idolatry';

new formations: radiotoxicologo 'radiotoxicologist' > radiotoxicologia 'radiotoxicology'; heliolatra 'sun worshiper, hellolater' > heliolatria 'sun worship, heliolatry'; bottinero 'shoemaker' > bottineria 'shoemaker's trade or shop'
Note: Used mostly with compounds. Coincides with -eria when used with formations in -ero. For derivatives from adjectives, see § 141.

-ica 'science or study of the ...' e.g. electron > electronica 'electronics';

new formation: phonema 'phoneme' > phonemica 'phonemics'
Note: Used principally in formations parallel to adjectives in -ic (see § 139) and nouns in -ico.

-ico 'one skilled in the art or science of ...' e.g. historia 'history' > historico 'historian';

new formation: theoria 'theory' > theorico 'theoretician'
Note: Used principally in formations parallel to adjectives in -ic (see § 139).

-iera 1. 'that which contains, covers, or protects ...' e.g. sucro 'sugar' > sucriera 'sugar bowl';

new formation: bira 'beer' > biriera 'beer can, growler';
2. 'field, mine, quarry, etc. where... grows or is found' e.g. ris 'rice' > risiera 'rice field';
new formation: baca 'berry' > bachiera 'berry patch'

-iero 'tree, bush, plant, etc. bearing or producing ...s' e.g. amandola 'almond' > amandoliero 'almond tree';

new formation: corco 'cork' > corchiero 'cork tree'
Note: Fruit names in -a have often parallel tree names in -o (e.g. persica-persico; pira-piro). In such cases the formation in -iero is synonymous with that in -o.

-il 'place where ...s are kept' e.g. can 'dog' > canil 'kennel';

new formation: tauro 'bull' > tauril 'bull pen'
Note: Used with names of animals.

-ina 'substance made from, characterizing, related to, etc., ...' e.g. caseo 'cheese' > caseina 'casein';

new formation: globulo 'globule' > globulina 'globulin'
Note. Used chiefly as technical (chemical) suffix.

-ismo 1. 'state or practice of being a ...' e.g. despota 'despot' > despotismo 'despotism';

new formation: gigante 'giant' > gigantismo 'giantism';

2. [Med.] abnormal condition resulting from excess of ...' e.g. plumbo 'lead' > plumbismo 'plumbism, lead poisoning';

new formation: caffeina 'caffein' > caffeinismo 'caffeinism';

3. 'doctrine or practice of, or concerned with ...' e.g. Calvin > calvinismo 'Calvinism';

new formation: Tito > titoismo 'Titoism';

4. 'something characteristic of..., or of the language of ...' e.g. hellen 'Hellene' > hellenismo 'Hellenism';

new formation: Brooklyn > brooklynismo 'Brooklynism'
Note: Often parallel to nouns in -ista and to verbs in -isar and subject to interpretation as derivative from -isar with the meaning 'action, process, practice, etc. of...izing.' For derivatives from adjectives, see § 141.

-ista 1. 'one who practices the art or science of ...' e.g. biologia 'biology' > biologista biologist; tympano 'drum' > tympanista 'drummer, tympanist';

new formations: radiographia 'radiography, x-ray photography' > radiographista 'x-ray photographer'; saxophono 'saxophone' > saxophonista 'saxophonist';
2. adherent of the doctrine of...' e.g. Calvin > calvinista 'Calvinist'; evolution > evolutionista 'evolutionist';
new formation: Cesare 'Caesar' > cesarista 'Caesarist'; collaboration > collaborationista 'collaborationist'
Note: Often parallel to nouns in -ismo and verbs in -isar and subject to interpretation as derivative from -isar with the meaning 'one who ...izes or believes in -izing.' In sense (1) synonym of -ario and -ero. For derivatives from adjectives, see § 141.

