Grammatica de interlingua de Alexander Gode &



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Appendice 1
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Verbos de duple thema
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Il pote esser importante notar que le termino "secunde thema irregular de verbos" como usate in iste grammatica non debe esser permittite evocar le spectro de irregularitates verbal characteristic del majoritate de linguas ethnic. In Interlingua le secunde thema irregular de verbos ha nihil a facer con le question de conjugation. Illo es un thema que occurre in certe substantivos e adjectivos derivate e los impedi de assumer formas innaturalmente distorte, como per exemplo scribitura in loco de scriptura (de scriber), corrumpitive in loco de corruptive (de corrumper), incidition in loco de incision (de incider), etc. De plus le typo "regular", scribitura, corrumpitive, incidition, etc., non necessarimente debe esser considerate "erronee" sed pote esser usate quandocunque il pare stilisticamente possibile o preferibile.

In construction active de vocabulos, il essera discoperite que le secunde thema irregular causa pauc difficultates e sovente simplifica le processo de derivation. Derivar, per exemplo, le forma "regular" collidition de collider non es facile pro alicuno qui parla como su lingua native anglese o qualcunque altere lingua del civilisation occidental, durante que le uso del thema "irregular" collis- con un resultante collision pare natural e assi multo facile.

Finalmente, on non debe ignorar le facto que construction active de vocabulos es in practica rarmente un question de derivar un parola de un altere in un vacuo, pro si dicer, sed plus tosto un question de adaptar un nove formation in un patrono de plures que jam es familiar. Pro illustrar: Quicunque require un adjectivo a accompaniar, que nos dice, le verbo extraher [-trah-/-tract-], va spontaneemente cunear extractive, non como le resultato laboriose de attachar -ive al verbo sed plus tosto proque extractive se conforma al patrono de vocabulos jam cognoscite, como extraher, extractor, extraction, extrahente. Le nove formation extractive non es - parlante psychologicamente e pedagogicamente - derivate de un 'extraher' isolate. Illo es formate de 'extraher' in le presentia de extraction, extractor, etc.

Omne verbo cuje secunde thema non resulta del prime per le simple addition de -at o -it es accompaniate in le Interlingua-English Dictionary per un plen indication de su duo themas. Un exposition descriptive del secunde thema irregular de verbos pote totevia esser trovate utile pro certe propositos e es essayate in le paragraphos sequente. Nota que infinitivos que non appare in le Interlingua-English Dictionary es listate infra in parentheses.

Nulle verbo derivate pote unquam haber un secunde thema irregular. Verbos como fusionar (de fusion), degradar (de grado), normalisar (de normal), falsificar (de false), blanchir (de blanc), etc. es sempre regular.

Verbos composite, sia formate con prefixos (componer, imprimer, interrogar, etc.), sia essente le formas composite de vocabulos integre (calefacer, benedicer, etc.), seque le patrono del correspondente verbos simple in respecto a regularitate o irregularitate de lor secunde themas. Nota que le vocal de thema de verbos composite con prefixos differe occasionalmente del correspondente vocal del verbo simple, un phenomeno que non es a conservar in composition active. Tal verbos composite sovente recupera o se approcha al vocal original - le vocal del verbo simple - in lor secunde themas irregular.


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Appendice 1
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Double-Stem Verbs
-----------------

It may be important to note that the term "irregular second stem of verbs" as used in this grammar must not be allowed to conjure up the specter of verbal irregularities characteristic of most ethnic languages. In Interlingua the irregular second stem of verbs has nothing to do with matters of conjugation. It is a stem which occurs in certain derived nouns and adjectives and prevents these from assuming unnaturally distorted forms, as for instance scribitura instead of scriptura (from scriber), corrumpitive instead of corruptive (from corrumper), incidition instead of incision (from incider), etc. Furthermore the "regular" type, scribitura, corrumpitive, incidition, etc., need not be considered "wrong" but may be used whenever it seems stylistically possible or preferable.

In active word building it will be found that the irregular second stem occasions few difficulties but often simplifies the process of derivation. To derive, for instance, the "regular" form collidition from collider is not easy for anyone speaking as his native language English or any of the other languages of Western Civilization, while the use of the "irregular" stem collis- with a resulting collision seems natural and hence easy.

