Grammatica de interlingua de Alexander Gode &



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PARTICULAS GRAMMATIC
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§134 Nota: Le spheras de grammatica e vocabulario imbrica proque ambes se preoccupa de ille "parve parolas" que es necessari pro exprimer le relation inter le vocabulos o expressiones que constitue un enunciation complete. Iste parolas, hic pro convenientia nominate "particulas grammatic," ha functiones grammatic. Assi illos es classificate generalmente non in un proprie categoria, sed como prepositiones, conjunctiones, pronomines, adverbios, e similes.

Ab le puncto de vista de Interlingua "particulas grammatic," totevia, forma un gruppo de significantia peculiar proque lor extension international comparate con le grande majoritate de vocabulos de Interlingua es assatis restricte. Pro le majoritate del usatores de Interlingua le "particulas grammatic" constitue le unic obstaculo seriose in apprender le lingua.

Le extension restricte de internationalitate del "particulas grammatic" es debite al facto que lor equivalentes in le varie linguas national es si intimemente associate con cosas basic de structura grammatic que illos non pare haber invadite le dominio de altere linguas a grande mesura. Un parola francese como {cigarette} ha cambiate al anglese sin multe difficultate; le parola francese {sans} como usate in le anglese retene su sapor estranier post multe seculos.


 

Pro illustrar ulteriormente: Le parlator de un altere lingua - que nos dice un francese - pote trovar difficile comprender le enunciation anglese simple: --- Our guests started coming in right after we got back from town.

Ille es adjutate per le version: --- Our visitors began to arrive right after we returned from town.

E como un ultime recurso, il ha in plus le possibilitate que ille pote comprender le version: --- Our visitors commenced to arrive immediately after we returned from the city.

Le prime version se compone de parolas specificamente anglese. Le ultime version usa in vice, in tanto que possibile, variantes anglese de parolas international que un francese comprende proque illos occurre in su proprie lingua - in formas un pauco differente, i.e. specificamente francese.

Con un grado major o minor de artificio, il es possibile parlar e scriber qualcunque lingua occidental in vocabulos que es quasi integremente variantes national de materia representate in le vocabulario international. Sed il remane in omne casos un corpore substantial de vocabulos que resiste a iste artificio de internationalisar un lingua national. In le exemplo justo usate, iste corpore de recalcitrante vocabulos es representate con parolas como {our}, {to}, {after}, {we}, {from}, e {the}. Omne istes es particulas grammatic ben que alicunes, como {after} e {we}, combina un function grammatic con un significato clarmente palpabile.

Le Interlingua-English Dictionary (IED) include un stock multo liberal de particulas grammatic. In addition al particulas que es international secundo le definition functionante del termino in le Dictionario, il ha numerose formas que pareva compatibile con le character general del vocabulario international assi que lor inclusion poteva servir a allargar le appello e le utilitate del Dictionario.
 

Un lista minimal de particulas grammatic seque. Iste lista se restringe al particulas considerate indispensabile pro le operation del lingua e pote esser supplementate per material additional - specialmente expressiones con functiones grammatic - prendite del IED. Un numero de parolas que le IED lista in duo equalmente correcte formas appare in basso solmente in un alternativa. Isto non implica que le secunde es considerate minus desirabile. Le pares in question es:



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GRAMMATICAL WORDS
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§ 134 Note: The spheres of grammar and vocabulary overlap in that both are concerned with those "little words" which are needed to express the relationship between the words or phrases making up a complete statement. These words are grammatical functionaries (here conveniently labeled "grammatical words"), and as such they are generally classed not in a special category of their own but as prepositions, conjunctions, pronouns, adverbs, and the like.

From the point of view of Interlingua "grammatical words" do, however, form a group of peculiar significance because their international range compared with that of the bulk of Interlingua words is fairly restricted. For most users of Interlingua the "grammatical words" constitute the one and only serious learning obstacle.
 

The restricted international range of "grammatical words" is due to the fact that their counterparts in the various national languages are so closely associated with matters of basic grammatical structure that they seem to be prevented from invading the realm of other languages on a large scale. A French word like cigarette has turned English without much trouble; the French word sans as used in English retains its foreign flavor after these many centuries.

To illustrate further: The speaker of another language - let us say a Frenchman - may find it difficult to understand the simple English statement: "Our guests started coming in right after we got back from town."

He may be helped by the version: "Our visitors began to arrive right after we returned from town."

