Grammatica de interlingua de Alexander Gode &



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§160 Composition active in Interlingua es ligate a, sed completemente libere intra le limites de, patronos analoge. Isto significa que - a parte de formas compositori que functiona como affixos virtual (vide §§161, 164 infra) - le elementos a junger in un nove composito debe cata uno occurrer in un o plure compositos traditional le quales servi a monstrar sub qual forma le parolas separate entra in le composito. Nota que le majoritate de compositos es ligate per un vocal como tracto compositori. Iste vocal dispare generalmente quando le prime sono del secunde elemento es de novo un vocal. Le vocal compositori es sovente sed non necessarimente le desinentia normal del prime elemento quando usate como un parola independente. In le grande majoritate del compositos le ligamine vocal es -o o -i.

In le exemplos sequente, composition active es illustrate secundo le patrono del equation: composito traditional-A e composito traditional-B permitte le formation del nove composito-C. - Nota: Alicunes del compositos date como nove formationes in Interlingua pote naturalmente exister in le vocabulario de un o altere lingua ethnic.



§ 160. Active compounding in Interlingua is bound to, but completely free within the limits of, analogical patterns. This means that -- apart from compounding forms which function as virtual affixes (see §§ 161, 164 below) -- the elements to be joined in a new compound must each occur in one or several traditional compounds which serve to show under what form the separate words enter into the compound. Note that most compounds are linked by a vowel compounding feature. This disappears generally when the first sound of the second element is again a vowel. The compounding vowel is often but not necessarily the normal ending of the first element when used as an independent word. In the great majority of compounds the vowel link is o or i.
 

In the following examples active compounding is illustrated within the pattern of the equation: traditional compound A and traditional compound B permit the formation of the new compound C. -- Note: Some of the compounds given as new Interlingua formations may naturally exist in the vocabulary of one or another ethnic language.



A B C Interlingua English

hepat-ologia appendic-ectomia hepatectomia: excision del hepate removal of the liver

cyano-typo claustro-phobia cyanophobia: timor del color blau fear of the color blue

scia-machia necro-mantia sciamantia: prophetia per umbras prophecy by shadows

gene-alogo idol-atria genealatria: adoration de descendita worship of descent

ligni-cole agri-cultura lignicultura: cultivation de ligno cultivation of wood

pseudo-classic micro-cosmic pseudocosmic: pseudocosmic pseudocosmic




§161 Un numero considerabile de vocabulos occurre si frequentemente in compositos que lor formas compositori (insimul con le vocal compositori si illo existe) differe pauco de un prefixo o un suffixo. Illos que es a usar liberemente in qualcunque combination de senso con un altere elemento (que pote sed non necessarimente debe occurrer in compositos traditional) es listate infra, e es sequite per un o plure exemplos traditional e nove formationes. Illos se monstrara specialmente utile pro varie requirimentos scientific e technic. Cf. etiam §164 infra.

------------------------------


a) Prime elementos o prefixos:
------------------------------

aero-


(forma combinante de aere); p.ex.

aeronave: nave aeree;

aerodynamic;

aerostatica: statica de aere;

nove formationes:

aeropression: pression de aere;

aerophobia;

aerotherapia: therapia per aere;

aerotransporto: transporto aeree;

- 98 -
archi-

= principal, in chef, eminente; p.ex.

archiepiscopo: episcopo principal;

nove formationes:

archidarwinista;

archilegal: legal sin le minime dubita;

electro-


(forma combinante de electric, electricitate,

etc.); p.ex.

electromotor;

electrotherapia: therapia per electricitate;

nove formationes:

electropropulsion: propulsion per

electricitate;

electropiano: piano electric;

equi-

(forma combinante de eque con le



signification de equal) = equal, equalmente;

p.ex.


equilateral;

equivaler: esser equivalente;

nove formationes:

equicurvate: habente duo curvas equal;

equisonantia: modo identic de sonar;
hetero-

= altere, differente; p.ex.