Finally one must not overlook the fact that active word building is in practice rarely a matter of deriving one word from another in a vacuum, so to speak, but rather a matter of fitting a new formation into a pattern of several familiar ones. To illustrate: Anyone needing an adjective to go with let us say extraher 'to extract,' will spontaneously coin extractive, not as the laborious result of attaching -ire to the verb but rather because extractive fits into the pattern of words already known, like extraher, extractor, extraction, extrahente. The new formation extractive is not – psychologically and pedagogically speaking – derived from an isolated extraher. It is fashioned from extraher in the presence of extraction, extractor, etc.


 

Every verb whose second stem does not result from the first by the simple addition of -at- or -it- is accompanied in the Interlinqua - English Dictionary by a full statement of its two stems. A descriptive survey of the irregular second stem of verbs may still be found useful for certain purposes and is attempted in the following paragraphs. Note that infinitives which do not appear in the Interlinqua - English Dictionary are listed below within parentheses.

No derived verb can ever have an irregular second stem. Verbs like fusionar (from fusion), degrader (from grado), normalisar (from normal), falsificar (from false), blanchir (from blanc), etc. are always regular.

Compound verbs - whether formed with prefixes (componer, imprimer, interrogar, etc.) or the compounding forms of full-fledged words (calefacer, benedicer, etc.) follow the pattern of the corresponding simple verbs in regard to regularity or irregularity of their second stems. Note that the stem vowel of verbs compounded with prefixes differs occasionally from the corresponding vowel of the simple verb, a phenomenon not to be preserved in active compounding. Such compounded verbs often recover or approach the original vowel - the vowel of the simple verb - in their irregular second stem.



a->i a->i a->a

------- ------ --------

ager ag- act-

rediger redig- redact-

------- ------ --------

a->i a->i a->e

------- ------ --------

facer fac- fact-

conficer confic- confect-

------- ------ --------

e->i e->i e->e

------- ------ --------

leger leg- lect-

colliger collig- collect-



Verbos cuje infinitivos termina in -ar ha un secunde thema irregular in solo tres casos exceptional:

Verbs whose infinitive ends in -ar have an irregular second stem in only three exceptional instances.

fricar fric- frict

juvar juv- jut-

secar sec- sect-


Verbos cuje infinitivos termina in -ir ha un secunde thema irregular in le casos exceptional sequente:

Verbs whose infinitives end in -ir have an irregular second stem in the following exceptional instances:

(aborir) abor- abort-

aperir aper- apert-

coperir coper- copert-

experir exper- expert-

haurir haur- haust-

metir met- mens-

morir mor- mort-

patir pat- pass-

salir sal- salt-

sancir sanc- sanct-

sarcir sarc- sart-

sentir sent- sens-

venir ven- vent-


Omne altere verbos con secunde themas irregular ha infinitivos que termina in -er. Iste constatation non pote esser revertite. Non omne verbos que termina in -er ha secunde themas irregular. Sed cf. §148.

Verbos con infinitivos in -er que ha un secunde thema irregular pote esser gruppate como seque:

1. Quando le prime thema termina in -c, -l, -n, -p, -r, -u, -x, le secunde thema normalmente es formate per le addition de -t. Exemplos:


All other verbs with irregular second stems have infinitives ending in -er. This statement cannot be reversed. Not all verbs ending in -er have irregular second stems. But cf. § 148.
 

Verbs with infinitives in -er which have an irregular second stem can be grouped as follows:


 

1. When the first stem ends in c, l, n, p, r, u, x, the second stem is normally formed by the addition of t. Examples:



docer doc- doct-

ducer duc- duct-

(consuler) consul- consult-

tener ten- tent-

caper cap- capt-

raper rap- rapt-

parer par- part-

offerer offer- offert-

(serer) ser- sert-

-luer -lu- -lut-

tribuer tribu- tribut-

(tuer) tu- tut-

texer tex- text-


2. Quando le prime thema termina in -sc, iste desinentia es reducite ante le -t que es addite pro formar le secunde thema in le exemplos sequente:

