Grammatica de interlingua de Alexander Gode &



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Nota: Post (10^6)^5, le plus alte potentias de

un million es formate regularmente per le

suffixo -illion addite al radice del

multiplicativo correspondente al exponente.

Pro le formas del multiplicativos, vide

§127 infra. Le numeral que representa un

mille multiplicate per qualcunque potentia

de un million es formate per reimplaciar le

-ion final per le suffixo -iardo.
Omne altere cardinales es formate per addition

o multiplication.


§119 Le principio de addition es usate pro

combinar deces con unes; centos con deces e

unes; milles con centos, deces, e unes;

milliones con milles, centos, deces, e unes,

etc. Le numerales a adder es juxtaponite; le

plus grande(s) precede.

Exemplo:
1.120 mille cento vinti.
Sub un cento, le elementos juxtaponite es

connectite per un tracto de union.


Exemplos:
72 septanta-duo;

11 dece-un;

12 dece-duo.
Le uso de e inter le elementos que es a adder

es sempre possibile e sempre dispensabile. In

summas sub un cento, illo reimplacia le

tracto de union.


Exemplos:
1.120 mille cento e vinti;

72 septanta e duo.


§120 Le principio de multiplication es usate

pro exprimer multiplos de cento, mille, e

omne le plus alte potentias de mille, como

million, milliardo, etc.

Le multiplicator es un adjectivo que sempre

precede le multiplicando. Le multiplicando es

un substantivo que prende un desinentia

plural normal.

Exemplos:
3.000.000 tres milliones;

200 duo centos.


Nota: Ante cento e mille le multiplicator

'un' pote esser omittite. Omne le plus alte

potentias del 1.000 - como million, milliardo,

billion, etc. - introduce le objecto que illos

conta per le preposition de.

Exemplo:


$10^12 un billion (1 000 000 000 000) de

dollares.


§121 Il ha nulle differentia in forma inter

numerales cardinal que es usate como

adjectivos e pronomines excepte pro 'un',

cuje formas pronominal coincide con illos del

articulo indefinite (vide §21 supra).
§122 Exemplos de numerales cardinal:
13 dece-tres

8.347 octo milles tres centos

quaranta-septe

10.987.654.321 dece milliardos novem

centos octanta-septe

milliones sex centos

cinquanta-quatro milles

tres centos vinti-un


Le mille-pedes ha perdite quatro centos

novanta-novem pedes; illo totevia ha cinque

centos un.

In bon tempores ille emplea plus que cento

filanderas in su filanda; nunc ille ha

travalio pro exactemente quaranta-una.

§123 DECIMALES es scribite e legite con un

comma in loco de un puncto:


34,798 trenta-quatro comma septe novem octo

Nota : Le usage anglese de separar numerales

longe per comma (p.ex., 1,234,567,890)

confligerea con le comma decimal. In su loco

Interlingua usa le puncto;

p.ex. 1.234.567.890


§124 Exemplos de como leger regulas

arithmetic:


14 + 3,4 = 17,4 dece-quatro plus tres comma

quatro es dece-septe comma

quatro

20 - 102 = -82 vinti minus cento duo es minus



octanta duo

20 x 17 = 340 vinti vices dece-septe es tres

centos quaranta

100/3 = 33,3333 cento dividite per tres es

trenta-tres comma tres tres

tres tres

---------

Ordinales

---------
§125 Le NUMERALES ORDINAL es adjectivos que

ha omne le characteristicas de altere

adjectivos in respecto al uso pronominal e

substantivate. Le ordinales basic (e lor

formas numeric) es:
prime 1me

secunde 2nde

tertie 3tie

quarte 4te

quinte 5te

sexte 6te

septime 7me

octave 8ve

none 9ne

decime 10me

ultime
Omne altere ordinales simple es derivate del

cardinales correspondente per le suffixo

-esime:

vintesime 20me



trentesime 30me

centesime 100me

millesime 1.000me

millionesime 1.000.000me

milliardesime 1.000.000.000me
In numerales composite solmente le ultime

elemento porta le forma de un ordinal:


dece-prime 11me

cento secunde 102nde

novanta-none 99ne

tres centesime 300me


le duo cento cinquantesime anniversario ...

