Grammatica de interlingua de Alexander Gode &



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II.A.a Prefixos general
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§157 Le PREFIXOS GENERAL sequente es usate pro modificar substantivos, adjectivos, e verbos como indicate in cata occurrentia:

ad- (in verbos) = a, verso, a in; p.ex. judicar -> adjudicar; currer -> accurrer: venir currente; costa -> accostar: approchar le costa, adressar o diriger se a (alicuno);
nove formationes: rider -> arrider: rider se de;
Nota: Per extension del signification 'motion verso', ad- exprime etiam 'cambio in', 'augmento de intensitate', etc. P.ex. clar -> acclarar: facer plus clar. - Subjecte a assimilation ante consonantes altere que -d, -h, -j, -m, e -v.
 
 

ante- (in substantivos, adjectivos, e verbos) = precedente in tempore o spatio; p.ex. camera -> antecamera; penultime -> antepenultime; diluvio -> antediluvian; poner -> anteponer;


nove formationes: eternitate -> anteeternitate; margine -> antemarginal [Botanica]; arar -> antearar: arar preliminarmente (ante le ver aratura);
Nota: Synonymo de pre-. Antonymo de post-.
 
 
 

anti- (in substantivos e adjectivos) = opponite a, contra; opposite; p.ex. arctic -> antarctic; papa -> antipapa;


nove formationes: idealista -> antiidealista; Freud -> antifreudian;
Nota: Le variante ant- (non in uso active) appare ante vocales e -h, p.ex. helminthe: verme intestinal -> anthelminthic: vermifuge; Antonymo de pro-.
 

auto- (in substantivos e adjectivos) = ipse, (alicuno/alique) mesme, de o per se mesme; p.ex. biographia -> autobiographia; mobile -> automobile;


nove formation: analyse -> autoanalyse;
Nota: Le variante aut- (non in uso active) appare ante vocales, p.ex. -onym -> autonymo;
 
 

circum- (in verbos e adjectivos) = circa, in position o motion plus o minus circular; p.ex. navigar -> circumnavigar; polo -> circumpolar; vicin -> circumvicin;


nove formation: zenit -> circumzenital [Meteorologia];
Nota: Le variante circu- (non in uso active) appare ante -i, p.ex. ir -> circuir: ir circum;
 
 

co- (in substantivos e adjectivos) = juncte, associate; p.ex. national -> conational: del mesme pais; hereditario -> cohereditario;


nove formationes: naufrago: persona de un nave destruite -> conaufrago: companion naufrago; ideal -> coidealista: adherente del mesme ideal;
Nota: Coincide con co-, un variante de con- usate ante vocales e -h.
 

con- (in substantivos, adjectivos, e verbos) = con, insimul, junctemente, mutualmente; p.ex. matre -> commatre: matrina; latere -> collateral; temporanee -> contemporanee; exister -> coexister; religion -> correligionario;


nove formationes: generic -> congeneric; fixar -> confixar: fixar junctemente; partitario: adherente de un partito -> compartitario: adherente del mesme partito;
Nota: Appare como co- ante -h e vocales; col- ante -l; com- ante -b, -m, -p; cor- ante -r; le variante co- coincide con le prefixo co- supra.
 
 

contra- (in substantivos e verbos) = contra, opponente; contrari a; p.ex. balancia -> contrabalancia; dicer -> contradicer;


nove formationes: manifesto -> contramanifesto; fluer -> contrafluer;
 
 

dis- (in substantivos, adjectivos, e verbos)


1. = a parte, separatemente; dividite, dispersate; p.ex. rumper -> disrumper;
nove formation: jacer -> disjicer: dispersar (circum se), jectar in omne directiones;
2. = non ..., contrari o opposite de ...; p.ex. contente -> discontente; harmonia -> disharmonia;
nove formationes: credentia -> discredentia; acido -> disacidificar;
Nota: In senso (2) synonymo de non- e in-.
 
 

ex- (in substantivos) = precedente, previe; p.ex. presidente -> ex-presidente;


nove formation: convicto -> ex-convicto;
Nota: Preferibilemente partite per un tracto de union.

extra-
1. (in substantivos, adjectivos, e verbos) = extra, al exterior, externe; foras le sphera de ...; p.ex. dorso -> extradorso [Architectura]; muro -> extramural; vaso: (sanguine) vasculo -> extravasar [Anatomia];


nove formation: lege -> extralegal;
2. (in adjectivos) = multo, extraordinarimente, plus que usual; p.ex. fin -> extrafin: superfin;
nove formation: longe -> extralonge;
Nota: In senso (1) antonymo de intra-.
 