heterosexual;

nove formation:

heteroracial: de racias differente;
homo-

(ante vocales hom-)

= mesme, similar; p.ex.

homologe;

homocentric;

nove formationes:

homolithic: consistente del mesme petra;

homopersonal: consistente de un e le mesme

persona;
homeo-

(ante vocales home-)

= simile, similar; p.ex.

homeopathic;

nove formationes:

homeolithic: consistente de petras similar;

homeoracial: de racias similar;

- 99 -
hydro-

= aqua; p.ex.

hydroelectric;

hydrocephalo;

nove formationes:

hydrosaturate: saturate per aqua;

hydrochimia: chimia del aqua;


iso-

(synonymo de equi-)

= equal, uniforme, similar; p.ex.

isometric;

isodynamic;

nove formationes:

isoradial: habente radios equal;

isoglotte: parlante le mesme lingua;


macro-

(sovente contrastate con micro-)

= longe, grande; p.ex.

macroscopic;

macroseismo: seismo major;

nove formationes:

macroorganismo: grande organismo (visibile

per le oculos nude);

macropetale: habente petalos grande;
micro-

(sovente contrastate con macro-)

= parve; microscopic; p.ex.

microcosmo;

microcephale: habente un cranio parve;

nove formationes:

microcellular: de cellulas microscopic;

microphono;


neo-

= nove, moderne; p.ex.

neolatin;

neonato: baby justo nascite;

nove formationes:

neoromantic;

neo-jeffersonismo;

- 100 -
omni-

(forma combinante de omne)

= omne, tote, cata; p.ex.

omnivore: mangiante qualcunque cosa;

omnipotente;

nove formationes:

omniaudiente: audiente toto;

omniprotector: protector de toto;
paleo-

(sovente contrastate con neo-)

= vetule, ancian; p.ex.

paleozoic;

nove formationes:

paleohistoria: historia ancian;

paleoindoeuropee: indo-europee primitive;
pan-

= includente toto; p.ex.

panamerican;

nove formationes:

pandualismo: dualismo universal;

panarchia: governamento [regno] universal;


photo-

1. = lumine;

2. = photographia; p.ex.

photographia;

nove formationes:

photoanalyse: analyse de o per lumine;

photosculptura: sculptura per medio de

photographias;


proto-

= prime, primitive, prototypic; p.ex.

prototypo;

nove formationes:

protoanimal;

protoreligion: prototypo de religion;


pseudo-

= false, apparentemente similar, pretendite;

p.ex.

pseudoclassic;



nove formationes:

pseudohuman;

pseudotolerantia: false apparentia de

tolerantia;

- 101 -
quasi-

= quasi, a un certe grado, simile a; p.ex.

quasi-delicto;

nove formationes:

quasi-ver;

quasi-confidentia;


radio-

1. = de radios o radiation; radioactive

2. = (receptor de) radio; p.ex.

radiographia;

radiodiffunder: transmitter;

nove formationes:

radiotheoria: theoria de radiation;

radiopropaganda: publicitate per radio;


tele-

= lontan, distante; p.ex.

telescopio;

television;

nove formationes:

telediffunder: transmitter a distantia;

teleanalyse: analyse a distantia;

--------------------------------


b) Secunde elementos o suffixos:
--------------------------------
Nota: Le vocales initial indicate in le forma infra es le norma. In combinationes con prime elementos que ha un patrono establite de composition, le vocal normal pote disparer o esser reimplaciate per un altere;
p.ex.
tele- (le qual entra in compositos sin un vocal de composition) + -ometro -> telemetro.

