Grammatica de interlingua de Alexander Gode &



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Articulo indefinite
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§19 Le ARTICULO INDEFINITE es un. Como le articulo definite, illo non exhibi accordo in forma con le substantivo sequente. Illo es identic con le numeral un.

un patre
un matre


un infante
un vacca

§20 Le articulo indefinite es usate como in anglese.

§21 Le ARTICULO DEFINITE e le INDEFINITE ambes ha in commun con le adjectivos le possibilitate de uso pronominal. Vide §§38-41.
---
mi amico e le de mi fratre
 

mi fratre e un de mi amicos ...


 

Io parla duo linguas; un al domo, un altere al officina; le un es francese, le altere anglese.


Io parla duo linguas; le de mi familia e le de mi ambiente.

Quando usate como pronomines, le articulos pote prender le formas plural les e unes. Le secunde es sovente rendite in anglese como {some}.


---
le opiniones de mi patre e les de mi matre

Nostre amicos veni: les de mi fratre, un de mi soror, e unes del amicos de nostre parentes.

In uso pronominal le articulos es capabile de facer un distinction inter antecedentes masculin e feminin, le e la, uno e una, le quales ha in torno formas plural (les, las, unos, unas). Le distinction non ha necessitate de esser observate quando le contexto es clar sin illo.

Mi fratre e mi soror invita lor melior amicos; le de mi fratre ama la de mi soror.

Mi fratre e mi soror ha multe amicos. Uno de mi fratre ama una de mi soror.
mi amicos, unos de mi fratre, e las de mi soror
Nota que le articulo definite in uso pronominal ha le forma masculin le, le forma feminin la, con le vocales final characteristic (-e, -a) que appare de novo con certe pronomines (vide §§54, 58, 78) durante que le articulo indefinite in uso pronominal ha le distinction masculin-feminin uno-una con le vocales final ( -o, -a) que es incontrate con substantivos (vide §24).

Le articulo definite ha un forma pronominal neutre lo, que occurre specialmente in le expression lo que. Su plural, rarmente requirite, es naturalmente los.


---
Lo que io pensa

Io non sape lo que ille pensa.



------------------
Indefinite article
------------------
§ 19. The INDEFINITE ARTICLE is un 'a' or 'an.' Like the definite article it shows no agreement in form with the following noun. It is identical with the numeral un 'one.'

un patre 'a father, one father'


un matre 'a mother, one mother'
un infante 'a child, one child'
un vacca 'a cow, one cow'

§ 20. The indefinite article is used as in English.

§ 21. Both the DEFINITE and the INDEFINITE ARTICLES share with adjectives the possibility of pronominal use. See §§ 38-41 below.
---
mi amico e le de mi fratre 'my friend and the [friend] of my brother'

mi fratre e un de mi amicos 'my brother and one of my friends'

Io parla duo linguas; un al domo, un altere al officina; le un es francese, le altere anglese 'I speak two languages; one at home, another at the shop; the one is French, the other English'

Io parla duo linguas; le de mi familia e le de mi ambiente 'I speak two languages; that of my family and that of my environment'

When used as pronouns, the articles can take the plural forms les and unes. The latter is often to be rendered as 'some.'
---
le opiniones de mi patre e les de mi matre 'the views of my father and those of my mother'

Nostre amicos veni: les de mi fratre, un de mi soror, e unes del amicos de nostre parentes 'Our friends are coming: those of my brother, one of my sister's, and some of the friends of our parents'

In pronominal use the articles are capable of making a distinetion between male and female antecedents, le and la, uno and una, all of which have in turn plural forms. The distinction need not be observed when the context is clear without it.

Mi fratre e mi soror invita lor melior amicos; le de mi fratre ama la de mi soror 'My brother and sister invite their best friends; my brother's [best friend] loves my sister's [best friend]'

Mi fratre e mi soror ha multe amicos. Uno de mi fratre ama una de mi soror 'My brother and my sister have many friends. One of my brother's [friends] loves one of my sister's [friends]'

mi amicos, unos de mi fratre, e las de mi soror 'my friends, some of my brother's [boy friends], and the girl friends of my sister'

Note that the definite article in pronominal use has the male form le, the female form la, with characteristic final vowels appearing again with certain pronouns (see §§ 54, 58, 78 below) while the indefinite article in pronominal use has the male-female distinction uno-una with final vowels to be encountered with nouns (see § 24 below).
 

The definite article has a neuter pronominal form lo which occurs especially in the phrase lo que 'that which, what.' Its plural, rarely needed, is of course los.