Isto es mi tertie (presumibilemente: cocktail).

In numerales arabic le ordinales son presentate

sequentemente:


1me 2nde 3tie 4te 5te 6te 7me

8ve 9ne 10me 20me 100me


§126 Le adjectivo FRACTIONAL anglese

{half} es medie, le substantivo

correspondente medietate. Jungite al

substantivo sequente, medie- ha le valor

de {mid-} in anglese.
un medie hora ...

duo medie horas ...

le duo medietates ...

duo e medie horas ...

duo horas e medie ...

le medietate del membros ...

le medie membros (i.e. membros con

derectos limitate)


mediedie ...

medienocte ...

Omne altere numerales fractional es formate

secundo le patronos sequente:

Expressiones como {a fourth part}, {two fifth

parts}, {one sixth part}, etc. es exprimite

como in anglese per ordinales simple: un

quarte parte, duo quinte partes, un sexte

parte, etc. In le plus grande numero de casos,

expressiones fractional differe del exemplos

date per le absentia de parte. In su loco, le

ordinales se cambia a substantivos. Nota que

le modello {three quarter mile} debe sempre

esser rendite como {three fourths of a mile:

tres quartos de un millia.}
Tres quartos plus tres octavos es un e un

octavo.


Un medie hora e un quarto de hora es tres

quartos de hora.


In numeros mixte que es usate como adjectivos

numeral, le fraction pote sequer le

substantivo.


un pan e tres quartos ...

duo milliones e tres quintos de

prisioneros ...

---------------

Multiplicativos

---------------


§127 Le adjectivos numeral

MULTIPLICATIVE es:


simple o simplice

duple o duplice

triple o triplice

quadruple

quintuple

sextuple


septuple

octuple


nonuple

decuple


centuple

§128 COMPOSITOS MULTIPLICATIVE

({half-yearly}, {threedecker}, etc.) pote

esser formate liberemente secundo le modellos

sequente in le quales le formas del numerales

functiona como prefixos in compositos. Nota

que compositos de iste categoria pote

involver derivation simultanee (secundo le

modello anglese {three-cornered} que es non

simplemente un composito de {three} e

{cornered}, sed un derivato composite de

{three} e {corner} con le suffixo {-ed}).

Vide etiam §§155, 163-164 infra. Le

methodos de composition illustrate pote esser

applicate equalmente e indifferentemente -

intra le limites de necessitate practic pro

nove formationes - a substantivos,

adjectivos, e verbos.


Un:

uni- =


un.

uni- + trinitate ->

unitrinitate;

uni- + corno + -e (adj) ->

unicorne;

uni- + latere + -al ->

unilateral;

nove formationes:

uni- + monte -> unimonte: monte singule;

uni- + anulo + -ate -> unianulate;

Nota: Le forma mono-, ante vocales mon-,

es usate como un synonymo de

unispecialmente in terminos technic.
Un e un medie:

sesqui- = un e un medie.

sesqui- + plano -> sesquiplano: biplano

con un curte subplano;

sesqui- + pede + -al -> sesquipedal;
nove formationes:
sesqui- + torno -> sesquitorno:

un-e-un-medie torno;

sesqui- + uncia + -al -> sesquiuncial:

de un uncia e medie (in longor);


Duo:

bi- = duo.

bi- + cyclo -> bicyclo;

bi- + metallo + -ismo -> bimetallismo;

bi- + furcar -> bifurcar;

bi- + lingua + -e (adj) -> bilingue;

nove formationes:

bi- + vita + -ate -> bivitate: habente

duo vitas; bi- + digito + -e (adj)

-> bidigite: habente duo digitos;

bi- + franger -> bifranger: franger duo

vices;


Nota: Le forma di- es usate como un

synonymo de bi- specialmente in terminos

technic.