And as a last resort there is still the possibility that he may understand the version: "Our visitors commenced to arrive immediately after we returned from the city."

The first version is composed of peculiarly English words. The last version uses instead as far as possible the English variants of international words which the Frenchman understands because they occur - in slightly different, that is, peculiarly French forms - in his own language.

With a greater or lesser degree of artifice it is possible to speak and write any one of the Western languages in words which are almost entirely national variants of material represented in the international vocabulary. But there remains in all cases a substantial body of words which resist this trick of internationalizing a national language. In the example just used this body of recalcitrants is represented by words like our, to, after, we, from, and the. All of them are grammatical words although some of them, as after and we, combine a grammatical function with a clearly palpable meaning.
 

The Interlingua-English Dictionary (IED) includes a very liberal supply of grammatical words. In addition to those which happen to be international in accordance with the Dictionary's working definition of the term, there are numerous forms which seemed compatible with the general character of the international vocabulary so that their inclusion could serve to broaden the appeal and usefulness of the Dictionary.

A minimum list of grammatical words follows. It is restricted to items considered indispensable for the operation of the language and may be enlarged by further material - especially phrases with grammatical functions - drawn from the IED. A number of words which the IED lists in two equally correct forms appears below in one alternate only. This does not imply that the second is considered less desirable. The pairs in question are:



alicun alcun

aliquando alquando

aliquanto alquanto

alique alco

a pena apena

depost depois

haber haver

hic ci

illac la


illa ella

ille celle

jam ja

pauc poc


secundo secun

semper sempre

si non sinon

subinde sovente

tanto tan

vice vece





Lista de particulas grammatic
Grammatical Words


a: to; at

ab: prep since, from

alias: otherwise, in another manner;

alias; at another time

alibi: elsewhere

ali(c)-: any-, some

alicubi: somewhere; anywhere

alicun: some, any; a few;

alicun cosa: something, anything

alicuno: someone, somebody; anyone,

anybody

aliquando: sometime; at any time



aliquanto: somewhat, to some degree

alique: pron something, anything;

- adv somewhat

alora: then; in that case, consequently

alto: top;

in alto: up; upwards; upstairs; on top

ambe: adj both;

ambes: pron both

an: part interr-;

an ille ha le libro?: has he the

book?;

- conj whether



ancora: adv still, yet;

- interj encore

anque: also, too;

anque io: me too;

non solo...ma anque:

not only...but also

ante: prep before, in front of; earlier

than; above;

- adv before, ahead, earlier, forward;

ante que: before

ante-heri: day before yesterday

a pena: hardly, scarcely

apud: near, with, at, by

assatis: adv enough; rather, fairly,

quite

assi: thus, so;



assi...como: as...as

avante: before, in front, ahead; forward

basso: bottom;

a basso: down, downward;

in basso: down, below, downward;

downstairs

bastante: adj enough, sufficient;

- adv enough, sufficiently

ben que: although

bis: twice; encore

cata: adj each;

cata uno: each (one)

causa: cause;

a causa de: because of

certo: certainly

circa: around, about; approximately

como: how; as, like;

como si: as though, as if

comocunque: however, in whatever way

con: with, together with; by means of

concernente: concerning

contra: prep opposite, facing; against;

- adv opposite, facing; on the

contrary


cuje: whose

-cunque: -ever

de: from, since; of, belonging to; made

of; with, by means of;

de (+ inf): to

deman: tomorrow;

deman matino: tomorrow morning;

deman vespere: tomorrow night

depost: adv afterwards, later;

- prep after, since;

depost que: since, from the time that

desde: prep since, from

dum: while, as long as; until; provided

that, if only

dunque: therefore

durante: during;

durante que: while, whilst

e: and;


e ... e: both ... and

ecce: lo!, see!, behold!; here is, here

are

ergo: therefore, accordingly,



consequently, then, ergo

esque: part interr -;

esque ille ha le libro?: has he the

book?


et cetera, etc.: and so forth, and so

on,


et cetera, etc.

etiam: also, likewise, too; even, even

yet, yet;

non solmente ... sed etiam: not

only ... but also

ex: out of, from

excepte: except, excepting

extra: adv without, on the outside;

besides, in addition, extra;

- prep outside of, without, beyond;

except, excepting; besides, in

addition to

foras: adv out of doors, outside, out;

from without;