-icida


= occisor; p.ex.

matricida: occisor de su matre;

nove formationes:

bufonicida: occisor de bufon;

draconicida: occisor de dracon;
-icidio

= occision; p.ex.

matricidio: occision de su proprie matre;

nove formationes:

odoricidio: occision de odores;

hippicidio: occision de cavallos;


-omane

= demente, folle, maniac; p.ex.

megalomane (adj);

nove formationes:

alcoholomane: appetente le alcohol;

telephonomane: qui depende dementemente del

uso del telephone;

Nota: Le derivatos -omano [un homine assi

afflicte], -omana [un femina assi afflicte], e

-omania [le affliction ipse] pote


-ometro

= instrumento de mesura; p.ex. serometro;

nove formationes:

crystallometro;

cardiometro;
-ographo

1. = instrumento que scribe o registra;

2. = persona qui registra; p.ex.

seismographo;

biographo;

nove formationes:

heliographo;

fluxographo: instrumento que mesura quantitate

o velocitate del fluxo;

Nota: Le derivato -ographia [systema o

technica de registration] pote equalmente

esser usate como un suffixo.


-ologo

= persona experte o specialisate in ...; p.ex.

graphologo;

nove formationes:

petroleologo: experto in petroleo;

scientiologo: studente del organisation del

scientias;

Nota: Le derivato -ologia [scientia] pote

equalmente esser usate como un suffixo.

-103-
-ophile

(sovente contrastate con -ophobe)

= qui ama ..., qui es affectionate de ...;

p.ex.

bibliophile (adj);



nove formationes:

heliophile: qui affectiona le sol;

palestinophile;

Nota:


Le derivatos -ophilo [un homine assi

characterisate], -ophila [un femina assi

characterisate], e -ophilia [le

tendentia ipse] pote equalmente esser usate

como suffixos.
-ophobe

(sovente contrastate con -ophile)

= qui time, non ama, o ha aversion a ...;

p.ex.


anglophobe;

nove formation:

hispanophobe;

Nota: Le derivatos -ophobo [un homine assi

characterisate], -ophoba [un femina assi

characterisate], e -ophobia [le tendentia

ipse] pote equalmente esser usate como

suffixos.


-oscopo

= scientista qui examina ...; p.ex.

cranioscopo;

nove formation:

röntgenoscopo: examinator de radios Röntgen;

Nota:


Le derivatos

-oscopio [le instrumento que servi le -oscopo],

-oscopia [le campo del studio], e

-oscopic [pertinente al studio] pote equalmente

esser usate como suffixos.

§162 Concernente numerales composite, cf. §119

supra; concernente numerales como elementos

de composition §128.



§ 161. A considerable number of words occur so frequently in compounds that their compounding form (together with the compounding vowel if any) differs little from a prefix or suffix. Those to be used freely in any meaningful combination with another element (which may but need not occur in traditional compounds) are listed below followed by one or several traditional examples and new formations. They will prove especially useful for various scientific and technical requirements. Cf. also § 164 below.
 
 

a) First elements or prefixes


aero- (combining form of acre 'air'),

e.g.


aeronave 'airship,'

aerodynamic, aerostatica 'aerostatics';

new formations:

aeropression 'air pressure,'

aerophobia, aerotherapia 'aerotherapy,'

aerotransporto 'air transport'

archi- ('arch-, archi-'),

e.g.


archiepiscopo 'archbishop';

new formations:

archidarwinista 'arch-Darwinist',

archilegal 'archlegal, legal beyond the

shadow of a doubt'
electro- (combining form of electric,

electricitate, etc.

'electric, electricity, etc.'),

e.g.


electromotor, electrotherapia

'electrotherapy';

new formations:

electropropulsion 'propulsion by

electricity,'

electropiano 'electric piano'


equi- (combining form of eque with the

meaning of equal 'equal, equally'),

e.g.

equilateral,



equivaler 'to be equivalent';

new formations:

equicurvate 'having two equal curves,'

equisonantia 'equal sounding'

hetero- ('other, different'),

e.g. heterosexual;

new formation:

heteroracial 'of different races'

homo- (before vowels hom-; 'same'),

e.g.


homologe 'homologous,'

homocentric;

new formations:

homolithic 'consisting of the same stone,'

homopersonal 'having one person'

homeo- (before vowels home-; 'like,

similar'),

e.g.