Medie:


semi- = medie.

semi- + deo -> semideo;

semi- + official -> semiofficial;

semi- + somno + -e (adj) -> semisomne;

nove formationes:

semi- + professor -> semiprofessor;

semi- + occider -> semioccider;

semi- + interessante ->

semiinteressante;

Nota: Le forma hemi- es usate como un

synonymo plus rar de semi- specialmente

in terminos technic.

Tres:

tri- = tres.



tri- + folio -> trifolio;

tri- + secar -> trisecar;

tri- + dimension + -al ->

tridimensional;

tri- + angulo + -e (adj) -> triangule:

habente tres angulos;

Quatro:

quadri- = quatro.



quadri- + syllaba + -e (adj) ->

quadrisyllabe;

quadri- + anno: year + -al ->

quadriennal;

Nota: Le forma tetra-, ante vocales

tetr-, es usate como un synonymo

preferite de quadri- specialmente in

terminos technic.

Cinque, sex, septe, octo, dece-duo:

penta- = cinque.

penta- + metro -> pentametro;

hexa- = sex.

hexa- + chordo -> hexachordo;

hepta- = septe.

hepta- + -archia -> heptarchia:

governamento per septe;

octa- = octo.

octa- + metro -> octametro;

dodeca- = dece-duo.

dodeca- + syllaba + -e (adj) ->

dodecasyllabe;

Nota: Le formas penta-, hexa-, hepta-,

octa-, e dodeca- es usate como mono-,

di-, e tetra-; il es, specialmente in

terminos technic e con le

characteristica special que illos perde

lor -a final ante un vocal.

Dece, cento, mille:

Compositos multiplicative que involve

10, 100, e 1000 es importante

primarimente per virtute de lor uso como

expressiones de unitates de mesura in le

systema metric e su extensiones

technologic. Multiplication per 10, 100,

1000, e 10.000 es exprimite per deca-,

hecto-, kilo-, e myria- respectivemente.

Le forma parallel pro multiplication per

1/10, 1/100, e 1/1000 es deci-, centi-,

e milli-. Le -a e -o final in deca-,

myria-, e hecto- es omittite ante un

vocal initial del secunde elemento de

composito. Nove formationes analoge es

possibile quandocunque requirite pro

necessitates technologic e pertinente.

Le forma myria- pote esser usate in

formationes general (non-technic) con le

signification 'un grande numero de'. Un

illustration traditional es:

litro:

decilitro, centilitro, millilitro,



decalitro, hectolitro, kilolitro,

myrialitro

Un formation analoge possibile es

unitate:


unitate:

deciunitate, centiunitate, milliunitate,

decaunitate, hectunitate, kilounitate,

myriunitate

Multe(s):

multi- = multe.

multi- + million + -ario ->

multimillionario;

multi- + polo + -ar -> multipolar;

multi- + lobo + -e (adj) -> multilobe;

nove formationes:

multi- + cyclo -> multicyclo: cyclo con

plus que tres rotas;

multi- + linea + -ate -> multilineate:

habente multe lineas;

Nota: Le forma poly- es usate como un

synonymo de multi- specialmente in

terminos technic. A exprimer pluralitate

in le senso de multiplication per plures

in vice de per multes, le forma pluri-

es preferite.

§129
Le NUMERALES COLLECTIVE es formate

secundo le modello de dozena con le

suffixo -ena attachate al cardinales

simple.

Illes arrivava in centenas.



Illos se vende in decenas.

Nota: Un serie complete de collectivos

pote haber nulle importantia practic,

sed es theoreticamente possibile. Si

desirate, le prime duo debe esser

formate irregularmente como bina (un

gruppo de duo) e trina (un gruppo de

tres).


§130 NUMEROS ADVERBIAL es derivate de

ordinales o per le suffixo adverbial

normal -mente o per le desinentia -o que

prende le loco del -e final de

adjectivos: tertio, ultimo, etc.

Post toto, ille es primemente mi fratre

e secundemente mi adversario politic.

Ecce tres possibilitates: Primo, mi

opinion es absurde; secundo, mi opinion

es theoricamente correcte, sed

impractic; e tertio, mi opinion es tanto

correcte como practic.

