Grammatica de interlingua de Alexander Gode &



Download 1.2 Mb.
Page3/12
Date conversion08.07.2018
Size1.2 Mb.
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   12



§46 In un serie de adverbios derivate,

le suffixo -mente pote esser usate con

le ultime adverbio solmente.

adjectivos adverbios

(...mente)

--------------------- --------------------

clar e franc clar- e francamente

voluntari e frequente voluntari- e

frequentemente
§47 Un certe numero de adverbios listate

in le Dictionario appare esser derivate

irregularmente del adjectivos

correspondente. Exemplos es:


adjectivo adverbio

--------- --------

bon ben

melior melio



pejor pejo

mal mal
Formationes de iste typo debe esser

acceptate como adverbios primari que non

pote servir como modellos pro derivatos

adverbial additional. Le duo gruppos

singule le plus numerose de iste typo es

illos con le desinentia -e (dunque

adverbios non distinguibile in forma del

adjectivos correspondente), e illos con

le desinentia -o.


(a)

adjectivo (...e) adverbio (...e)

bastante bastante

forte forte

longe longe

tarde tarde


(b)

adjectivo (...e) adverbio (...o)

certe certo

expresse expresso

juste justo

mesme mesmo

multe multo

preste presto

quante quanto

subite subito

tante tanto

tote toto


Omne adjectivos in -issime permitte le

formation de adverbios in -o, como

bellissime -> bellissimo.

Le desinentia -issimo pote esser usate in le

derivation de adverbios ab adverbios,

como ben -> benissimo.


Pro le ordinales adverbial primo, secundo,

tertio, etc., vide §130 infra.

Nota: In uso absolute (i.e. in

exclamationes e similes), adverbios in -o

pote esser derivate de omne adjectivos con le

possibile substantivationes (-o, -a).

Vide §§40-41 supra.
Vos crede illo? - Claro!

Exacto, illo es mi opinion!


§48 Numerose EXPRESSIONES ADVERBIAL es

unitates crystallisate e appare in iste forma

in le Dictionario:


in summa,

de nove,


de tempore in tempore,

etc.
Le uso de omne sortas de formulationes con

functiones adverbial es naturalmente

illimitate como in anglese. Le expressiones

'a tres horas', 'con mi parve soror', e

'a presso del dentista' ha functiones

adverbial in le phrase
'A tres horas io ha un incontro con mi parve

soror a presso del dentista', e le mesme

face le phrases correspondente in

'A tres horas io es citate con mi parve soror

a presso del dentista'.
Nota que il ha equalmente nulle differentia

inter anglese e Interlingua in le uso

adverbial de substantivos absolute que

exprime distantia e duration de tempore.

Io irea a pede un millia pro un pipata de

tabaco.

Que ille attende un minuta.

E de plus,


Su spada tirate, ille se precipitava in le

cocina.

(Con) Lacrimas in su oculos, illa me relatava

su triste historia.


§49 Nulle adverbio de derivation irregular

exclude le possibilitate de un synonymo

regular.
ben, o bonmente;

melio, o plus ben, o plus bonmente;

primo, o primemente


------------------------

Comparation de adverbios

------------------------


§50 Le COMPARATION DE ADVERBIOS non differe

del comparation de adjectivos. Vide §§34-37

supra.
interessantemente

minus interessantemente

le minus interessantemente

interessantemente

plus interessantemente

le plus interessantemente


Illa scribe plus interessantemente que ille,

sed illa parla minus interessantemente.

Iste chocolate es attractivissimemente

impacchettate.


§51 Le FUNCTIONES DEL ADVERBIO non differe

del usage anglese. Nota que adjectivos e in

Interlingua e in anglese assume a vices

functiones que induce multe grammaticos a

conciper los como adverbios irregular. Il

pare plus simple appellar los adjectivos e

tractar los assi.

Le rivo curre murmurante per le foresta.

Le sol brilla clar e belle.

Post le tertie cocktail ille vide duple.

Il debe esser possibile exprimer illo plus

breve.

Illes qui dice in anglese, "The brook runs

babblingly through the forest," etc., pote

naturalmente usar 'murmurantemente', etc. in

Interlingua. De plus le adverbio in -o o -e

pote esser usate hic.