homeopathic;

new formations:

homeolithic 'consisting of similar stone,'

homeoracial 'of similar races'

hydro- ('water'),

e.g.


hydroelectric, hydrocephalo 'hydrocephalus';

new formations:

hydrosaturate 'water-saturated,'

hydrochimia 'chemistry of water'

iso- (synonym of equi-; 'equal'),

e.g.


isometric, isodynamic;

new formations:

isoradial 'having equal radii,'

isoglotte 'speaking the same language'


macro- ('long, large,' often contrasted with

micro-),

e.g.


macroscopic, macroseismo 'major earthquake';

new formations:

macroorganismo 'large organism (visible to the

naked eye),'

macropetale 'large-petaled'

micro- ('small; microscopic,' often contrasted

with macro-),

e.g.


microcosmo 'microcosm,'

microcephale 'small-skulled';

new formations:

microcellular 'of microscopic cells,'

microphono 'microphone'
neo- ('new, modern'),

e.g.


neolatin, neonato 'new-born baby';

new formations:

neoromantic,

neo-jeffersonismo 'neo-Jeffersonianism'


omni- (combining form of omne 'all, every'),

e.g.

omnivore 'eating anything,'



omnipotente 'onmipotent';

new formations:

omniaudiente 'hearing everything,'

omniprotector 'all-protector'

paleo- ('old, ancient'; often contrasted with

neo-),


e.g.

paleozoic;

new formations:

paleohistoria 'early history,'

paleoindoeuropean 'primitive Indo-European'
pan- ('including all'),

e.g.


panamerican 'Pan-American';

new formations:

pandualismo 'universal dualism,'

panarchia 'universal rule'


photo- (1. 'light'; 2. 'photography'),

e.g.


photographia 'photography';

new formations:

photoanalyse 'analysis of or by means of

light';


photosculptura 'photosculpture'

proto- ('first, primitive, prototypal'),

e.g.

prototypo 'prototype';



new formations:

protoanimal,

protoreligion 'prototype of religion'
pseudo- ('pseudo-'),

e.g.


pseudoclassic;

new formations:

pseudohuman 'pseudohuman(e),'

pseudotolerantia 'pseudotolerance'

quasi- ('quasi-'),

e.g.


quasi-delicto 'quasi delict';

new formations:

quasi-ver 'quasi true,'

quasi-confidentia 'quasi trust'


radio- (1. 'ray'; 2. 'radio'),

e.g.


radiographia 'x-ray photography';

radiodiffunder 'to broadcast';

new formations:

radiotheoria 'ray theory';

radiopropaganda 'radio publicity'

tele- ('far off'),

e.g.

telescopio 'telescope,'



television;

new formations:

telediffunder 'to broadcast long-distance,'

teleanalyse 'analysis at a distance'


b) Second elements or suffixes.

Note: The initial vowels indicated in the form below are the norm. In combinations with first elements which have an established compounding pattern, the normal vowel may disappear or be replaced by another. E.g. tele- (which enters into compounds without a compounding vowel) plus -ometro would yield telemetro.


-icida ('killer'),

e.g.


matricida 'killer of his mother';

new formations:

bufonicida 'toad killer,'

draconicida 'dragon killer'


-icidio ('killing'),

e.g.


matricidio 'killing of one's mother';

new formations:

odoricidio 'killing of odors,'

hippicidio 'killing of horses'

-omane ('mad'),

e.g.


megalomane 'megalomaniac (adj.)';

new formations:

alcoholomane 'alcohol-craving,'

telephonomane 'madly addicted to the use of

the telephone.'

Note:


The derivatives

-omano 'a man thus afflicted,'

-omana 'a woman thus afflicted,' and

-omania 'the affliction itself'

may likewise be used as suffixes.
-ometro ('measuring instrument'),

e.g.


serometro 'serometer';

new formations:

crystallometro 'crystallometer,'

cardiometro 'cardiometer'


-ographo

(1. 'instrument that writes or records';

2. '-grapher'), e.g.

seismographo 'seismograph,'

biographo 'biographer';

new formations:

heliographo 'heliograph,'

fluxographo 'instrument measuring quantity or

speed of flow.'