Exprimite in formas numeric, le

adverbios numeral differe de ordinales

in terminar in -o: 1mo, 2ndo, 3tio, etc.

Vide §125 supra.

§131 Le FUNCTIONES DE NUMERALES differe

pauco del usage anglese. Como in anglese

on pote per exemplo dicer, 'capitulo

tres' o 'le tertie capitulo'. Totevia,

in le numeration de soveranos, contrari

al usage anglese, cardinales appositive

es usate excepte in le caso del prime

ubi un ordinal substantivate sequente

sin articulo es usate.

Napoleon III (Napoleon Tres)

Henrico LXVII de Reuss (Henrico

Sexanta-Septe de Reuss)

Frederico I (Frederico Primo)

Catharina I (Catharina Prima)

§132 In DATAS, le die del mense es

indicate per un cardinal. Pro le prime

die, un ordinal substantivate es

permissibile.

le 1 de januario (le un de januario) ...

le 12 de novembre (le dece-duo de

novembre) ...

- Heri esseva le vinti-octo de februario

e hodie es le vinti-novem.

- No, hodie es le prime de martio.

§133 Le HORA DE DIE es indicate secundo

le modellos sequente:

Il es un. Il es un hora.

a un ... a un hora ...

Il es tres. Il es tres horas.

a tres ... a tres horas ...

dece e quarte ... dece horas e

quarte ...

dece minus quarte ... dece horas minus

quarte ...

dece e medie ... dece horas e

medie ...

dece e vinti ... dece horas e

vinti minutas ...

dece minus vinti... dece horas minus

vinti minutas ...




Note: From 1,000,000^5 on, the higher powers of

a million are formed regularly by means of the

suffix -illion added to the stem of the

multiplicative corresponding to the exponent.

For the forms of the multiplicatives, see

below § 127. The numeral representing a

thousand times any power of one million is

formed by replacing the final -ion by the

suffix -iardo.
All other cardinals are formed by addition or

multiplication.


§ 119. The principle of addition is used to

combine tens with ones; hundreds with tens

and ones; thousands with hundreds, tens, and

ones; millions with thousands, hundreds, tens,

and ones, etc. The items to be added are

juxtaposed, the bigger one preceding.

Example:
1,120 mille cento vinti.
Below a hundred the juxtaposed items are

connected by a hyphen.


Examples:
72 septanta-duo;

11 dece-un;

12 dece-duo.
The use of e 'and' between the items to be

added is always possible and always

dispensable. In sums below a hundred it

replaces the hyphen.


Examples:
1,120 mille cento e vinti;

72 septanta e duo.


§ 120. The principle of multiplication is

used to express multiples of cento, mille,

and all higher powers of mille, as million,

milliardo, etc.

The multiplier is an adjective which always

precedes the multiplicand. The multiplicand

is a noun which takes a normal plural ending.
Examples:
3,000,000 tres milliones;

200 duo centos.


Note: Before cento and mille the multiplier

un may be omitted. All the higher powers of

1,000 -- as million, milliardo, billion,

etc. -- introduce the object they count by

the preposition de.

Example:


$10^12

un billion (1 000 000 000 000) de dollares.


§ 121. There is no difference in form between

cardinal numerals used as adjectives and

pronouns except for un 'one,' whose pronominal

forms coincide with those of the indefinite

article (see § 21 above).
§ 122. Examples of cardinal numerals:
13 dece-tres

8,347 octo milles tres centos

quaranta-septe

10,987,654,321 dece milliardos nove centos

octanta-septe milliones sex

centos cinquanta-quatro milles

tres centos vinti-un

Le mille-pedes ha perdite quatro centos

novanta-nove pedes; illo totevia ha cinque

centos un

'The millepede has lost four hundred and

ninety-nine feet; it still has five hundred

and one.'
In bon tempores ille emplea plus que cento

filanderas in su filanda; nunc ille ha

travalio pro exactemente quaranta-una

'In good times he employs more than a hundred

girls in his spinning mill; now he has work

for exactly forty-one.'