Lo que io pensa 'what I think'

Io non sape lo que ille pensa 'I don't know what he thinks'





============
Substantivos
============

§22 Como in anglese, le substantivos non pote esser identificate per un tracto constante e specific de lor formas. Le grande majoritate del substantivos fini in un del vocales -a, -o, -e, o le consonantes -l, -n, -r. Sed iste terminationes occurre etiam con altere vocabulos. Il ha, de novo como in anglese, un numero de suffixos que occurre solmente con substantivos. Ultra isto le substantivos es recognoscite per le function que illos representa in un phrase.

§23 Il ha nulle GENERE GRAMMATIC. Le terminationes del substantivos ha nulle valores grammatic e pote esser considerate accidental.
---
tabula, pagina, ...
homine, tempore, libertate, aere, ...
uso, fructo, ...
uxor, ...
fun, galon, generation, ...
gas, ...
roc, ...
§24 Quando le termination -o occurre - e illo occurre frequentemente - in un parola que designa un esser MASCULIN, le correspondente FEMININ pote esser representate per le mesme parola con le termination substituite per -a. Le regula etiam functiona in ordine reverse.

Parola original (IED) Sexo opposite precisate masculin (...o) feminin (...a) asino asina missionario missionaria americano americana feminin (...a) masculin (...o) oca oco ciconia ciconio

Nota: Le inferentia que un parola como 'musca' permitte le uso del forma masculin 'musco' es si justificate e etiam tanto incongrue como le suggestion que le anglese pote formar le parola {he-fly}. Concernente le formation del substantivos feminin per le suffixos -essa e -trice, vide §§138, 152.


====
NOUN
====

§ 22. As in English, nouns cannot be identified by a constant and specific feature of their forms. The great majority of nouns end in one of the vowels a, o, e, or the consonants I, n, r. But these terminations occur with other words too. There are, again as in English, a number of suffixes which occur only with nouns. Otherwise nouns are recognized by the function they perform in a sentence.


 
 

§ 23. There is no GRAMMATICAL GENDER. The terminations of nouns have no grammatical value and may be considered accidental.

tabula 'table'
pagina 'page'
homine 'man, human being'
tempore 'time'
uso 'use'
fructo 'fruit'
uxor 'wife'
fun 'rope'
galon 'braid, galloon'
libertate 'liberty'
generation 'generation'
gas 'gas'
roc 'rook, castle'

§ 24. When the termination o occurs – as it frequently does – in a word designating a MALE being, the corresponding FEMALE can be represented by the same word with the substituted ending a. The rule works also in reverse order.

asino 'donkey'; hence: asina 'female donkey' missionario 'missionary'; hence: missionaria 'woman missionary' americano 'American'; hence: americana 'American (girl or woman)' oca 'goose'; hence: oco 'gander' ciconia 'stork'; hence: ciconio '(male) stork'

Note: The inference that a word like musca 'fly' would permit the use of the male form musco is as justified and also as incongruous as the suggestion that English can form the word 'he-fly.'--On the formation of female nouns by means of the suffixes -essa and -trice, see §§ 138, 152 below.





--------
Plurales
--------

§25 Le PLURAL es formate per le addition de -s o - post un consonante - de -es. Un -c final cambia ante -es a -ch; p.ex.



------
Plural
------

§ 25. The PLURAL is formed by the addition of s or – after a consonant – of es. Final c changes before es to ch.








singular plural (...s)

-------- -------------

tabula tabulas

pagina paginas

homine homines

aere aeres

tempore tempores

libertate libertates

uso usos

fructo fructos

singular plural (...es)

uxor uxores

fun funes

galon galones

generation generationes

gas gases


singular plural (...hes)

-------- ---------------

roc roches




Plurales irregular occurre solmente in

"vocabulos hospite" le quales ha retenite

lor identitate estranier.
singular plural

-------- -----------------------

le test le tests [Anglese]

le lied le lieder [Germano]

le addendum le addenda [Neo-latino]

le Abruzzi [Italiano]


Vocabulos docte que termina in -is forma

lor plural como si le singular habeva un

-e final:

genesis (o genese) -> geneses;

hepatitis -> hepatites.
Compositos singular con secunde

elementos in plural non ha plurales

distincte.
singular plural

--------------- ----------------

un guardacostas duo guardacostas

un rumpenuces duo rumpenuces

un paracolpos duo paracolpos
§26 Il non ha FORMAS DE CASO. Le functiones

del dativo e genitivo in altere linguas es

representate per prepositiones.
a Deo ...
Ille invia flores a su matre.