2. When the first stem ends in sc, this ending is reduced before the t added to form the second stem in the following examples:

crescer cresc- cret-

miscer misc- mixt-

(noscer) nosc- not-

cognoscer cognosc- cognit-

pascer pasc- past-

quiescer quiesc- quiet-



3. Per le addition de -t pro formar le secunde thema, le sono (e orthographia) concludente del prime thema es normalmente afficite como seque: -b deveni -p; -g e -h deveni -c; -m deveni -mp; -qu deveni -cu; -v deveni -u. Exemplos:

3. Through the addition of t to form the second stem, the concluding sound (and spelling) of the first stem is normally affected as follows: b becomes p; g and h become c; m becomes mp; qu becomes cu; v becomes u. Examples:

scriber scrib- script-

sorber sorb- sorpt-

ager ag- act-

reger reg- rect-

traher trah- tract-

veher veh- vect-

emer em- empt-

sumer sum- sumpt-

(loquer) loqu- locut-

sequer sequ- secut-

solver solv- solut-

volver volv- volut-



4. In le casos sequente, le -r final del prime thema deveni un -s ante le -t que es addite pro formar le secunde thema:

4. In the following instances the final r of the first stem becomes an s before the t added to form the second stem:

gerer ger- gest-

haurir haur- haust-

querer quer- quest-

torrer torr- tost-

urer ur- ust-


5. Quando le prime thema termina in -d o -t (etiam -tt), le secunde thema es normalmente formate per cambiar iste consonantes a -s o -ss. Similarmente -ct es cambiate a -x. Exemplos:

5. When the first stem ends in d or t (also tt), the second stem is normally formed by changing these consonants to s or ss. Examples:

(ceder) ced- cess-

seder sed- sess-

cader cad- cas-

vider vid- vis-

-luder -lud- -lus-

scander scand- scans-

prender prend- prens-

tender tend- tens-

(uter) ut- us-

verter vert- vers-

mitter mitt- miss-

flecter flect- flex-

(necter) nect- nex-


6. In le casos sequente, le secunde thema es formate per le addition de -s al prime thema.

6. In the following instances the second stem is formed by the addition of s to the first stem.

(celler) cell- cels-

censer cens- cens-

currer curr- curs-

figer fig- fix-

-herer -her- -hes-

laber lab- laps-

merger merg- mers-

mulger mulg- muls-

(peller) pell- puls-

sparger sparg- spars-

torquer torqu- tors-

-veller -vell- - vuls-




7. Le verbos sequente que pertine a uno o altere del categorias precedente es in plus characterisate per le suppression de -m e -n in le secunde thema:

7. The following verbs which belong in one or another of the preceding categories are further characterized by the suppression of m and n in the second stem:

contemner contemn- contempt-

finger fing- fict-

finder find- fiss-

franger frang- fract-

funder fund- fus-

(panger) pang- pact-

pinger ping- pict-

rumper rump- rupt-

scinder scind- sciss-

stringer string- strict-

tanger tang- tact-

tunder tund- tus-

vincer vinc- vict-

(siner) sin- sit-




8. Varie irregularitates non coperite in le categorias precedente appare in le verbos sequente:

8. Various irregularities not covered in the preceding categories appear in the following verbs:

compler comple- complet-

deler dele- delet-

mover mov- mot-

vover vov- vot-

cerner cern- -cret-

coler col- cult-

(sterner) stern- strat-

distinguer distingu- distinct-

extinguer extingu- extinct-

(instinguer) instingu- instinct-

struer stru- struct-

-ferer -fer- -lat-

offerer offer- offert-, oblat-

fluer flu- fluct-, flux-

fruer fru- fruct-, fruit-

indulger indulg- indult-

(linquer) linqu- lict-

poner pon- posit-, post-

premer prem- press-

prender prend- prens-, pris-

surger surg- surrect-

tender tend- tens-, tent-

(terer) ter- trit-

torquer torqu- tort-, tors-

(tuer) tu- tut-, tuit-

verter vert- vers-, -ors-

vider vid- vis-, vist-

volver volv- volut-, volt-



INDICE ALPHABETIC

a accento accordo accusativo adjectivo • adjectivos demonstrative e pronomines • adjectivos possessive • adverbio