- prep beyond, except;

foras de: outside of, without;

foras de se: beside oneself

forsan: perhaps, maybe

gratis: gratis, free of charge

haber: to have; il ha: there is, there

are

heri: yesterday



hic: here; de hic a (un hora): (an hour)

from now;

usque (a) hic: up to here, thus far;

up to now, hitherto;

hic juncte: herewith

hodie: today

ibi: there

ibidem: in the same place; ibidem;

ibid., ib.

idem: the same (thing); idem; id.

igitur: adv/conj then, therefore,

thereupon

il: impers pron it

illa: she, her

illac: there

ille: he, it; him; that, the former

illes: they; them

illo: it


in: in, into

infra: adv below, underneath, beneath;

- prep below, under, beneath

insimul: together

inter: between, among

interim: meanwhile, in the meantime

intertanto: meanwhile, in the meantime

intra: adv/prep within

intro: inwardly, internally, on the

inside, in

io: I

ipse: myself, yourself, himself, etc.;



hodie ipse: this very day

iste: this, the latter

ita: thus, so; just so, yes; and so,

consequently; accordingly

jam: already, at once, right away; just

now, a moment ago; indeed, surely;

non ... jam: no longer

jammais: ever, at any time; non ...

jammais: never;

jammais!: never!

justo: just, exactly;

justo nunc, justo ora: just now, right

now

juxta: adv near, near by;



- prep near, near to, next to

la: her


le: art the

le: pron him

les: them

lo: it;


lo que: that which, what

loco: place;

in loco de: instead of;

in su loco: instead

longe: far; away, far away; de longe:

from afar, from a distance

lontan: distant, far-off

lor: their

lore: their

ma: but;


non solo...ma anque;

not only...but also

malgrado: in spite of

maniera: manner, way; de maniera que: so

that

me: me


melio: adv better; tanto melio: so much

the better

melior: adj better; le melior: the best

mesme: same; myself, yourself, himself,

etc. (as in "the king himself")

mesmo: likewise; even; hodie mesmo: this

very day; ora mesmo: right now

mi: my


mie: mine

minus: less; minus; a minus que: unless;

al minus: at least;

totos minus ille: all but him;

le minus: the least

multo: very; much

nam: for

nemo: no one, nobody

ni: neither, nor, also not

nihil, nil: nothing

nimie: adj too much, too many

nimis: adv too, too much

no: adj no

non: not; no; si non: if not; except,

unless it be

nondum: not yet

nonne: part interr is it not?;

il es ver, nonne?: it is true, isn't

it?

nonobstante: prep despite, in spite of;



- adv nevertheless

nos: us, we

nostre: our, ours

nulle: adj not any, no; null, worthless,

without legal force

nullemente: in no way, not at all

nunc: now

nunquam: never

nusquam: nowhere


o: or;

o...o: either...or

olim: once, formerly; at a future time,

sometime (in the future)

omne: adj all; each, every; de omne

mano: from every hand;

de omne latere: from every side; in

omne caso: in any case;

omne cosa: everything;

omnes: pron all

on: one

ora: now


parte: part;

a parte: apart, aside;

in parte: in part;

del parte de: on the part of;

de parte a parte: through and through;

in nulle parte: nowhere

passato: ago

pauc: adj little, not much; few; un pauc

(de): a little;

pauc a pauc: little by little; in pauc:

shortly, before long

pauco: adv little

per: through; during, throughout; by,

through, by means of; per

perque: adv/conj why; because

plus: more; plus;

le plus: the most;

de plus: furthermore, besides;

de plus in plus: more and more;

in plus: furthermore, in addition,

also;

al plus: at best;



plus o minus: more or less;

non ... plus: no more, no longer

pois: adv afterwards, thereafter;

- conj for;

pois que: since, as, because

post: adv behind, back, backwards;

afterwards, after;

- prep behind; after;

post que: since, because

postea: afterwards, thereafter

postquam: conj after; as soon as

potius: rather; sooner

presso: adv/prep near, close;

a presso de: at the home of; in care

of; with, among

presto: presto, quickly, quick as a wink

preter: adj past, beyond;

- prep past, along, alongside of;

beyond; except, excepting; in

addition to

pridem: long ago

pro: for, in favor of; in exchange for,

in place of;

pro (+ inf): (in order) to

proque: adv/conj why; because

qual: which; what; le qual: which; that;

who

qualcunque: any, whatever



quando: adv/conj when

quandocunque: whenever

quante: adj how much, how many

quanto: adv as much as; as far as;

quanto...tanto: the...the;

quanto a: as for

quare: wherefore, why

quasi: almost, nearly; in a certain

sense, in a way;

quasi que: as if

que: pron interr what;