Note:


The derivative -ographia 'system or technique

of recording' may likewise be used as a

suffix.
-ologo ('-ologue, -ologer, -ologist'), e.g.

graphologo 'graphologist';

new formations:

petroleologo 'oil expert';

scientiologo 'student of the organization of

the sciences.'

Note:

The derivative



-ologia 'science'

may likewise be used as a suffix.

-ophile ('loving, fond of'; often contrasted

with -ophobe),

e.g.

bibliophile (adj.);



new formations:

heliophile 'fond of the sun,'

palestinophile 'Palestinophile.'

Note:


The derivatives

-ophilo 'a man thus characterized,'

-ophila 'a woman thus characterized,' and

-ophilia 'the tendency itself'

may likewise be used as suffixes.
-ophobe ('fearing, disliking'; often

contrasted with -ophile),

e.g.

anglophobe;



new formation:

hispanophobe 'Hispanophobe.'

Note:

The derivatives



-ophobo 'a man thus characterized,'

-ophoba 'a woman thus characterized,' and

-ophobia 'the tendency itself'

may likewise be used as suffixes.


-oscopo ('-oscopist'),

e.g.


cranioscopo 'cranioscopist';

new formation:

röntgenoscopo 'x-ray examiner.'

Note:


The derivatives

-oscopio 'the instrument serving the

-oscopist,'

-oscopia 'the field of study,' and

-oscopic 'pertaining to the study'

may likewise be used as suffixes.

§ 162. On compound numerals, cf. § 119 above; on numerals as compounding elements § 128.




------------------------
III Derivation composite
------------------------

§163 COMPOSITION per prefixos como etiam per le combination de parolas complete es sovente complite IN CONJUNCTION CON DERIVATION per affixos. (Cf. §155 supra.) Un formation como infiltrar non es, parlante strictemente, un composito de 'in' plus 'filtrar', sed un derivato composite de 'in' plus 'filtro' per medio del suffixo verbal -ar. Similarmente heliocentric non es un derivato de 'heliocentro' (que non existe), sed de helio- plus 'centro' per le suffixo adjectival -ic. Additional exemplos fortuite es:


 
 

§ 163. III. -- COMPOUNDING by prefixes as well as by the combination of full-fledged words is often carried out IN CONJUNCTION WITH DERIVATION by affixes. (Cf. § 155 above.) A formation like infiltrar 'to infiltrate' is not, strictly speaking, a compound of in plus filtrar but a compound derivative from in plus filtro 'filter' by means of the verbal suffix -ar. Similarly heliocentric is not a derivative from *heliocentro (which does not exist) but from helio- plus centro by means of the adjectival suffix ic. Further random examples are:


semi- cupa semicupio: sitz bath (banio con un sede)

uni- latere unilateral

re- fresc refrescar: to refresh

ad- commode accommodar: to accommodate





§164 Un numero de substantivos e verbos rende adjectivos per un processo de derivation compositori in le qual le suffixo es le desinentia adjectival simple (-e o nihil). Exemplos es:

§ 164. A number of nouns and verbs yield adjectives by a process of compounding derivation in which the suffix is the simple adjectival ending (-e or nothing). Examples are:

~ subst. adjectivo

------ ------------

late collo laticolle habente collo grosse

albe flor albiflor habente flores blanc

cruce forma cruciforme habente forma de cruce

multe latere multilatere habente multe lateres

mixte linea mixtilinee habente lineas mixte

crasse lingua crassilingue habente lingua crasse

omne modo omnimode multiplice

sol pede solipede habente un sol pede

tres remo trireme habente tres remos

hamo rostro hamirostre habente rostro como hamo

unda sono undisone con sono undeante

poly- syllabo polysyllabe con multe syllabas

vino coler vinicole cultivante vino

melle fluer melliflue fluente como melle

saxo franger saxifrage frangente petras; que frange petras

verme fugir vermifuge que face vermes fugir

ventre loquer ventriloque parlante per le ventre

vive parer vivipare que parturi [produce] prole vive

igne vomir ignivome vomiente igne

carne vorar carnivore que mangia carne

etc.