-ita 1. 'inhabitant, citizen or native of ...' e.g. Neapole 'Naples' > neapolita 'Neapolitan';

new formation: Brooklyn > brooklynita 'Brooklynite';
2. member, adherent, or partisan of ...' e.g. Jacobo 'James' > jacobita 'jacobite';
new formation: Truman > trumanita 'Trumanite'
Note: No distinction in form of male and female, but cf. the synonyms -ano, -iano. In sense (1) also synonym of -ese.

-ite 'rock or other mineral containing..., resembling ..., characterized by .., related to ...' e.g. ligno 'wood' > lignite 'lignite'; meteoro 'meteor' > meteorite 'meteorite';

new formation: Wyoming > wyomingite 'Wyomingite'
Note: Used chiefly in technical (mineralogical) terms.

-itis 'inflammatory disease of the ...' e.g. appendice 'appendix' > appendicitis 'appendicitis';

new formation: esophago 'esophagus' > esophagitis
Note: Used with names of parts of the body, chiefly in technical (medical) terms.

-oide 'something like, or shaped like ...' e.g. anthropo- 'man' > anthropoide 'anthropoid'; globo 'globe' > globoide 'globoid';

new formations: entomo- 'insect' > entomoide 'entomoid'; disco 'disk' > discoide 'discoid'
Note: Used chiefly in technical terms. Often to be taken as substantivized form of adjectives in -oide.

-osis 'abnormal or diseased condition, state, or process of the..., caused by ..., characterized by . .., etc.' e.g. neuro- 'nerve' > neurosis; tuberculo 'tubercle' tuberculosis;

new formation: halito 'breath' > halitosis
Note: Used chiefly in technical (medical) words. The corresponding adjectives are formed in -otic.

I.A.b Adjectivos derivate ab substantivos

§139 ADJECTIVOS es derivate AB SUBSTANTIVOS per medio del suffixos listate infra. Concernente le uso de substantivos in apposition con functiones quasi-adjectival, vide §30 supra.

-al = pertinente a ..., characteristic de ..., etc.; p.ex. natura -> natural;
nove formation: veneno -> venenal: de veneno;
Nota: Suffixo adjectival le plus general e non specific. Le variante -ar es preferite con substantivos que contine -l; p.ex. bussola -> bussolar: (del) bussola. Le typo interrogatorial pote esser interpretate como un derivato de interrogatorio o (con le variante suffixal -ial) de interrogator. In patronos de iste sorta le variante -ial es preferite.

-an = pertinente a ...; specialmente, native de ...; p.ex. urbe -> urban; Mohammed -> mohammedan; Africa -> african;

nove formationes: Tolstoi -> tolstoian; Asia -> asian;
Nota: Usate con nomines de locos e personas. In le caso de nomines de locos que non termina in -a o -o como etiam de omne nomines de personas, le variante euphonic -ian es preferite; p.ex. Zamenhof -> zamenhofian; sed etiam Canada -> canadian. Le forma substantive correspondente es -ano (-iano).

-ari = pertinente a ..., consistente de ..., etc.; p.ex. legenda -> legendari; fragmento -> fragmentari;

nove formation: vestimento -> vestimentari;
Nota: Functiona como adjectivo correspondente a substantivos in -ario, -ero, e -iero. Le variantes -er e -ier pote esser usate pro corresponder a substantivos in -ero e -iero, respectivemente.

-ate = habente un ... o ...s; p.ex. barba -> barbate; vertebra -> vertebrate;

nove formation: anello -> anellate;
Nota: Coincide con le participio passate, in uso adjectival, de verbos in -ar, p.ex. anellar -> anellate.

-esc 1. = como, similar a, o characteristic de ...; p.ex. gigante -> gigantesc;

nove formation: elephante -> elephantesc: como un elephante;
2. = in le maniera o stilo de ...; p.ex. arabe -> arabesc;
nove formation: Chopin -> chopinesc;

-ese = pertinente a ...; specialmente, native de ..., (proveniente) de ...; p.ex. China -> chinese;

nove formation: Ural -> uralese;
Nota: Usate con nomines de locos. Pro substantivos in -ese, vide §138 supra.