Nos paga taxas al governamento.

de Deo ...
Illa recipe le flores de su filio.

le debitas del governamento ...


§27 Pro le formation de substantivos

como etiam de derivatos de illos, vide

§§138, 139, 140, 141, 152, 154.
§28 Le modo in que le substantivos es

usate in le phrase non differe

considerabilemente del normas anglese.

Nota, totevia, que le uso quasi

illimitate de SUBSTANTIVOS CON

FUNCTIONES ADJECTIVE es un tracto

anglese que Interlingua non possede.
tempore hibernal,

tempore de hiberno: winter weather

laboratorio de recerca: research laboratory

mantello de autumno, mantello pro autumno:

fall coat

guarda de nocte: night watchman

bottilia de lacte, bottilia a lacte:

milk bottle

canto de nocte, canto nocturne: night song

---------------

Nomines proprie

---------------


§29 NOMINES PROPRIE que functiona in

anglese como adjectivos - como p.ex. in

{Diesel engine}, {Geiger counter},

etc. - remane nomines proprie

non-modificate in le Interlingua e es

precedite per le substantivo que illos

qualifica. Le patrono usate es le mesme

que es sequite in anglese in le caso del

titulos : {Doctor Diesel}, {Professor

Diesel}, {motor Diesel}, etc. Le nomines

proprie non prende le -s plural.

singular plural

--------------- ------------------

contator Geiger contatores Geiger

motor Diesel motores Diesel

strato Heaviside stratos Heaviside

radio Röntgen radios Röntgen

----------

Apposition

----------

§30 Il ha un uso multo libere del

APPOSITION de que un del elementos

sovente corresponde a un substantivo

anglese con functiones adjective.

foresta virgine: virgin forest

arbore nano: dwarf tree

wagon restaurante: dining car

nave domo: house boat

homine machina: human machine

Le uso de apposition es multo frequente

con substantivos de agentes e de alteres

similar le quales assi deveni

indistinguibile de adjectivos.

mi amico mazdaista: my Mazdaist friend

apparato generator: generating device

uxor puera: child wife

In le plural le appositivo pote prender

un -s. Sin illo le appositivo es plus

clarmente adjectival. On poterea dicer:

uxor puera -> uxores pueras,

sed

apparato generator -> apparatos



generator,

foresta virgine -> forestas virgine,

etc.

Quando le appositivo ha formas distincte



pro masculin e feminin, lor uso es

governate per le facto de sexo.

mi amico cantator e mi amica cantatrice:

my singer friend (m) and my singer

friend (f)


Irregular plurals occur only in "guest words" which have retained their foreign identity.

le test: le tests [English]


le lied: le lieder [German]
le addendum: le addenda [Neo-Latin]
Abruzzi [Italian]

Learned terms ending in -is form their plural as though the singular had a final -e: genesis (or genese) > geneses; hepatitis > hepatites.


 
 

Singular compounds with second elements in the plural have no distinct plural.


 
 
 

un guardacostas: duo guardacostas (coastguard)


un rumpenuces: duo rumpenuces (nutcracker)
un paracolpos: duo paracolpos (bumper)

§ 26. There are no CASE FORMS. The functions of the genitive and dative in other languages are taken over by prepositions.

a Deo 'God' to God'

Ille invia flores a su matre 'He sends his mother flowers, He sends flowers to his mother'

Nos paga taxas al governamento 'We pay the government tax money, We pay tax money to the government'
le debitas del governamento 'the government's debts, the debts of the government'

de Deo 'God's, of God'

Illa recipe le flores de su filio 'She receives her son's flowers'

§ 27. On the formation of nouns as well as of derivatives from them, see §§ 138-141, 152, 154 below.

§ 28. The way nouns are used in the sentence does not differ materially from English norms. Note, however, that the almost unlimited use of NOUNS WITH ADJECTIVAL FUNCTIONS is an English trait not shared by Interlingua.
 