§52 Le POSITION DEL ADVERBIOS coincide in

principio con le usage anglese. Le adverbio

normalmente precede lo que illo modifica.

Illo es marcate per le position initial o

final in le phrase, o per commas, quando

illo modifica le enunciation integre.

Ille es extrememente felice.

Quando le tempesta arrivava, illes esseva

felicemente reunite circa le foco.

Felicemente illes esseva al domo quando le

tempesta arrivava.

Etiam tu!

§53 Quando un adverbio (specialmente non) e

un pronomine (que non es le subjecto) ambes

tenta approximar se a un verbo, le

pronomine vince.


Io non lo crede.

Ille non me lo dice.

Io non pote supportar su perfumo.

Io non pote visitar le.

Io pote non visitar le.
Nota: Contrari al usage anglese, le

adverbio 'non' precede le verbo que illo

modifica.


§ 46. In a series of derived adverbs,

the suffix -mente need be used only with

the last.

clar e franc : clar- e francamente

voluntari e frequente: voluntari- e

frequentemente


§ 47. A certain number of adverbs listed

in the Dictionary appear to be

irregularly derived from the

corresponding adjectives. Examples are


bon 'good' : ben 'well';

melior 'better' (adj.) : melio 'better' (adv.);

pejor 'worse' (adj.) : pejo 'worse' (adv.);

mal 'bad' : mal 'badly'; etc.
Formations of this type should be thought of

as primary adverbs in the sense that they

cannot serve as models for additional

adverbial derivatives. The two most numerous

single groups of adverbs belonging here are

those ending in -e (that is, adverbs not

distinguishable in form from the corresponding

adjectives) and those ending in -o.

a)

bastante 'enough' (adj.): bastante



'enough, sufficiently'

forte 'strong': forte 'strongly, hard'

longe 'long': longe 'far (away)'

tarde 'slow, tardy': tarde 'late' (adv.)


b)

certe 'certain': certo 'certainly'

expresse 'express': expresso 'purposely'

juste 'just' (adj.): justo 'just, justly'

mesme 'same': mesmo 'likewise'

multe 'much, many': multo 'very, much'

preste 'agile, ready': presto 'quickly'

quante 'how much, how many': quanto 'as far

as' subite 'sudden': subito 'suddenly'

tante 'so much, so many': tanto 'so,

so much' tote 'all, every': toto

'all, entirely'


All adjectives in -issime permit the

formation of adverbs in -o, as

bellissime 'most beautiful': bellissimo

'most beautifully.'


The ending -issimo can be used in the

derivation of adverbs from adverbs, as

ben 'well': benissimo 'very well.'
For the adverbial ordinals primo, secundo,

tertio 'firstly, secondly, thirdly,' etc.,

see § 130 below.
Note: In absolute use (i.e. in

exclamations and the like), adverbs in

-o may be derived from all adjectives

with possible -o/-a substantivizations.

See §§ 40-41 above.
Vos crede illo? -- Claro! 'You believe

that?' -- 'Obviously!'

Exacto, illo es mi opinion! 'Exactly,

that's my opinion.'


§ 48. Numerous ADVERBIAL PHRASES are

crystallized units and appear as such in

the Dictionary.
in summa 'in short'

de nove 'again, anew'

de tempore in tempore 'from time to time'

etc.
The use of all sorts of formulations

with adverbial functions is naturally as

unlimited as in English. The phrases 'at

three o'clock,' 'with my little sister,'

and 'at the dentist' have adverbial

functions in the sentence,
'At three o'clock I have an appointment

with my little sister at the dentist,'

and so do the corresponding phrases in

'A tres horas io es citate con mi parve

soror a presso del dentista.
Note that there is likewise no

difference between English and

Interlingua in the adverbial use of

absolute nouns expressing distance and

duration of time.
'I'd walk a mile for a pipeful of

tobacco'


Io irea a pede un millia pro un pipata

de tabaco


'Let him wait a minute'

Que ille attende un minuta


And further
'His sword drawn, he rushed into the

kitchen'


Su spada tirate, ille se precipitava in

le cocina


'(With) Tears in her eyes, she told me

her sad story'

(Con) Lacrimas in su oculos, illa me

relatava su triste historia


§ 49. No adverb of irregular derivation

excludes the possibility of a regular

synonym.
ben or bonmente 'well'

melio or plus ben or plus bonmente

'better' primo or primemente 'firstly'
---------------------

Comparison of adverbs

---------------------
§ 50. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS does not

differ from comparison of adjectives.