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AFFIXOS affixos a-..anti- • apo-..ecto- • electro-..homo- hydro-..-imento • -in..medie- • meta-..-oscopo • -ose..vice-
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alphabeto • anglese, tractos distinctive • Anglese-Interlingua, lista de vocabulos • apposition • articulo
cambio orthographic • caso subjective • comparation • composition • conditional • conjunctiones
construction de vocabulos • datas • dativo • de • declination • derivation
desinentias • diphthongos • duple consonantes • duration de sono • esser • expressiones • facer • femina, feminin •
   forma familiar de adresse • formas de caso
formas irregular • genere grammatic • genere natural • genitivo • grammatica minime • haber
hora del die • imperativo • infinitivo • Interlingua-English Dictionary • intonation • majusculas • masculo, masculin • neutre
numerales • nominativo • nomines proprie • ordine de parolas • orthographia
partes del discurso • particula interrogative • particulas grammatic • participio passate • participio presente • passivo •
   plural • possessivo • prefixos
prepositiones • principios • principios general • pronomines • pronomines personal • pronomines personal indefinite
pronomines reflexive • pronomines relative • pronunciation • punctuation • sequentia de tempores • signos diacritic •
   subjecto grammatic • subjunctivo
substantivation • substantivo • suffixos • superlativo • superlativo absolute • syllabation
syntaxe • tabulas e expositiones • tempore futur • tempore passate • tempore passate perfecte • tempore presente • tempores
tempores composite • terminationes • textos exemplar • variante collateral de interlingua
verbo • verbos auxiliar • verbos de duple thema • vocabulos foranee • vocabulos hospite

a:

usate pro exprimer

functiones dative §26, §76

usate con infinitivo §84


accento:

nulle accentos usate §1



vide etiam SIGNOS DIACRITIC

regulas §10-

in tempore futur §107
accordo:

nulle accordo del adjectivos §32

in appositivos §30

in pronomines personal

de tertie persona §58, §61
accusativo:

vide §71
adjectivo: §31-42

possessive §64-

demonstrative §78-

participial §93-97

postverbal §97

numeral §118-127

usate como pronomine

o substantivo §38-41



etiam §64, §78

comparation §34-38

position §33

nulle inflexion o accordo §32

nomines proprie

con functiones adjectival §29

substantivos usate

como adjectivos in anglese §28

derivatos ab adjectivos §45-47,

§140-144


derivation de adjectivos §139,

§142


etiam §152, §154

e vide COMPOSITION


adjectivos demonstrative e

pronomines §78-79
adjectivos possessive

§64, §65


presentation tabular §54
adverbio §43-53

primari §44, §47

derivate §45-47

numerales adverbial §130

expressiones adverbial §48

position §52-

comparation §50

vide etiam PARTICULAS

GRAMMATIC




affixos:

vide etiam COMPOSITION

DERIVATION, CONSTRUCTION DE

VOCABULOS, TERMINATIONES

GENERE NATURAL, PREFIXOS,

SUFFIXOS

Lista de affixos e elementos

similar de composition

(tractamento principal es in

cursiva):

a- §158, §140

-abile §152-, §145-147

ad- §157


-ada §138, §152, §154, §137,

§145-147


aero- §161

-age §7, §138, §152, §154, §15,

§137,145-147

-al §139


-alia §138, §137

-amento §152, §154, §145-147

amphi- §158

-an §139, §138

-ana §138, §158

-ano §138, §139

-anta §118

ante- §157

-ante §93, §152-, §41, §141,

§145-147


anti- §157

-antia §93, §152, §154, §141,

§145-147

apo- §158

-ar (adj) §139

-ar (v) §140, §154

archi- §161

-ari §139, §138

-aria §138

-ario §138, §139

-astra §138, §137

-astro §138, §137

-ala §138, §137

-ale §95,139,152-,149-

-ation §152, §154, §145, §149

-ative §152, §153, §149

-ato §138

-ator §152, §149

-atori §152-, §149

-ateria §152, §149

-atrice §152

-atura §152,154,149

auto- §157

bi- §128


cata- §158

centi- §128

circum- §157, §158

co- §157


con- §157,158

contra- §157

deca- §128

deci- §128

di- §128

dia- §158

dis- §157

dodeca- §128

ecto- §158

electro- §161

en- §158, §157

-ena §129

endo- §158

-ente §93, §152-, §41, §141,

§145-147

-entia §93, §152, §154, §141,

§145-147

ento- §158

epi- §158

equi- §161

-er §139

-era §138

-eria §138, §152, §154, §10,

§137, §145-147;