 

'winter weather' (= wintry weather, weather of winter) tempore hibernal, tempore de hiberno


'research laboratory' (= laboratory of research) laboratorio de recerca
'fall coat' (= coat of fall, coat for fall) mantello de autumno, mantello pro autumno 'night watchman' (-- watchman of night) guarda de nocte
'milk bottle' (= bottle of milk, bottle for milk) bottilia de lacte, bottilia a lacte
'night song' (= song of night, nocturnal song) canto de nocte, canto nocturne

------------


Proper nouns
------------

§ 29. PROPER NOUNS functioning in English as adjectives – as e.g. in 'Diesel engine,' 'Geiger counter,' etc. – remain unmodified proper nouns in the Interlingua and are preceded by the noun they qualify in English. The pattern used is that followed in English in the case of titles: Doctor Diesel, Professor Diesel, engine Diesel; etc. The proper names take no plural -s.


 
 
 
 

'Geiger counter(s)' contator Geiger, contatores Geiger 'Diesel engine(s)' motor Diesel, motores Diesel 'Roentgen rays' radios Röntgen 'Heaviside layer' strato Heaviside


 

----------


Apposition
----------

§ 30. There is a very free use of APPOSITION with one member often cor- responding to an English noun with adjectival functions.


 

foresta virgine 'virgin forest' arbore nano 'dwarf tree' wagon restaurante 'dining car' nave domo 'house boat' homine machina 'human machine'


 

The use of apposition is very frequent with nouns of agents and the like which thus become indistinguishable from adjectives.


 

mi amico mazdaista 'my Mazdaist friend' apparato generator 'generating device' uxor puera 'child wife'

In the plural the appositive may take an -s. Without it the appositive is more clearly adjectival. One would say:

uxores pueras but apparatos generator, forestas virgine, etc.


 
 
 
 

When the appositive has distinct forms for male and female, their use is governed by the fact of sex.

mi amico cantator e mi amica cantatrice 'my singer friend (masc. and my singer friend (fem.)'




==========
ADJECTIVOS
==========

§31 Adjectivos fini in un vocal o un consonante. Le prime gruppo fini quasi sin exception in -e, e le secunde in un del consonantes -l, -n, -r, -c. Considerante que altere parolas pote haber le mesme desinentias, istos non identifica adjectivos, le quales pote esser recognoscite per le function que illos exeque in un phrase o alicun vices per un suffixo le qual per hasardo occurre con nulle altere parte del discurso.

delicate, parve, ...
equal, ...
american, dan, ...
par, ...
cyclic, ...
blau, ...

§32 Il ha nulle INFLEXION o ACCORDO adjectival.



=========
ADJECTIVE
=========

§ 31. Adjectives end in a vowel or a consonant. The former group ends almost without exception in e, the latter in one of the consonants 1, n, r, c. Since other words can have the same endings, these do not identify adjectives, which can only be spotted by the function they perform in a sentence or at times by a suffix which happens to occur with no other part of speech.


 

delicate 'delicate' american 'American' parve 'small' dan 'Danish' blau 'blue' par 'even' equal 'equal' cyclic 'cyclic'


 
 
 

§ 32. There is no adjectival INFLECTION or AGREEMENT.



Le parve femina es belle 'The little woman is beautiful' (Le) parve feminas es belle '(The) little women are beautiful' (Le) parve homines es belle '(The) little men are handsome' Le parve libro es belle 'The little book is beautiful'

§33 Adjectivos placiate immediatemente presso un substantivo pote PRECEDER O SEQUER lo. Le secunde position es le plus frequente e ergo normal. Adjectivos que precede un substantivo tende a suggerer que lo que illos exprime es un tracto essential del concepto substantive e non mermente un tracto que distingue le representante presente del concepto substantive ab alteres.

le lingua international e le linguas national ...


 

Su integre vita esseva ric in viages longe e breve


 

Adjectivos longe debe rarmente esser permittite de preceder un substantivo. Adjectivos breve como bon, alte, parve, grande, belle, breve, longe, etc., pote preceder pro le sol objectivo del rhythmo o a causa de preferentia personal. Le duo positiones possibile del adjectivo nunquam pote exprimer duo significationes distincte.

Adjectivos numeral (cardinal como etiam ordinal) precede le substantivo le qual illos qualifica.

-------------------------


Comparation de adjectivos
-------------------------

§34 Grados de COMPARATION es exprimite per le adverbios plus e minus.



§ 33. Adjectives placed next to a noun can either PRECEDE OR FOLLOW. The latter position is more frequent and hence normal. Adjectives preceding a noun tend to suggest that what they express is an essential feature of the noun concept and not merely a feature distinguishing the present representative of the noun concept from others.
 

le lingua international e le linguas national 'the international language and the national languages'

Su integre vita esseva ric in viages longe e breve 'His whole life was rich in long and short trips'

Long adjectives should rarely be allowed to precede a noun. Brief adjectives like bon, alte, parve, grande, belle, breve, longe, etc., may precede merely for rhythm's sake or as a matter of personal preference. The two possible positions of the adjective cannot ever express two distinct meanings.