See §§ 34-37 above.
interessantemente:

plus interessantemente

le plus interessantemente

('interestingly')


interessantemente:

minus interessantemente:

le minus interessantemente
Illa scribe plus interessantemente que

ille sed illa parla minus

interessantemente

'She writes more interestingly than he

does but she talks less interestingly'
Iste chocolate es attractivissimemente

impacchettate

'This chocolate is most attractively

done up'
§ 51. The FUNCTIONS OF THE ADVERB do not

differ from English usage. Note that

adjectives both in Interlingua and in

English assume at times functions which

induce many grammarians to conceive of

them as irregular adverbs. It seems

simpler to call them adjectives and

treat them as such.
Le rivo curre murmurante per le foresta

'The brook runs babbling through the

forest'
Le sol brilla clar e belle

'The sun shines clear and beautiful'


Post le tertie cocktail ille vide duple

'After the third cocktail he sees double'


Il debe esser possibile exprimer illo

plus breve

'It must be possible to express that

briefer (more briefly)'


Those who say in English, "The brook

runs babblingly through the forest,"

etc., may of course use murmurantemente,

etc. in Interlingua. Also the adverb in

-o or -e can be used here.

§ 52. The POSITION OF ADVERBS coincides

in principle with English usage. The

adverb normally precedes what it

modifies. It is set off by initial or

final position in the sentence or by

commas when it is to modify the

statement as a whole.


Ille es extrememente felice

'He is extremely happy'
Quando le tempesta arrivava, illes

esseva felicemente reunite circa le foco

'When the storm arrived, they were

happily assembled about the fire'


Felicemente illes esseva al domo quando

le tempesta arrivava

'Luckily they were at home when the

storm arrived'


Etiam tu!

'You too!'


§ 53. When both an adverb (especially

non 'not') and a pronoun (which is not

the subject) try to get near a verb, the

pronoun wins out.


Io non lo crede

'I don't believe it'


Ille non me lo dice

'He doesn't tell (it to) me'


Note: Contrary to English usage, the

adverb non 'not' precedes the verb form

it modifies.
Io non pote supportar su perfumo

'I cannot stand her perfume'


Io non pote visitar le

'I cannot visit him'


Io pote non visitar le

'I can not visit him, i.e., I can choose

or it is possible for me not to visit

him'




==========
PRONOMINES
==========

-----------------------------


Tabula de pronomines personal
-----------------------------

§54 Pronomines PERSONAL insimul con REFLEXIVOS e POSSESSIVOS forma un patrono como monstrate in le tabula sequente:



=======
PRONOUN
=======

--------------------------


Table of personal pronouns
--------------------------

§ 54. The PERSONAL pronouns together with the REFLEXIVES and POSSESSIVES form a pattern as shown in the following table:





Pronomines
Tabula de pronomines personal

 

Subjective

Objective
(a)    (b)

Reflexive

Possessive
(1)        (2)

Singular
1me persona
2nde persona
3tie persona (m)
3tie persona (f)
3tie persona (n)

Plural
1me persona
2nde persona
3tie persona (m)
3tie persona (f)
3tie persona (n)

 

io
tu


ille
illa
illo

 
nos


vos
illes
illas
illos

 

me      me


te      te
ille    le
illa    la
illo    lo

 
nos     nos


vos     vos
illes   les
illas   las
illos   los

 

me
te


se
se
se

 
nos


vos
se
se
se

 

mi           mie


tu           tue
su           sue
su           sue
su           sue

 
nostre   nostre


vostre   vostre
lor      lore
lor      lore
lor      lore
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   12


The database is protected by copyright ©dentisty.org 2016
send message

    Main page