- pron rel who, whom, which, that

qui: who, whom; de qui: whose

quicunque: whoever, whomever, whosoever

quia: because, for

quo: adv whither, where; wherefore;

- conj so that, in order that

re: about, concerning

retro: back, backwards; ago; a retro:

backwards

salvo: save, but, but for;

salvo que: save that, but that

satis: enough; rather, somewhat;

esser satis: to be enough; haber satis:

to have enough;

satis de (tempore, etc.): enough (time,

etc.)

se: pron refl himself; herself; itself;



themselves

secundo: prep (following) after; along,

by; according to;

secundo que: according as

sed: but

semper: always

si: adv thus, so; yes;

si...como: as...as

si: conj if; whether;

si non: if not; except, unless it be

sia: be, may be, let there be;

sia...sia: be (it)...or be (it);

whether...or;

qual que sia: whatever, whatsoever

sin: prep without

sol: adj sole, alone, only;

viver sol: to live alone;

sentir se sol: to feel lonesome, lonely

solo: adv only, merely;

non solo...ma anque: not only ... but

also

su: his, her, its



sub: prep under, below, beneath

subinde: immediately after, just after,

forthwith; repeatedly, frequently,

often, from time to time

subito: suddenly, unexpectedly

subtus: adv below, beneath, underneath

sue: his, hers, its

super: prep on, upon; on top of; over,

above; about, concerning, on;

- adv above, on top;

super toto: above all

supra: prep above, over;

- adv on the top, above

sur: on, upon; on top of

tal: such, such a;

tal e tal: such and such;

talmente: adv so; un libro talmente

belle:


so beautiful a book, such a beautiful

book


tamen: yet, however, nevertheless, not

withstanding

tante: adj so much, so many;

tante per cento: so much per hundred,

percentage;

tante...como: as much, as many...as

tanto: adv so, so much;

tanto...como: as much...as;

in tanto que: in as much as;

tanto plus...que: all the more...that;

quanto...tanto: the...the

tarde: adj late; plus tarde: later;

later on; al plus tarde: at the

latest


te: you, thee; yourself, thyself

tosto: presently, soon, promptly;

plus tosto: rather, sooner;

si tosto que: as soon as

tote: adj all; every, each;

tote le (homines): all (men);

totos: all, everyone; de tote (le)

corde: wholeheartedly;

tote (le) duo: both

totevia: yet, still, nevertheless

toto: subst all, everything;

le toto: the whole;

super toto: above all;

ante toto: before all;

post toto: after all;

del toto: at all;

in toto: entirely, wholly, in toto

toto: adv all, quite, wholly

trans: across, over, beyond, on the

farther side of

troppo: too, too much;

troppo (de) (libros, etc.): too many

(books, etc.);

troppo (de) (aqua, etc.): too much

(water, etc.);

de troppo: superfluous, in the way, de

trop

tu: your, thy



tue: yours, thine

tunc: then

ubi: adv where;

- conj where; when; as soon as;

wherewith; in which;

a ubi: where, whither;

de ubi: from where, whence

ubicunque: wherever

ubique: everywhere; anywhere,

wheresoever, wherever

ultra: adv on the other side, beyond,

farther;


- prep on the farther side of; beyond,

past; besides;

ultra illo: besides, moreover;

ultra que: aside from the fact that

un: a, an;

le un le altere: one another, each

other;

le unes le alteres: one another, each



other

uno: pron indef one

unquam: ever, at any time

usquam: somewhere

usque: prep (all the way) to, up to;

till, until;

usque nunc: up to now

verso: towards, to

via: adv away; off;

via!: go away!, begone!;

- prep by way of, via

vice: turn, stead; time (as in "three

times");

alicun vices: sometimes;

un vice: once; on one occasion;

formerly;

un vice que: once, once that;

in vice de: instead of;

a vices: at times;

altere vice: a second time;

plure vices: several times, repeatedly

viste: considering;

viste que: considering that

voluntarie: willingly, readily, gladly,

with pleasure

vos: you; yourself, yourselves

vostre: your, yours

ya: adv indeed, certainly, of course;

ya (io lo crede): (I) do (believe it)

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