-ic = de, pertinente a ..., characterisate per ...; p.ex. cubo -> cubic; nostalgia -> nostalgic;

nove formation: Bosporo -> bosporic: del Bosporo;

-ifere = portante, producente, rendente; p.ex. cono -> conifere; carbon -> carbonifere;

nove formation: fungo -> fungifere: portante fungo;

-ific = facente, causante ...; p.ex. pace -> pacific;

nove formation: lumine -> luminific: producente lumine;

-in = de, pertinente a, etc. ...; p.ex. alcali [Chimia] -> alcalin; can -> canin;

nove formation: mure -> murin: de mure;
Nota: Usate particularmente con nomines de animales. Le formas substantivate -ino, -ina pote esser usate pro designar prole animal.

-ista = pertinente a ...ismo o ...istas; p.ex. evolution -> evolutionista: de evolution;

nove formation: inflation -> inflationista;
Nota: Non distincte de substantivos in -ista usate in apposition.

-oide = como ..., o formate como ...; p.ex. negro -> negroide;

nove formation: disco -> discoide;
Nota: Usate principalmente in terminos technic. Pote esser substantivate sin cambiar le forma.

-ose = habente, abundante in ...; characterisate per ...; p.ex. joco -> jocose; religion -> religiose;

nove formation: incendio -> incendiose: abundante in focos destructive;
Nota: -ion plus -ose -> -iose.

-otic = pertinente a ...osis; p.ex. neurosis -> neurotic;

nove formation: thrombosis -> thrombotic;
Nota: Usate in terminos technic (medic) correspondente a (e derivate del base de) substantivos in -osis.

Adjectives derived from nouns

§ 139. I.A.b.- ADJECTIVES are derived FROM NOUNS by means of the suffixes listed below. On the use of nouns in apposition with quasi-adjectival functions, see § 30 above.

-al 'pertaining to ..., characteristic of ..., etc.' e.g. natura 'nature' > natural;
new formation: veneno 'poison' > venenal 'poison, of poison'
Note: The most general and unspecific adjectival suffix. The variant -ar is to be preferred with nouns containing l; e.g. bussola 'compass' > bussolar '(of the) compass.' The type interrogatorial may be construed as a derivative from interrogatorio 'interrogatory' or (with the suffix variant -ial) from interrogator. In patterns of this sort the variant -ial is to be preferred.

-an 'pertaining to ...'; esp. 'native of ...' e.g. urbe 'town' > urban; Mohammed > mohammedan 'Mohammedan'; Africa > african 'African';

new formations: Tolstoi > tolstoian 'Tolstoyan'; Asia > asian 'Asian'
Note: Used with names of places and persons. In the case of place names not ending in -a or -o as also of all names of persons, the euphonic variant -ian is to be preferred; e.g. Zamenhof > zamenhofian 'Zamenhofian'; but also Canada > canadian. The corresponding noun form is -ano (-iano).

-ari 'pertaining to ... , consisting of ... , etc.' e.g. legenda 'legend' > legendari, 'legendary'; fragmento 'fragment' > fragmentari 'fragmentary';

new formation: vestimento 'garment' > vestimentari 'garment'
Note: Functions as adjective corresponding to nouns in -ario, -ero and -iero. The variants -er and -ier may be used to correspond to nouns in -ero and -iero respectively.

-ate 'having a... or ...s' e.g. barba 'beard' > barbate 'bearded'; vertebra > vertebrate;

new formation: anello 'ring' > anellate 'ringed'
Note: Coincides with past participle, in adjectival use, of verbs in -ar; e.g. anellar 'to ring' > andlate 'ringed.'