 

Numeral adjectives (cardinals as well as ordinals) precede the noun they qualify.


 

------------------------


Comparison of adjectives
------------------------

§ 34. Degrees of COMPARISON are expressed by means of the adverbs plus and minus.



adjectivo comparativo superlativo

------------ ------------------ ---------------------

bon plus bon le plus bon

bon minus bon le minus bon

interessante plus interessante le plus interessante

interessante minus interessante le minus interessante

------------ ------------------ ---------------------

good better best

good less good least good


In casos quando le comparativo es precedite per le articulo definite, illo coincide con le superlativo. Le exemplos infra (§35) monstra que isto involve nulle confusion.

§35 Comparation de equalitate es exprimite per tanto...como, o si...como. Le particula post le comparativo es que.


 

Le formas de comparativo e superlativo que seque le substantivo repete le articulo definite precedente - in caso que il ha un tal.

Un homine es tanto bon como un altere e frequentemente etiam un grande portion plus bon.
 
 

Iste historia es le minus interessante que io ha legite.

Iste historia es le minus interessante del duo.
 

Del duo summas paga le plus parve.

Chesterlucks es plus blande.

Le presidente del committee ajorna omne le questiones le plus urgente.


 
 

Illa ha le plus dulce temperamento e le ideas le plus naive.


 

§36 Le idea del si-nominate SUPERLATIVO ABSOLUTE pote esser exprimite como in anglese per constructiones varie:


le plus interessante, multo interessante, extrememente interessante, terribilemente interessante, etc.

Un medio usate specificamente pro le intentos del superlativo absolute es le suffixo -issime.

Su replica esseva un "non" multo emphatic.

Su replica esseva un emphatichissime "non."

Ille parla in un maniera terribilemente interessante.

§37 Le particulas plus e minus, que es usate pro exprimer grados de comparation, mesme es exemplos de adverbios que admitte nulle formas regular de comparation (vide §44 infra), sed a vices in se pote exprimer un "grado comparative." Similarmente, il ha in le vocabulario de Interlingua alicun adjectivos que on pote reguardar como synonymos irregular de certe formas comparative e superlative.


adjectivo comparativo superlativo

--------- ----------- -------------

parve plus parve le plus parve

minor le minor minime

magne plus magne le plus magne

major le major maxime

bon plus bon le plus bon

melior le melior optime

mal plus mal le plus mal

pejor le pejor pessime


 
 

§38 In theoria, CATA ADJECTIVO POTE SERVIR COMO UN PRONOMINE. Le substantivo que illo representa es sia alicuno exprimite in le passage precedente, sia un notion plus o minus definite in le mente del parlator.

Le puero ha un conilio mascule e duo conilias. Le mascule pare assatis grasse pro esser mangiate.


 
 

A causa de su eterne mal humor nos le appella "le acre."

In le prime exemplo, 'le mascule' representa 'le conilio mascule' ; in le secunde exemplo, 'le acre' suggere un esser human masculin sed non un substantivo specific como homine, puero, maestro, etc. In le casos del secunde sorta, il pote esser preferibile parlar de "adjectivos usate como substantivos," o "adjectivos substantivate" plus tosto que de "adjectivos usate como pronomines." Le adjectivos usate como substantivos include etiam abstractiones del sorta 'le bon', 'le ver', 'le belle' in le senso de bonitate, veritate, beltate.

§39 Adjectivos usate como pronomines o substantivos se comporta grammaticamente como substantivos ordinari e pote esser pluralisate.

Le puero ha quatro conilios, duo mascules e duo feminines.

A causa de lor eterne mal humor nos les appella "le acres."


 

§40 Numerose adjectivos listate in le Interlingua-English Dictionary corresponde a entratas substantive parallel.

adjectivo substantivo

-------------- -------------------------

bon bono

auguste augusto; Augusto; Augusta

characteristic characteristica

chromatic chromatica

indonesian indonesiano

natural natural

provincial provincial

technic technico; technica

automobile automobile

ambiente ambiente

alte alto

belligerente belligerente

comestibile comestibiles

combustibile combustibile

composite composito

 
 
 


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Le possibilitate de assi cambiar adjectivos in substantivos es limitate per nihil altere que senso commun. Si non alteremente crystallisate per le usage, un adjectivo usate como un substantivo de plen status (non simplemente como un pronomine pro un substantivo mentionate previemente) exprime sia le notion abstracte del qualitate representate per le adjectivo - p.ex. le bon, le belle, le sublime - sia un cosa o persona characterisate per lo que le adjectivo exprime - p.ex. le car, le amate, le previe, le ferite. Quando illos exprime un qualitate abstracte e quando illos representa un esser masculin, le adjectivos cambiate a substantivos o assume le desinentia vocal -o, o remane inalterate. Quando illos representa esseres feminin, illos assume le desinentia -a, o remane inalterate.