§ 123. DECIMALS are written and read with a

comma instead of a period:


34.798 (thirty-four point seven nine eight)

34,798 (trenta-quatro comma septe nove octo).


Note: The English custom of setting off long

numbers by a comma (e.g., 1,234,567,890)

would conflict with the decimal comma. In its

stead the Interlingua uses a period

(e.g. 1.234.567.890).
§ 124. Model readings of arithmetical rules:

14 + 3,4 = 17,4 (dece-quatro plus tres comma

quatro es dece-septe comma

quarto)


20 - 102 = -82 (vinti minus cento duo es minus

octanta duo)

20 X 17 = 340

(vinti vices dece-septe es tres centos

quaranta)

100 + 3 = 33,3333

(cento dividite per tres es trenta-tres

comma tres tres tres tres)


----------------

Ordinal numerals

----------------
§ 125. The ORDINAL NUMERALS are adjectives

sharing all characteristics of other

adjectives in regard to pronominal and

substantivized use. The basic ordinals are:


1st prime 4th quarte 7th septime

10th decime 2nd secunde 5th quinte

8th octave 3rd tertie 6th sexte

9th none last ultime

All other simple ordinals are derived from

the corresponding cardinals by the suffix

-esime:

20th vintesime



30th trentesime

100th centesime

1,000th millesime

1,000,000th millionesime

1,000,000,000th milliardesime
In compound numerals only the last element is

given the form of an ordinal:


11th dece-prime 102nd cento secunde

99th novanta-none 300th tres centesime


'The two hundred fiftieth anniversary'

le duo cento cinquantesime anniversario
'This is my third (presumably: cocktail)'

Isto es mi tertie


In Arabic numerals the ordinals are expressed

as follows:


1me 2nde 3tie 4te 5te 6te 7me

8ve 9ne 10me 20me 100me


§ 126. The FRACTIONAL adjective 'half' is

medie, the corresponding noun medietate.

Joined to the following noun, medie- has the

value of English

'mid-.'
un medie hora

'half an hour (a half hour)'


duo medie horas

'two half hours';


le duo medietates

'the two halves'


duo e medie horas, duo horas e medie

two and a half hours, two hours and a half


le medietate del membros

'half the members'


le medie membros

'the half members (opposed to 'full members')'


mediedie

'midday';


medienocte

'midnight'


All other fractional numerals are formed after

the following patterns:

Phrases like 'a fourth part, two fifth parts,

one sixth part, etc.' are expressed as in

English by means of simple ordinals: un

quarte parte, duo quinte partes, un sexte

parte, etc. In most cases fractions are

expressed in phrases differing from the

samples given by the absence of 'part' parte.

Instead the ordinals are made into nouns.

Note that the model 'three quarter mile' must

always be rendered as 'three fourths of a

mile.'
Tres quartos plus tres octavos es un e un

octavo 'Three fourths and three eighths is

one and one eighth'
Un medie hora e un quarto de hora es tres

quartos de hora

'Half an hour and a quarter hour is three

quarter hours'


In mixed numbers which are used as numeral

adjectives, the fraction follow the noun.

un pan e tres quartos

'one and three quarter loaves of bread'


duo milliones e tres quintos de prisioneros

'two and three fifths million prisoners'


--------------

Multiplicative

--------------
§ 127. The MULTIPLICATIVE numeral adjectives

are:
simple

or simplice 'simple'

duple or duplice 'double'

triple or triplice 'triple'

quadruple 'quadruple'

quintuple 'quintuple'

sextuple 'sixfold'

septuple 'sevenfold'

octuple 'eightfold'

nonuple 'ninefold'

decuple 'tenfold'

centuple 'hundredfold'
§ 128. MULTIPLICATIVE COMPOUNDS

('half-yearly,' 'threedecker,' etc.) can be

formed freely after the following models in

which the compounding forms of the numerals

function as prefixes. Note that compounds of

this category may involve simultaneous

derivation (after the model of English

'three-cornered' which is not simply a

compound of 'three' and 'cornered' but a

compounded derivative of 'three' and 'corner'

with the suffix '-ed'). Cf. also §§ 155,

163-164 below. The compounding methods

illustrated may be applied equally and

indifferently -- within the limits of

practical needs for new formations -- to

nouns, adjectives, and verbs.