-ero §138, §137, §139

-esc §139, §137

-ese §138-, §41, §137

-esime §125, §10

-essa §138, §141, §137, §152

-eto §138

-etta §138, §137;

-ette §142, §137;

-etto §138, §137;

ex- §157


exo- §158

extra- §157, §158

extro- §157

gran- §157

hecto- §128

hemi- §128

hepta- §128

hetero- §161

hexa- §128

homeo- §161

homo- §161

hydro- §161

hyper- §158

hypo- §158

-ia (non-accentuate) §138, §141,

§152;


-ia (accentuate super -i) §138,

§141, §10;

-ial §139

-ian §139, §138

-iana §138

-iano §138, §139

-iardo §118

-ibile §150, §152-, §145-147

-ic §10, §139, §138

-ica §10, §138

-icida §161

-icidio §161

-ico §10, §138

-icole §164

-iente §93, §152-, §41, §141,

§145-147;

-ientia §93, §152, §154, §141,

§145-147;

-ier §139

-iera §138, §137

-iero §138, §137, §139

-ifere §139, §10

-ific §10, §139, §140

-ificar §140, §137

-iforme §164

-il §138, §41

-ilingue §164

-illion §118

-iloque §164

-imento §152, §154, §145-147;

-in §139

in- §157, §140, §158

-ina §138-

-ino §139

inter- §157;

intra- §157;

intro- §157

-ion §152,154,139,145,148-;

-iose §139

-ipare §164

-ipede §164

-isar §140, §15, §138

-ismo §138, §141, §140

iso- §161

-isone §164

-issime §36, §10, §137, §142;

-issimo §47, §10, §137

-ista §138-, §141-, §140

-ila §138

-itate §141

-ite (subst) §138

-ite (adj) §95, §152-, §148-;

-ition §152, §154,145, §149;

-itis §138

-itive §152, §149

-itor §152, §149

-itori §152-, §149

-itorio §152, §149

-itrice §152

-itude §141

-itura §152, §154, §149

-ive §152-, §145, §148-;

-ivome §164

kilo- §128

macro- §161

medie- §126

-manta §45, §130

meta- §158

micro- §161

milli- §128

mis- §157, §158

mono- §128

multi- §128

myria- §128

neo- §161

non- §157

-o (adv) §47, §130

octa- §128

-ographia §161

-ographo §161

-oide §138-

-ologia §161

-ologo §161,10

-omana §161

-omana §161

-omania §161

-omano §161

-ometro §161

omni- §161

-ophila §161,

-ophile §161

-ophilia §161;

-ophilo §161,

-ophoba §161;

-ophobe §161;

-ophobia §161;

-ophobo §161

-or §152, §145, §148-,

-ori §152-, §145, §148-,

-orio §152, §145, §148

-oscopia §161,

-oscopic §161;

-oscopio §161,

-oscopo §161

-ose §139

-osis §138, §139

-otic §139, §138

paleo- §161

pan- §161

para- §158

penta- §128

per- §157

peri- §158

photo- §161

pluri- §128

poly- §128

post- §157

pre- §157

pro- §157

proto- §161

pseudo- §161

quadri- §128

quasi- §161

radio- §161

re- §157

retro- §157

-rice §152

semi- §128

sesqui- §128

sub- §157, §158

super- §157, §158

syn- §158

tele- §161

tetra- §128

trans- §157, §158

tri- §128

ultra- §157, §158

uni- §128

-ura §152,154,145,148-

vice- §157



alphabeto: §1
anglese, tractos distinctive:

vocales final obscurate §3;

substantivos usate como

adjectivos §28

composition per juxtaposition

§159


omission del pronomine relative

§76


gerundio §83

'to' ante infinitivo §84

accusativo con infinitivo §90

formas de tempores progressive

§80, §94
anglese-interlingua, lista de

vocabulos:

Section: 'Appendice 2'


apposition: §30
articulo: §17-21

in uso pronomina §121

definite §17, §18, §21

indefinite §19- §21


articulo definite §17-, §21

in uso pronominal §21


articulo indefinite §19- §21

in uso pronominal §21




cambio orthographic:

in derivation §137

in formationes plural §25
caso subjective:

de pronomines personal §54-61,

§63;

de pronomines relative §76


comparation:

de adjectivos §34-38

de adverbios §50

formas irregular §37


composition §155-162

per prefixos §156-158

per formas compositori §159-162;

con numerales multiplicative

§128;

in conjunction con derivation



§163-

vide etiam §140
conditional §107-

vide etiam §103
conjugation:

vide VERBO

nulle inflexion personal §98

tabula de conjugation §115
conjunctiones §165

expressiones conjunctional §166

punctuation in propositiones

conjunctional §16



vide etiam PARTICULAS GRAMMATIC

construction de vocabulos §135-166



vide etiam DERIVATION
datas §132
dativo:

exprimite per preposition

§26, §76

vide etiam §71
de:

usate pro exprimer

functiones genitive §26, §76

usate con infinitivo §84, §89


declination:

nulle formas de caso del

substantivos §26;

nulle formas de caso de adjectivos

§32;

formas de caso de pronomines



§54, §62-
derivation §135-154

ab substantivos §138-140

ab adjectivos §45-47,140-144

ab verbos §145-154

de substantivos §138, §141

etiam §152, §154

de adjectivos §139, §142



etiam §152, §154

de adverbios §45-47

de verbos §140, §144

e vide COMPOSITION


desinentias:

vice TERMINATIONES
diphthongos §5
duple consonantes §6

elimination in orthographia

collateral

§15a
duration de sono §12


esser:

passivo auxiliar §112-

optional formas irregular

§101, §104


expressiones:

adverbial §48;

prepositional e conjunctional §166
facer:

'to cause (to do)' e

'to cause (to be done)' §70, §88
femina, feminin:

vide GENERE NATURAL
forma familiar de adresse §57
formas de caso:

vide DECLINATION


formas irregular:

de plurales in 'vocabulos hospite'

§25

de adverbios derivate §47, §49



de comparation §37

de themas de verbo §146, §148-,

§152 Section: 'Appendice §1'
genere grammatic:

nulle genere grammatic in

Interlingua

§23


sed vide GENERE NATURAL
genere natural:

in uso pronominal de articulos

§21,

in substantivos §24



in appositivos §30,

vide etiam PRONOMINES PERSONAL

e ADJECTIVOS DEMONSTRATIVE,

substituto pro genere in

possessivos de tertie persona §65



genitivo:

exprimite per preposition §26, §76

de pronomine relative §76
grammatica minime:

Section: 'Introduction: Principios

general'
haber:

functiones auxiliar §105-

presente irregular optional §101


hora del die §133
imperativo §110-

infinitivo usate como imperativo

§91
infinitivo §81-92

terminationes §82

uso de prepositiones con

infinitivo §84-89

position in relation a pronomine

§69


in questiones §92

pro themas general,



vide VERBO
Interlingua-EngIish Dictionary:

relation al Grammatica de

Interlingua, Section: 'Prefacio al

secunde edition'


intonation §12
majusculas:

uso de majusculas §14


masculo, masculin:

vide GENERE NATURAL
neutre:

vide GENERE NATURAL


numerales §118-133

adverbial §130

cardinal §118-124

ordinal §l25

collective §129

decimal §123

fractional §126

multiplicative §127

compositos multiplicative §128
nominativo:

vide CASO SUBJECTIVE
nomines proprie:

uso de majusculas in §14;

con functiones adjectival §29
ordine de parolas:

position de adjectivo §33

position de adverbio §52-

position de pronomines

§69-71, §73, §88

in questiones §116


orthographia §1-9

collateral §15

cambios in derivation §137


partes del discurso §17-133

vide SUBSTANTIVO, ADJECTIVO, etc.
particula interrogative §116

sequite per infinitivo §92


particulas grammatic §134
participio passate §95-97

position in relation a pronomine

§69
participio presente §93-

position in relation a pronomines

§69
passivo §112-114

exprimite in constructiones

reflexive §68

infinitivo passive §88


plural:

de substantivos §25, §29

de adjectivos usate como

pronomines o substantivos §39

de pronomines §61

plural optional de tempore

presente de 'esser' §101
possessivo:

vide GENITIVO

prefixos §155-158

etiam §161a, §164

vide AFFIXOS pro lista

complete
prepositiones §165-167

usate pro exprimer functiones

de caso §26, §76

post infinitivos §84-86, §89

expressiones prepositional §166

duple prepositiones §167

vide etiam PARTICULAS GRAMMATIC
principios:

determinar le grammatica minime:

'lntroduction'
principios general:

Section: 'Introduction'


pronomines §54-79

vide ADJECTIVOS DEMONSTRATIVE,

PRONOMINES PERSONAL, etc.

position in relation a verbo §53

adjectivos usate como pronomines

§38-,

etiam §64, §78
pronomines personal §54-63, §69-73

presentation tabular §54

genere de tertie persona e accordo

§58, §61


indefinite §60

definite §61

formas de caso §63

position §69-71, §73

omission de §59
pronomines personal indefinite

§61



pronomines reflexive:

formas de §66

uso §67-

position §69-71, §73


pronomines relative §74-77

indefmite §21

punctuation in propositiones

relative §16


pronunciation §1-12
punctuation §16, §52
question §116

uso de infinitivo in §92


sequentia de tempores §117
signos diacritic:

non usate in vocabulos de

lnterlingua §1

in "vocabulos hospite" §9


subjecto grammatic §59
subjunctivo:

non exprimite §80

forma exceptional 'sia': §111


substantivation:

de adjectivos §38-41

de demonstrativos §78

de numerales fractional

§126

de numerales ordinal §125



de infinitivo §83
substantivo §22-30

vide etiam NOMINES PROPRIE;

adjectivos usate como substantivos

§38-41

substantivos anglese con functiones



adjectival §28

derivatos ab substantivos §138-140

derivation de substantivos §138-141,

etiam §152, §154

e vide COMPOSITION


suffixos:

postsubstantival §138-140;

postadjectival §141-142,

etiam §45

postverbal §145-154



vide etiam §161b, §164

e AFFIXOS pro lista complete


superlativo:

vide COMPARATION

e SUPERLATIVO ABSOLUTE


superlativo absolute §36
syllabation §13


syntaxe:

Section: 'lntroduction'


tabulas e expositiones:

de pronunciation §4

comparation de adjectivos §37

adjectivos non substantivate

in -o/-a §41

pronomines personal §54, §68

adjectivos possessive §54

formas de tempore passive §112

conjugation §115

numerales §116

formas compositori numeral §128

particulas grammatic §134

suffixos §138-154, §161b, §164

prefixos §157-158, §161a


tempore futur §107
tampere passate §102-104

optional forma irregular de

'esser' §104
tempore passate perfecte §105

tempore presente §99-101

optional formas irregular §101


tempore presente perfecte

§105
tempores:



vide TEMPORE PRESENTE,

TEMPORE PASSATE, etc.




tempores composite:

vide TEMPORE PRESENTE PERFECTE,

TEMPORE PASSATE PERFECTE, TEMPORE

FUTUR, CONDITIONAL

position de pronomine in tempores

composite §70
terminationes:

de substantivos §22

de adjectivos §31, §136, §164

de adverbios §47

de demonstrativos §78

de verbos §81, §146

foranee §136

in orthographia collateral §15h

in derivation §136

que exprime genere natural §39-41,

§58, §78
textos exemplar:

Section: 'Appendice 3'


variante collateral de lnterlingua:

orthographia §15

formas special §57, §79, §116,

§134


adjectivos participial §97

verbos in -ere §148

Section: Textos exemplar: "Le

administration de recercas

scientific"


verbo §80-117

vide themas specific,

tempores, modos, etc,

auxiliar §101, §104-, §108, §112-

duple thema §146-150, etiam §152;

derivation ab verbos §145-154, etiam §83

derivation de verbos §140, §144,

e vide COMPOSITION.
verbos auxiliar:

in tempores passate composite §105

in futuro e conditional §108

in le passivo §112


verbos de duple thema §148
vocabulos foranee §9
vocabulos hospite §9

in variante collateral §15

plural §25




Altere material grammatic:

Grammatica de Interlingua per Alexander Gode e Hugh Blair

In interlingua, traduction de Selahattin Kayalar

Grammatica de interlingua 2006-01-13, traducite per Selahattin Kayalar 2005. "Iste traduction es multo indebitate a Piet Cleij (Paises Basse), Bent Andersen (Danmark), Ferenc Jeszensky (Hungaria), Stanley Mulaik (SUA - Statos Unite de America). Illes ha generosemente date lor tempore a examinar e ameliorar le texto." - Selahattin Kayalar, Pasadena, SUA. Augusto 2005. http://www.interlingua.com/grammatica

Grammatica de Interlingua. http://www.interlingua.com/e-libros-ig . 2006-01-14 10:15 Bibliotheca electronic in interlingua » identifica o registra te pro poter inviar commentarios

In hungaro
Grammatica de Interlingua de Gode & Blair in hungaro

In italiano
Grammatica de Interlingua in italiano

In portugese

Breve gramática de Interlíngua

Grammatica de Interlingua in portugese.

In francese

Grammaire de l'interlingua



In anglese

A grammar of Interlingua. Alexander Gode & Hugh Blair. IALA 1951. Un sito australian



In svedese

Minikurs - Curso minime Svenska Sällskapet för Interlingua - Societate Svedese pro Interlingua. Uttal - Pronunciation / Kort grammatik - Breve grammatica / Ordbildning / Construction de parolas / Textprov - Textos de proba



In finnese

INTERLINGUA. 2000-luvun kansainvälinen kieli. Esittely. Lyhyt kielioppi. (INTERLINGUA - Lingua international del 21e seculo. Presentation. Breve grammatica. In finnese). Ingvar Stenström. Cargabile ex rete como un file ZIP-comprimite



Construction de parolas

Le THEORIA DE CONSTRUCTION DE PAROLAS. Section "Introduction" del Interlingua-English Dictionary, pp. xlv-xlix.

Formation de parolas in Interlingua per Ingvar Stenström

Un colpo de vista historic al developpamento de Interlingua

IALA - International Auxiliary Language Association. General Report 1945







Selahattin Kayalar
le traductor distinguite de iste grammatica

Selahattin Kayalar, un ingeniero e Ph.D. turc qui labora al JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory), NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), Pasadena, California, ha sensationalmente traducte le "Interlingua - a grammar of the international language" per Alexander Gode e Hugh E. Blair, le grammatica principal de interlingua - a interlingua - 54 annos post le publication de iste libro in anglese ...!

Abona iste libro magnific! Vide http://www.interlingua.fi/ordikaya.htm








Alicun commentarios

Le equipa de traductores ha facite un obra meticulose. Le numero de errores es minime. Totevia, le texto original in anglese probabilemente ancora contine errores proque illo es prendite ex version scannate per alicun interlinguistas ante multe annos, e - como sapite - le OCR (Optimal Character Recorder) non functiona ben. Informa me de errores trovate, per favor!

§ 157. In version interlinguan: re- (in verbos) 2. = de novo, altere vice; p.ex. nove -> renovar;
In version anglese: re- (in verbs) 2. 'again' e.g. nove 'new' > renovar 'to renew';
Io suppone que "de novo" es correcte, sed etiam de nove es permittite, nonne? In IED: "nove adj new (1. not existing before; 2. not yet used or word); de nove again, anew, afresh." In iste grammatica: §48 Numerose EXPRESSIONES ADVERBIAL es unitates crystallisate e appare in iste forma in le Dictionario: in summa, de nove, (§ 48. Numerous ADVERBIAL PHRASES are crystallized units and appear as such in the Dictionary. de nove 'again, anew'

In Tabula de pronomines personal, §54 io ha corrigite Possesive -> Possessive.

§48 Le traductores ha corrigite le phrase
"A tres horas io es citate con mi parve soror a presso del dentista" ('At three o'clock I have an appointment with my little sister at the dentist') a
"A tres horas io ha un incontro con mi parve soror a presso del dentista".
An io e mi parve soror va incontrar nos duo a presso del dentista - o an nos va incontrar insimul le dentista ...?

Allan Kiviaho




Actualisate le 2008-11-05


Administrator de iste sito:


--------------------------
Allan Kiviaho
SILY - Suomen Interlinguayhdistys ry.
FILF - Föreningen för Interlingua i Finland
AFIL - Association Finlandese pro Interlingua







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