-esc 1. 'like, similar to, or characteristic of a ...' e.g. gigante 'giant' > gigantesc 'gigantic';

new formation: elephante 'elephant' > elephantesc 'elephantlike';
2. 'in the manner or style of ...' e.g. arabe 'Arab' > arabesc 'arabesque';
new formation: Chopin > chopinesc 'Chopinesque'

-ese 'pertaining to ...'; esp. 'native to..., of ...'; e.g. China > chinese 'Chinese';

new formation: Ural 'Urals' > uralese 'Uralian'
Note: Used with names of places. For nouns in -ese, see § 138 above.

-ic 'of, pertaining to ..., characterized by ...' e.g. cubo 'cube' > cubic; nostalgia > nostalgic;

new formation: Bosporo 'Bosporus' > bosporic 'of the Bosporus'

-ifere 'bearing, producing, yielding' e.g. cono 'cone' > conifere 'coniferous'; carbon 'coal' carbonifere 'carboniferous';

new formation: fungo 'fungus' > fungifere 'fungusbearing'

-ific 'making, causing ...' e.g. pace 'peace' > pacific;

new formation: lumine 'light' > luminific 'light-producing'

-in 'of, pertaining to, etc., ...' e.g. alcali [Chem.] > alcalin 'alcaline'; can 'dog' > canin 'canine';

new formation: mure 'mouse' > murin 'of mice, mouse'
Note: Used particularly with names of animals. The substantivized forms -ino, -ina may be used to designate animal offspring.

-ista 'pertaining to ...ism or ...ists' e.g. evolution > evolutionista 'of evolution, evolutionist';

new formation: inflation > inflationista 'inflationary, inflationist'
Note: Not distinct from nouns in -ista used in apposition.

-oide 'like..., shaped like ...' e.g. negro 'Negro' > negroide 'negroid';

new formation: disco 'disk' > discoide 'discoid, discoidal'
Note: Used chiefly in technical terms. To be substantivized without change in form.

-ose 'having, abounding in . .., characterized by ...' e.g. joco 'joke' > jocose; religion > religiose 'religious';

new formation: incendio 'destructive fire' > incendiose 'abounding in destructive fires'
Note: -ion plus -ose > -iose.

-otic 'pertaining to ...osis' e.g. neurosis and neurotic;

new formation: thrombosis and thrombotic
Note: Used in technical (medical) terms corresponding to (and derived from the base of) nouns in -osis.

I.A.c Verbos derivate ab substantivos

§140 VERBOS es derivate AB SUBSTANTIVOS E ADJECTIVOS per medio del desinentia verbal simple -ar o su formas composite -ificar e -isar (-ficar e -sar post -i). Le distinction de signification in verbos derivate de iste tres typos es plus difficile a definir que sentir.


Pro nove formationes, le punctos sequente es a tener in mente: Le desinentia -ar pote esser dicite haber nulle significantia in se; illo mermente indica le natura verbal del derivato. Le signification specific associate con le natura verbal pote esser clarificate per altere factores. Pro illustrar: que guantar (de guanto) probabilemente non suggere le idea de 'render como guanto' (per le modello de acierar [render como aciero] de 'aciero'), o 'batter con un guanto' (per le modello de martellar [batter con un martello] de martello) non es a causa de alicun signification de -ar, sed es simplemente un question de senso commun. Nove formationes in -ar obtene lor signification specific per contexto, senso commun, e sovente etiam per le uso simultanee de un prefixo, como per exemplo in afratrar (de fratre), ubi a- suggere approximation assi que le verbo significara 'facer un fratre o fratres de', o in invinagrar (de vinagre), ubi le prefixo suggere immersion assi que le verbo significara 'adder vinagre'.