One:

uni- plus trinitate yields unitrinitate



'unitrinity' plus como 'horn' plus adj.

ending yields unicorne 'one-horned' plus

latere 'side' plus -at yields unilateral

New formations:

uni- plus monte 'mountain' yields unimonte

'single mountain' plus anulo 'ring' plus -ate

yields unianulate 'one-ring'
Note: The form mono-, before vowels mon-, is

used as a synonym of uni- especially in

technical terms.
One and one half:

sesqui- plus plano yields sesquiplano

'biplane with short underplane' plus pede

'foot' plus -al yields sesquipedal

'sesquipedalian'
New formations:
sesqui- plus torno 'turn' yields sesquitorno

'one-and-a-half turn' plus uncia 'inch' plus

-al yields sesquiuncial 'one and a half

inches (in length)'


Two:
bi- plus cyclo yields bicyclo 'bicycle'

plus metallo plus -ismo yields bimetallismo

'bimetallism' plus furcar yields bifurcar 'to

bifurcate' plus lingua 'language' plus adj.

ending yields bilingue 'bilingual'

New formations:


bi- plus vita plus -ate yields bivitate

'two-lived, having two lives' plus digito

'finger' plus adj. ending yields bidigite

'two-fingered' plus franger 'to break' yields

bifranger 'to break twice'
Note: The form di- is used as a synonym of bi-

especially in technical terms.

Half:
semi- plus deo 'god' yields semideo 'half-god'

plus official yields semiofficial

plus somno 'sleep' plus adj. ending yields

semisomne 'half asleep'


New formations:
semi- plus professor yields semiprofessor plus

occider 'to kill' yields semioccider 'to half

kill'

plus interessante 'interesting' yields



semiinteressante 'fifty-fifty interesting'
Note: The form hemi- is used as a rarer

synonym of semi- especially in technical terms.

Three:

tri- plus folio 'leaf' yields trifolio



'trefoil, clover' plus secar 'to cut' yields

trisecar 'to trisect' plus dimension plus -al

yields tridimensional 'three-dimensional' plus

angulo plus adj. ending yields triangule

'three-cornered'

Four:
quadri- plus syllabo plus adj. ending yields

quadrisyllabe 'four-syllabic' plus anno 'year'

plus -al yields quadriennal 'four-yearly'

Note: The form tetra-, before vowels tetr- is

used as a preferred synonym of quadri-

especially in technical terms.

Five, six, seven, eight, twelve:

penta- plus metro yields pentametro

'pentameter' hexa- plus chordo yields

hexachordo 'hexachord' hepta- plus -archia

yields heptarchia 'rule by seven' octa- plus

metro yields octametro 'octameter' dodeca-

plus syllabo plus adj. ending yields

dodecasyllabe 'twelve-syllabled'
Note: The forms penta-, hexa-, hepta-, octa-,

and dodeca- are used like mono-, di-, and

tetra-, that is, especially in technical terms

and with the special characteristic that they

lose their final -a before a vowel.

Ten, hundred, thousand:


Multiplicative compounds involving 10, 100,

and 1000 are important primarily by virtue of

their use as expressions of units of

measurement in the metric system and its

technological extensions. Multiplication by

10, 100, 1000, and 10,000 is expressed by

deca-, hecto-, kilo-, and myria-

respectively. The parallel forms for

multiplication by 1/10, 1/100, and 1/1000

are deci-, centi-, and milli-. The finals

-a- and -o- in deca-, myria-, and hecto- are

dropped before an initial vowel of the

second compounding element. New analogical

formations are possible whenever required

for technological and related needs. The

form myria- can be used in general

(nontechnical) formations with the meaning

'a great many.' A traditional illustration

is:

litro 'liter,' decalitro 'ten liters,'



decilitro 'one tenth of a liter,' hectolitro

'a hundred liters,' centilitro 'one

hundredth of a liter,' kilolitro 'a thousand

liters,' millilitro 'one thousandth of a

liter,' myrialitro 'ten thousand liters.'