collo 'neck' added to late 'wide' yields laticolle 'thick-necked'

flor 'flower' added to albe 'white' yelds albiflor 'white-flowered'

forms 'form' added to cruce 'cross' yields cruciforme 'cross-shaped'

latere 'side' added to multe 'many' yields multilatere 'many-sided'

lines 'line' added to mixte 'mixed' yields mixtilinee 'mixtilinear'

lingua 'tongue' added to crasse 'fat' yields crassilingue 'thick-tongued'

modo 'mode' added to omne 'all' yields omnimode 'multifarious'

pede 'foot' added to sol 'alone' yields solipede 'one-footed'

remo 'oar' added to tres 'three' yields trireme 'three-oared'

rostro 'beak' added to hamo 'hook' yields hamirostre 'hamirostrate'

sono 'sound' added to unda 'wave' yields undisone 'wavelike (in sound)'

syllabo 'syllable' added to poly- 'many' yields polysyllabe 'polysyllabic'
coler 'to cultivate' added to vino 'wine' yields vinicole 'wine-growing'

fluer 'to flow' added to melle 'honey' yields melliflue 'mellifluous'

franger 'to break' added to saxo 'rock' yields saxifrage 'saxifragous'

fugir 'to flee' added to verme 'worm' yields vermifuge 'vermifuge'

loquer 'to talk' added to ventre 'belly' yields ventriloque 'ventriloquous'

pater 'to bear, give

birth to' added to vive 'alive' yields vivipare 'viviparous'

vomir 'to vomit' added to igne 'fire' yields ignivome 'vomiting fire'

vorar 'to devour' added to carne 'meat' yields carnivore 'carnivorous'

etc.


Cata uno de iste formationes pote servir como le modello pro formationes additional que involve le mesme secunde elemento. Iste secunde elemento pote esser reguardate e usate como un suffixo.

Le vocal compositori es considerate parte del suffixo como illustrate in le exemplos sequente:



Any one of these formations can serve as the model for further formations involving the same second element. This second element may be regarded and used as a suffix.

The compounding vowel is to be considered part of it as illustrated in the following examples:



-iforme gambiforme formate como un gamba

milliforme de un mille formas

-ilingue acutilingue habente un lingua acute;

de humor mordace

lentilingue parlante lentemente

-ipede cervipede habente pedes como un cervo

unipede habente un sol pede

-isone americanisone sonante como un americano

tonitrisone sonante como tonitro

-icole pinicole cultivante pinos

capillicole cultivante capillos

-iloque multiloque parlante multo

folliloque parlante como un folle

-ipare bufonipare parturiente bufones

ignipare producente igne

-ivome injuriivome sputante insultos

aurivome sputante auro

etc.

-iforme : gambiforme 'leg-shaped' ; milliforme 'of a thousand shapes'

-ilingue: acutilingue 'sharp-tongued' ; lentilingue 'slow-tongued'

-ipede : cervipede 'deer-footed' ; unipede 'one-footed'

-isone : americanisone 'American-sounding

tonitrisone 'sounding like thunder'

-icole : pinicole 'pine-growing' ; capillicole 'hair-growing'

-iloque : multiloque 'talking much' ; folliloque 'talking like a madman'

-ipare : bufonipare 'giving birth to toads' ; ignipare 'fire-bearing'

-ivome : injuriivome 'spitting insults' ; aurivome 'spitting gold'

etc.