Le signification suggerite per formationes verbal in -ificar es illo de cambiar un cosa in alique que illo non esseva antea. In un de su aspectos, le suffixo -isar suggere similemente le idea de facer, sed plus tosto in le senso que un cosa es facite assumer un nove stato sin perder su identitate previe. Assi petrificar suggere un action que cambia in petra alique que esseva alique altere, durante que vaporisar suggere que un substantia le qual non cambia su identitate es transformate in vapor. In nove formationes, le distinction deberea esser clarmente observate. Per exemplo, papirificar [converter in papiro] (de papiro) poterea haber 'ligno' como su objecto, durante que papirisar [facer in papiro] possibilemente refererea al 'cortice' de un arbore que remane lo que illo esseva, sed comencia haber le apparentia de papiro.

1. = facer uso de ...; applicar, dar, etc. ... (a); p.ex. vulnere -> vulnerar;
nove formation: anello -> anellar: applicar o dar un anello a; garage -> garagiar: mantener o poner in un garage;
2. = render ..., facer ..., etc.; p.ex. sic -> siccar: facer sic;
nove formation: folle -> follar: facer alicuno/alique folle;
Nota: Concernente verbos composite formate con prefixos e -ar, vide supra e §§155, 163.

-ificar = facer, render ...; converter in ...; p.ex. ample -> amplificar; petra -> petrificar;

nove formationes: grasse -> grassificar; glacie -> glacificar: converter in glacie;
Nota: Quando applicate a substantivos, -ificar pote esser interpretate como suffixo adjectival -ific plus -ar; p.ex. pace + -ificar -> pacificar, o pacific + -ar -> pacificar

1. = cambiar in ...; p.ex. pulvere -> pulverisar;

nove formation: emulsion -> emulsionisar;
2. = applicar ...; facer uso (del principios) de ..., etc.; p.ex. Pasteur -> pasteurisar;
nove formation: collodio -> collodisar;
3. = render ..., facer ...; p.ex. american -> americanisar;
nove formation: minime -> minimisar;
Nota: Substantivos in -ismo e -ista pote sovente esser interpretate como derivate ab verbos in -isar, e non ab substantivos o adjectivos basic.

Verbs derived from nouns and adjectives

§ 140. I.A.c., I.B.d.

-- VERBS are derived FROM NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES by means of the simple verb ending -at or its compounded forms -ificar and -isar (-ficar and -sar after -i-). The distinction of meaning in derived verbs of these three types is harder to define than to sense.

For new formations the following points are to be borne in mind: The ending -ar may be said to have no meaning of its own; it merely indicates the verbal nature of the derivative. The specific meaning to be associated with that verbal nature is to be clarified by other factors. To illustrate: that guantar (from guanto 'glove') is not likely to suggest the ideas 'to render glovelike' (after the model of acierar 'to render steel-like' from aciero 'steel') or 'to slap with a glove' (after the model of martellar 'to beat with a hammer' from martello 'hammer') is not due to any signification of -ar but is simply a matter of common sense. New formations in -ar obtain their specific meaning through context, common sense, and often also through the simultaneous use of a prefix, as for instance in afratrar (from fratre 'brother'), where a- suggests approximation so that the verb will mean 'to make a brother or brothers of,' or in invinagrar (from vinagre 'vinegar'), where the prefix suggests immersion so that the verb will mean 'to put in vinegar.'

The meaning suggested by verb formations in -ificar is that of making a thing over into something it was not before. In one of its aspects the suffix -isar suggests likewise the idea of making but rather in the sense that a thing is made to assume a new state without losing its former identity. Thus petrificar 'to petrify' suggests an action which makes something into a stone that was something else while vaporisar 'to vaporize' suggests that a substance which does not change its identity is made into vapor. In new formations the distinction should be clearly observed. For instance, papirificar 'to make into paper' (from papiro 'paper') might have 'wood' as its object while papirisar 'to make into paper' would apply possibly to the bark of a tree which remains what it was but begins to have the appearance of paper.