Le cambio al desinentias vocal -o e -a sub le conditiones exprimite es le norma. Le adjectivos que non seque ille norma es listate in §41 infra. Il debe esser notate, totevia,
 

(a) que le lista es exhaustive e assi include un bon numero de adjectivos pro le quales le distinction de masculin e feminin ha nulle significantia practic, e

(b) que le lista es un "lista del purista" assi que le uso erronee del desinentias -o e -a con su objectos non pote esser considerate un cosa seriose.

§41 Adjectivos que non pote, quando usate como substantivos, assumer formas distincte in -o e -a ben que illos es capace de, si le senso lo permitte, assumer le desinentia plural include le sequentes:

(a) omne adjectivos que fini in -ce e -u; p.ex.
rapace, precoce, dulce, ...
hindu, manchu, blau, ...
etc.;

(b) omne adjectivos cuje thema apparente es sequite per -ese/-ense, -il/-ile, -ior, -nte, si o non iste desinentias es clarmente recognoscite como suffixos; p.ex.


francese, ...
futile, ...
junior, ...
consciente, clemente, ...
etc.;

(c) omne adjectivos que fini in le suffixos -al, -ar, -bile, -oide, -plice; p.ex.


natural, ...
linear, ...
amabile, ...
negroide, ...
duplice, ...
etc.;

(d) le adjectivos:


grande, prode, verde,
folle, molle,
juvene, omne, solemne,
alacre, celebre, celere, mediocre, memore, plure, pubere, ubere, vetere,
necesse,
agreste, forte, quite, triste,
tenue,
breve, grave, leve, suave,
cruel, fidel, qual, tal,
minor, par

(e) omne adjectivos derivate de illos listate supra per prefixos; p.ex.


supernatural, infidel, ... etc.;

(f) le adjectivos del nomines geographic e racial:


caribe,
ethiope,
ligure,
macedone, saxone,
mongol,
moslem,
nomade,
turcoman;

(g) adjectivos grammatic indeclinabile como cata, que, e combinationes con -cunque;

(h) certe adjectivos derivate per un elemento prefixate sed sin un suffixo (vide §164) del substantivos sequente:

substantivo adjectivo

----------- ---------

anno p.ex. bienne, trienne

caput p.ex. bicipite, precipite

color p.ex. incolor, tricolor

corde p.ex. concorde, discorde

corno p.ex. bicorne, unicorne

cuspide p.ex. bicuspide, multicuspide

fin p.ex. affin, confin

flor p.ex. multiflor, uniflor

forma p.ex. multiforme, uniforme

lingua p.ex. bilingue, crassilingue

remo p.ex. bireme, trireme

(i) le adjectivos sequente que representa le mesme typo como illos listate sub (h) sed le quales es formationes isolate o non pote esser facilemente recognoscite in lor composition:

enorme, exsangue, illustre, imbecille,


indemne, inerte, infame, inope, insigne,
insomne, semi-somne,
isoscele, macroscele,
multicaule, myope, participe,
commun, immun, impun.

§42 Concernente le formation de adjectivos e etiam del derivatos de illos, vide §§139, 140, 141, 142, 45-47, 152-153.



When the comparative happens to be preceded by the definite article, it coincides with the superlative. The examples below (§ 35) show that this involves no confusion.

§ 35. Comparison of equality is expressed by tanto . . . como or si . . . como 'as . . . as.' The particle after the comparative is que 'than.'

Comparative and superlative forms following the noun repeat the preceding definite article -- provided there is one.