Nota: Suffixos de iste sorta es formas compositori de substantivos e verbos correspondente. In tanto que tal substantivos e verbos ha lor proprie derivatos, istes pote equalmente esser usate in nove formationes parallel al typo illustrate supra. P.ex., proque -icole veni del verbo 'coler' e proque 'coler' ha derivatos como 'cultor', 'cultura', etc., il es possibile formar parallel a omne formationes in -icole alteres in -icultor, -icultura, etc.

In consequentia formationes libere como


Note: Suffixes of this kind are compounding forms of corresponding nouns and verbs. In so far as such nouns and verbs have derivatives of their own, these may likewise be used in new formations parallel to the type illustrated above. E.g., as -icole comes from the verb coler and as coler has derivatives like cultor, cultura, etc., it is possible to form parallel to all formations in -icole others in -icultor, -icultura, etc.

Hence free formations like


acutilingual,

tonitrisonante,

pinicultura,

multiloquentia,

igniparente,

etc.




§165 LE PREPOSITIONES E CONJUNCTIONES include un numero de compositos que non pote servir como modellos pro formationes additional. Parlante strictemente il ha nulle construction de parolas con respecto a ulle de iste duo partes del discurso. Formas como depost, proque, malgrado, etc. es unic e non suggere ulle altere formationes parallel.

Il pote esser notate totevia que un numero de prepositiones corresponde a conjunctiones parallel in que. Exemplos es:



§ 165. PREPOSITIONS AND CONJUNCTIONS include a number of compounds which cannot serve as models for additional formations. Strictly speaking there is no word building in regard to either of these parts of speech. Forms like depost, proque, malgrado, etc. are unique and suggest no further parallel formations.
 

It may be noted however that a number of prepositions correspond to parallel conjunctions in que. Examples are:



Preposition Conjunction

------------------------- ---------------------------------------

ante 'before (prep)': durante que 'before (conj)'

depost 'afterwards' : depost que 'since'

durante 'during' : durante que 'whilst'

malgrado 'despite' : malgrado que 'although'

per 'through' : perque 'because'

post 'after' : post que 'since, because'

pro 'for' : proque 'because'

salvo 'save' : salvo que 'save, but that'

secundo 'along' : secundo que 'according as'

ultra 'beyond' : ultra que 'aside from the fact that'

viste 'in view of' : viste que 'considering that'


Quando parolas como considerante, excepte, etc. es usate con functiones prepositional, le addition del conjunction que los convertera in locutiones conjunctive.

Considerante su etate, ille es multo vivace.


 

Considerante que ille es multo vetule, ille es bastante vivace.



When words like considerante, excepte, etc. are used with prepositional functions, the addition of the conjunction que will make them into conjunctional locutions.

Considerante su etate, ille es multo vivace


'Considering his age, he is quite lively'

Considerante que ille es multo vetule, ille es bastante vivace


'Considering that he is very old, he is rather lively'



§166 Locutiones prepositional e conjunctive es multo numerose e nove locutiones pote esser formate tanto liberemente como in anglese.

§ 166. Prepositional and conjunctional locutions arc very numerous and new ones can be formed as freely as in English.

con le exception de 'except, with the exception of'

per medio de 'through, by means of'

pro le beneficio de 'for the benefit of, in behalf of"

in respecto a 'in regard to, with reference to'

supponite que 'supposing that'




§167 Nota: Como dictate per requirimentos practic, il es possibile usar duo prepositiones insimul secundo le modello del anglese {in between} que differe del prepositiones composite anglese como {into} e {upon} mermente per le orthographia separate del duo elementos.

§ 167. Note: As dictated by practical requirements, it is possible to use two prepositions together after the pattern of English 'in between' which differs from compound prepositions like 'into' and 'upon' merely through the separate spelling of the two elements.

Io va a in le foresta: Io entra al foresta. 'I go into (to in) the forest'

Io va in le foresta: Io ambula in le foresta. ('I walk in the forest' or 'walk into the forest')

Illo cadeva a inter le libros. 'It fell down (to a place) in between the books'

Illa te accompaniara usque a trans le montanias. 'She will accompany you to (a place) beyond the

mountains'




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