1. 'to make use of...; to apply, give, etc ... (to)' e.g. vulnere 'wound' > vulnerar 'to wound';

new formation: anello 'ring' > anellar 'to ring, apply or give a ring to'; garage > garagiar 'to keep or put in a garage, to garage';
2. 'to render ..., to make..., etc.' e.g. sic 'dry' > siccar 'to dry, make dry';
new formation: folle 'mad' > follar 'to madden, drive mad'
Note: On compound verbs formed with prefixes and -ar see above and §§ 155, 163.

-ificar 'to make, render...; to convert into ...' e.g. ample > amplificar 'to amplify'; petra 'stone' > petrificar 'to petrify';

new formations: grasse 'fat' > grassificar 'to fatten'; glacie 'ice' > glacificar 'to ice, convert into ice'
Note: When applied to nouns, -ificar can be construed as adjectival suffix -ific plus -ar; e.g. pace 'peace' plus -ificar or pacific plus -ar > pacificar 'to pacify.'

1. 'to make into ...' e.g. pulvere 'powder' > pulverisar 'to pulverize';

new formation: emulsion > emulsionisar 'to emulsionize';
2. 'to apply...; to make use (of the principles) of .... etc.' e.g. Pasteur > pasteurisar 'to pasteurize';
new formation: collodio 'collodion' > collodisar 'to collodionize';
3. 'to render ..., to make ...' e.g. american > americanisar 'to Americanize';
new formation: minime 'smallest' > minimisar 'to minimize'
Note: Nouns in -ismo and -ista may often be construed as derived from verbs in -isar rather than from basic nouns or adjectives.

I.B Derivation ab adjectivos


I.B.a Substantivos derivate ab adjectivos

§141 SUBSTANTIVOS es derivate AB ADJECTIVOS per medio del suffixos listate infra. Concernente adjectivos usate como pronomines o substantivos, vide §§40-41 supra.

-essa = stato o qualitate de esser ...; p.ex. polite -> politessa; ric -> ricchessa;
nove formation: apte -> aptessa;

1. (pronunciation: -ia, non accentuate) = stato o qualitate de esser ...; p.ex. efficace -> efficacia;

nove formation: felice -> felicia; fraudulente -> fraudulentia;
Nota: Usate principalmente con adjectivos in -nte. Le combination -ntia coincide con le suffixo postverbal substantive -ntia. Vide §148 sub -antia.
2. (pronunciation: -ía, con accento super -i) = stato o qualitate de esser ...; p.ex. zelose -> zelosia;
nove formation: brachycephale -> brachycephalia;
Nota: Usate principalmente con compositos technic.

1. = stato o qualitate de esser ...; p.ex. provincial -> provincialismo;

nove formation: brutal -> brutalismo;
2. = doctrina o practica concernite con lo que es ...; p.ex. social -> socialismo;
nove formation: atonal [Musica] -> atonalismo [Musica];
3. = alique characteristic del gente ... o de lor lingua; p.ex. german -> germanismo;
nove formation: polynesian -> polynesianismo;
Nota: Pro derivatos ab substantivos, vide §138.

-ista = adherente del doctrina o practica concernite con lo que es ...; p.ex. social -> socialista;

nove formation: atonal [Musica] -> atonalista [Musica]: adherente de atonalismo;
Nota: Pro derivatos ab substantivos, vide §138.

-itate = stato o qualitate de esser ...; p.ex. regular -> regularitate;

nove formation: cohesive -> cohesivitate;
Nota: Synonymo de -itude, sed es preferite quando le base es jam un derivato. In derivation additional (non recommendate pro uso active), -itate appare como -it- ante le suffixos comenciante con a; p.ex. autoritate + -ari -> autoritari.

-itude = stato o qualitate de esser ...; p.ex. certe -> certitude;

nove formation: emerite -> emeritude: stato emerite;
Nota: Synonymo de -itate. Extendite a -itudin- in derivation additional; p.ex. latitude -> latitudinal.