Un homine es tanto ben como un altere e frequentemente etiam un grande portion plus ben 'One man is as good as another and frequently even a great deal better'

Iste historia es le minus interessante que io ha legite 'This story is the least interesting (which) I have read'

Iste historia es le minus interessante del duo 'This story is the less interesting of the two'

Del duo summas paga le plus parve 'Of the two amounts pay the lesser'

Chesterlucks es plus blande 'Chesterlucks are milder'

Le presidente del committee ajorna omne le questiones le plus urgente 'The committee chairman postpones all the most urgent questions'

Illa ha le plus dulce temperamento e le ideas le plus naive 'She has the sweetest disposition and the most naive ideas'

§ 36. The idea of the so-called ABSOLUTE SUPERLATIVE may be expressed as in English by various constructions:
most interesting, very interesting, extremely interesting, terribly interesting, etc.
 

A device used specifically for purposes of the absolute superlative is the suffix -issime.

Su replica esseva un "non" multo emphatic 'His reply was a very emphatic no'

Su replica esseva un emphatichissime "non" 'His reply was a most emphatic no'

Ille parla in un maniera terribilemente interessante 'He talks in a terribly interesting fashion'

§ 37. The particles plus and minus, which are used to express degrees of comparison, are themselves expressive of the comparative degree of adverbs which admit no regular forms of comparison. See § 44 below. Similarly there are in the Interlingua vocabulary a few adjectives which one may wish to regard as irregular synonyms of certain comparative and superlative forms.


 
 
 

parve : plus parve : le plus parve or minor : le minor or minime 'small: smaller or lesser: smallest or least'

magne: plus magne: le plus magne or major: le major or maxime 'great: greater: greatest'

bon: plus bon: le plus bon or melior: le melior or optime 'good: better: best'

mal: plus mal: le plus mal or pejor: le pejor or pessime 'bad: worse: worst'

§ 38. Theoretically EVERY ADJECTIVE CAN SERVE AS A PRONOUN. The noun it represents may either be one expressed in the preceding passage or it may be a more or less definite notion in the mind of the speaker.

Le puero ha un conilio mascule e duo conilias. Le mascule pare assatis grasse pro esser edite 'The boy has one male rabbit and two she-rabbits. The male (one) seems fat enough to be eaten'

A causa de su eterne mal humor nos appella le "le acre" 'Because of his eternal bad humor we call him "the acrid (one)"'

In the first example, 'the male' stands for 'the male rabbit'; in the second example, 'the acrid one' suggests a male human being but not a specific noun like 'man, boy, teacher, etc.' In instances of the latter kind it may be preferable to speak of "adjectives used as nouns" or "substantivized adjectives" rather than of "adjectives used as pronouns." Adjectives used as nouns include also abstracts of the type 'the good, the true, the beautiful' in the sense of 'goodness, truth, beauty.'
 

§ 39. Adjectives used as pronouns or nouns behave grammatically like ordinary nouns and can be pluralized.

Le puero ha quatro conilios, duo mascules e duo feminines 'The boy has four rabbits, two male and two female ones'

A causa de lor eterne mal humor nos appella le "le acres" 'Because of their eternal bad humor we call them "the acrid (ones)"'

§ 40. Numerous adjectives listed in the Interlingua-English Dictionary correspond to parallel noun entries.

ADJECTIVES: NOUNS:

---------------- ---------------------

bon 'good' bono 'good (as "the

good and the

beautiful");

good one ( = good

man); certificate,

coupon'
auguste 'august' augusto '(the) august

(one); (month) of

August'

Augusto 'August,



Augustus'

Augusta 'Augusta'


characteristic characteristica

'characteristic' 'characteristic

(trait)'
chromatic chromatica

'chromatic' 'chromatics'


indonesian indonesiano

'Indonesian' 'Indonesian'


natural natural 'disposition,

'natural' temperament'


provincial provincial

'provincial' 'provincial'


technic technico 'technician'

'technical' technica 'technique;

technology'
automobile automobile 'automobile'

'self-moving'


ambiente ambiente 'environment'

'ambient,

surrounding'
alte 'high' alto 'top; alto'
belligerente belligerente

'belligerent' 'belligerent'


comestibile comestibiles 'food'

'edible'
combustibile combustibile 'fuel'

'combustible'
composite composito 'compound'

'composite'

The possibility of thus turning adjectives into nouns is limited by nothing but common sense. Unless otherwise crystallized by usage, an adjective used as a full-fledged noun (not simply as a pronoun for a noun previously mentioned) expresses either the abstract notion of the quality represented by the adjective -- e.g. the good, the beautiful, the sublime -- or a thing or person characterized by what the adjective expresses -- e.g. the dear, the beloved, the former, the wounded. When they express an abstract quality and when they represent a male being, adjectives turned into nouns either assume the vowel ending o or remain unchanged; when they represent female beings they assume the vowel ending a or remain unchanged.
 