A possible analogical formation is unitate

'unit,' deciunitate 'ten units,'deciunitate

'one tenth of a unit,' hectunitate 'one

hundred units,' centiunitate 'one hundredth

of a unit,' kilounitate 'one thousand

units,' milliunitate 'one thousandth of a

unit,' myriunitate 'ten thousand units.'


Many:

multi- plus millions + -ario yields multimillionario

multi- plus polo 'pole' plus -ar yields multipolar

multi- plus lobo 'lobe' plus adj. ending yields

multilobe 'multilobed'
New formations:
multi- plus cyclo yields multicyclo 'cycle

with more than three wheels'

multi- plus linea 'line' plus -ate yields

multilineate 'many-lined'

Note: The form poly- is used as a synonym of

multi- especially in technical terms. To

express plurality in the sense of

multiplication by several rather than by

many, the form pluri- is preferred.

§ 129. The COLLECTIVE NUMERALS are formed

after the model of dozena 'dozen' with the

suffix -ena attached to the simple cardinals

Illes arrivava in centenas

'They arrived in groups of a hundred'


Illos se vende in decenas

'They are sold in batches of ten'


Note: A complete set of collectives would

have no practical importance but is

theoretically possible. If wanted, the first

two would have to be formed irregularly as

bina 'a group of two' and trina 'a group of

three.'
§ 130. ADVERBIAL NUMERALS are derived from

the ordinals either by the normal adverbial

suffix -mente or by the ending -o which

takes the place of the final -e of

adjectives: tertio 'thirdly'; ultimo

'lastly'; etc.
Post toto, ille es primemente mi fratre e

secundemente mi adversario politic

'After all, he is first my brother and

secondly my political opponent'


Ecce tres possibilitates:

Primo, mi opinion es absurde;

secundo, mi opinion es theoricamente

correcte sed impractic;

e tertio, mi opinion es tanto correcte como

practic.


'There are three possibilities:

First, my view is absurd;

second, my view is theoretically correct but

impractical;

and third, my view is a s correct as

practical'


Expressed in Arabic numerals the numeral

adverbs differ from ordinals in that they

end in -o: 1mo, 2ndo, 3tio, etc. See § 125

above.
§ 131. The FUNCTIONS OF NUMERALS differ

little from English usage. As in English one

may for instance say, capitulo tres 'chapter

three' or le tertie capitulo 'the third

chapter.' However, in the numbering of

sovereigns, contrary to English usage,

appositional cardinals are used except in

the case of the first where a following

substantivized ordinal without article is

used.
Napoleon III (Napoleon Tres)

'Napoleon the Third'


Henrico LXVII de Reuss (Henrico

Sexanta-Septe)

'Henry the Sixty-Seventh of Reuss'
Frederico I (Frederico Primo)

'Frederic the First'


Catharina I (Catharina Prima)

'Catherine the First'


§ 132. In DATES the day of the month is

indicated by a cardinal. For the first day a

substantivized ordinal is permissible.
le 1 de januario (le un de januario)

'the first of January'


le 12 de novembre (le dece-duo de novembre)

'the twelfth of November'


Heri esseva le vinti-octo de februario e hodie

es le vinti-nove. – No, hodie es le

prime de martio.

'Yesterday was the twenty-eighth of February

and today is the twenty-ninth. – No, today

is the first of March.'


§ 133. The TIME OF DAY is stated after the

following models:


il es un (hora); a un (hora)

'it is one (o'clock); at one (o'clock)'


il es tres (horas); a tres (horas)

'it is three (o'clock); at three (o'clock)'


dece (horas) e quarte

'a quarter past ten (o'clock)'


dece (horas) minus quarte

'a quarter of ten (o'clock)'


dece (horas) e medie

'half past ten (o'clock)'


dece (horas) e vinti (minutas)

'twenty (minutes) past ten (o'clock)'


dece (horas) minus vinti (minutas)

'twenty (minutes) of ten (o'clock)'






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