I.B.b Adjectivos derivate ab adjectivos

§142 Le derivation active de ADJECTIVOS AB ADJECTIVOS es limitate al uso de un suffixo diminutive e le formation de superlativos absolute in -issime tractate in §36 supra. Nota que omne substantivo in -ista pote functionar como un adjectivo. P.ex. socialista (subst): socialista (adj) = socialistic.

-ette = aliquanto, un pauco ..., bastante, satis ...; p.ex. belle -> bellette;
nove formation: blanc -> blanchette;


I.B.c Adverbios derivate ab adjectivos

§143 Concernente le formation de ADVERBIOS DERIVATE ab adjectivos, vide §§45-47 supra.

I.B.d Verbos derivate ab adjectivos

§144 Le derivation de VERBOS AB ADJECTIVOS es completemente parallel a illo de verbos ab substantivos. Vide §140 supra.

Derivation from adjectives


Nouns derived from adjectives

§ 141. I.B.a.- NOUNS are derived FROM ADJECTIVES by means of the suffixes listed below. On adjectives used as pronouns or nouns, see §§ 40-41 above.

-essa 'state or quality of being ...' e.g. polite > politessa 'politeness'; ric 'rich' > ricchessa 'wealth';
new formation: apte 'apt' > aptessa 'aptitude'

-ia (pron -'ia) 'state or quality of being ...' e.g. efficace 'effective' > efficacia 'effectiveness';

new formation: felice 'happy' > felicia 'happiness'; fraudulente 'fraudulent' > fraudulentia 'fraudulence'
Note: Used chiefly with adjectives in -nte. The combination -ntia coincides with the postverbal noun suffix -ntia. See § 148 under -antia.

-ia (pron -ía) 'state or quality of being ...' e.g. zelose 'jealous' > zelosia 'jealousy';

new formation: brachycephale 'brachycephalic' > brachycephalia 'braehycephalism'
Note: Used chiefly with technical compounds.

1. 'state or quality of being ...' e.g. provincial > provincialismo 'provincialism';

new formation: brutal > brutalismo 'brutality';
2. 'doctrine or practice concerned with what is ...' e.g. social > socialismo 'socialism';
new formation: atonal [Mus.] atonalismo [Mus.] 'atonalism';
3. 'something characteristic of the... people or of their language' e.g. german 'German' > germanismo 'Germanism';
new formation: polynesian 'Polynesian' > polynesianismo 'Polynesianism'
Note: For derivatives from nouns, see § 138.

-ista 'adherent of the doctrine or practice concerned with what is ...' e.g. social > socialista 'socialist';

new formation: atonal [Mus.] > atonalista [Mus.] 'adherent of atonalism'
Note: For derivatives from nouns, see § 138.

-itate 'state or quality of being ...' e.g. regular > regularitate 'regularity';

new formation: cohesive > cohesivitate 'cohesiveness'
Note: Synonym of -itude, but preferred when the base is already a derivative. In further derivation (not recommended for active use), -itate appears as -it- before suffixes beginning with a; e.g. autoritate 'authority' plus -ari > autoritari 'authoritarian.'

-itude 'state or quality of being ...' e.g. certe 'certain' > certitude 'certainty';

new formation: emerite 'emeritus' > emeritude 'emeritus status'
Note: Synonym of -itate. Extended to -itudin- in further derivation; e.g. latitude latitudinal.

§ 142. I.B.b.- The active derivation of ADJECTIVES FROM ADJECTIVES is limited to the use of one diminutive suffix and the formation of absolute superlatives in -issime treated in § 36 above. Note that every noun in -ista can function as an adjective. E.g. socialista 'socialist, socialistic.'

-ette 'somewhat..., pretty ...' e.g. belle 'beautiful' > bellette 'pretty';
new formation: blanc 'white' > blanchette 'whitish'

§ 143. I.B.c. -- On the formation of DERIVED ADVERBS see §§ 45-47 above.


§ 144. I.B.d.- The derivation of VERBS FROM ADJECTIVES runs completely parallel to that of verbs from nouns. See § 140 above.

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