The switch to the vowel endings o and a under the conditions stated is the norm. The adjectives which do not follow that norm are listed below in § 41. It should be noted, however,

(a) that the list is exhaustive and hence includes a good many items for which the distinction of male and female has no practical significance, and

(b) that the list is a "purists' list" so that the mistaken use of the endings o and a with its items cannot be considered a serious matter.

§ 41. Adjectives which cannot, when used as nouns, assume distinct forms in o and a although -- sense permitting -- they are capable of assuming the plural ending, include the following:

(a) all adjectives which end in -ce and -u; e.g. rapace, precoce, dulce, hindu, manchu, blau, etc.;


 
 

(b) all adjectives whose apparent stem is followed by -e(n)se, -il(e), -ior, -nte whether or not these endings are clearly recognizable as suffixes; e.g. futile, junior, consciente, clemente, francese, etc.;


 
 
 

(c) all adjectives ending in the suffixes -al, -ar, -bile, -oide, -plice; e.g. natural, linear, amabile, negroide, duplice, etc.


 
 
 
 
 
 

(d) the adjectives


agreste 'rustic', alacre 'eager', breve 'short', celebre 'famous', celere 'quick', celibe 'unmarried', cruel 'cruel', fidel 'faithful', folle 'bellows', forte 'mad', grande 'big', grave 'heavy', juvene 'young', leve 'light', mediocre 'mediocre', memore 'mindful', minor 'lesser', molle 'soft', necesse 'necessary', omne 'all', par 'even', plure 'several', prode 'valiant', pubere 'pubescent', qual 'which', quite 'quit', solemne 'solemn', suave 'sweet', tal 'such', tenue 'thin', triste 'sad', ubere 'fruitful', verde 'green', vetere 'old'

(e) all adjectives derived from those listed above by prefixes; e.g. supernatural, infidel, etc.;

(f) the geographical and racial name adjectives
caribe, ethiope, ligure, macedone, mongol, moslem, nomade, saxone, turcoman
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

(g) indeclinable grammatical adjectives like cata, que, and combinations with -cunque;

(h) certain adjectives derived by means of a prefixed element but without a suffix (see § 164) from the following nouns:
 

anno (e.g. bienne, trienne)

caput (e.g. bicipite, precipite)

color (e.g. incolor, tricolor)

corde (e.g. concorde, discorde)

corno (e.g. bicorne, unicorne)

cuspide (e.g. bicuspide, multicuspide)

fin (e.g. affin, confin)

flor (e.g. multiflor, uniflor)

forma (e.g. multiforme, uniforme)

lingua (e.g. bilingue, crassilingue)

remo (e.g. bireme, trireme)

(i) the following adjectives which represent the same type as those listed under (h) but which are either isolated formations or cannot be readily recognized in their composition:

commun, enorme, exsangue, illustre, imbecille immun, impun, indemne, inerte, infam, inope, insigne, insomne, semi-somne, isoscele, macroscele, multicaule, myope, participe


 
 
 

§ 42. On the formation of adjectives as well as of derivatives from them, see §139, §140, §141, §142, §45-§47, §152-§153.








=========
ADVERBIOS
=========

§43 Como in anglese il ha adverbios primari e derivate, e etiam expressiones adverbial.

§44 Le ADVERBIOS PRIMARI es entratas in le dictionario e require nulle remarcas grammatic. Exemplos es: nunc, minus, plus, hic, ibi, aliquanto, semper, etc.
 

§45 Le DERIVATION regular DE ADVERBIOS ab adjectivos utilisa le suffixo -mente appendite al forma complete del adjectivo. Post un -c final le vocal -a es insertate.



======
ADVERB
======

§ 43. As in English there are primary and derived adverbs as well as adverbial phrases.

§ 44. The PRIMARY ADVERBS are items in the dictionary and call for no grammatical remarks. Examples are nunc 'now,' minus 'less,' plus 'more,' hic 'here,' ibi 'there,' aliquanto 'somewhat,' semper 'always,' etc.

§ 45. The regular DERIVATION OF ADVERBS from adjectives makes use of the suffix -mente added to the full form of the adjective. After a final -c the vowel -a- is inserted.



adjectivo adverbio (...mente)

----------- --------------------

natural naturalmente

evidente evidentemente

remarcabile remarcabilemente

auxiliar auxiliarmente

clar clarmente

vorace voracemente


adjectivo adverbio (...amente)

----------- --------------------

photographic photographicamente

austriac austriacamente





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