 

gran- (in nomines del parentela) = ... "grande", "ulterior"; p.ex. patre -> granpatre; amita -> granamita;


nove formation: papa -> granpapa;
Nota: Pro reduplication additional, le prefixo pro- es disponibile; p.ex. progranamita: gran-gran-amita.

in-
I. (in verbos) = in, a in; p.ex. ducer -> inducer;


nove formation: capsula -> incapsular: includer in un capsula;
Nota: Appare como il- ante -l; im- ante -b, -m, e -p; ir- ante -r; exprime position in o super, motion a in, cambio a in, etc. Le synonymo en- occurre in parolas technic, §158.
II. (in substantivos e adjectivos) = non ...; carente de ...; manco de ... p.ex. action -> inaction; regular -> irregular;
nove formation: disciplina -> indisciplina;
Nota: Appare como i- ante -gn; il- ante -l; im- ante -b, -m, -p; ir- ante -r. Synonymo de dis- e non-.
 

inter- (in substantivos, adjectivos, e verbos) = inter, intra; p.ex. linear -> interlinear; acto: (de un drama) -> interacto; maxilla -> intermaxiliar;


nove formation: racia -> interracial;
 

intra- (in adjectivos) = in, intra, al interior, interne; p.ex. venose -> intravenose;


nove formation: pelvic -> intrapelvic [Anatomia];
Nota: Antonymo de extra-.

intro- (in verbos) = intro, verso le interior; p.ex. ducer: conducer -> introducer;


nove formation: suger -> introsuger;
Nota: Formationes specific pote esser date antonymos in extro-; p.ex. introversion - extroversion.
 

mis- (in verbos) = in modo mal, false, o incorrecte; p.ex. interpretar -> misinterpretar;


nove formation: nominar -> misnominar;
 
 

non- (in substantivos e adjectivos) = non ..., manco o absentia de ...; p.ex. conformista -> nonconformista; senso -> nonsenso;


nove formationes: cyclic -> noncyclic; usage -> nonusage;
Nota: Synonymo de dis- e in-.
 

per- (in verbos)


1. = (passante tote le via) per ..., a transverso de (tote le ...); p.ex. forar -> perforar;
nove formation: vader -> pervader;
2. = completemente, toto; extrememente, multo; p.ex. venir -> pervenir: succeder venir;
nove formation: leger -> perleger: leger in detalio;
Nota: In senso (1) synonymo de trans-. Etiam usate como un prefixo technic con substantivos e adjectivos chimic. P.ex. oxydo: (...que contine oxygeno) -> peroxydo: (...que contine le maximo de oxygeno);
nove formation: boric -> perboric.
 

post- (in substantivos, adjectivos, e verbos) = post, sequente in tempore, loco, o ordine; p.ex. poner -> postponer: ajornar, procrastinar; glacie -> postglacial;


nove formationes: pagar -> postpagar: pagar in arretrato; impressionista -> postimpressionista;
Nota: Antonymo de pre- (e ante-).
 

pre- (in substantivos, adjectivos, e verbos) = precedente in tempore, position o rango; p.ex. dominar -> predominar; historia -> prehistoria; matur -> prematur;


nove formationes: gustar -> pregustar; newtonian -> prenewtonian;
Nota: Synonymo de ante-, antonymo de post-.
 
 

pro-
1. (in substantivos e adjectivos) = pro, in favor de, prendente le partito de ...; p.ex. semita -> prosemitic; german -> progerman;


2. (in verbos) = avante, in avante; p.ex. longe -> prolongar;
nove formation: traher -> protraher;
Nota: In senso (1) antonymo de anti-. Pro le uso in nomines de parentela, vide gran- supra.
 

re- (in verbos)


1. = retro, a retro; p.ex. flecter -> reflecter;
nove formation: lancear -> relancear;
2. = de novo (de nove? , altere vice; p.ex. nove -> renovar;
nove formation: colonisar -> recolonisar;
Nota: In senso (1) synonymo del plus explicite retro-.
 

retro- (in verbos) = retro, a retro; p.ex. ceder -> retroceder;


nove formation: ducer: conducer, guidar -> retroducer: ducer a retro;
Nota: Synonymo del minus explicite re-. Formationes specific pote esser date antonymos in pro-; p.ex. retrocession = procession.

sub- (in substantivos, adjectivos, e verbos)


1. = sub, infra; p.ex. lingua -> sublingual [Anatomia];
nove formation: currente -> subcurrente;
2. = subordinate; subdivision de ...; p.ex. division -> subdivision;
nove formation: chef -> subchef: vicechef;
3. = un pauco, legier(mente); p.ex. bullir -> subbullir;
nove formation: inflammation [Medicina] -> subinflammation [Medicina];
Nota: Subjecte a assimilation ante -c, -f, -g, -m, -p, -r. Antonymo de super-.
 
 

super- (in substantivos, adjectivos, e verbos)


1. = super, supra; p.ex. poner -> superponer; scarpa -> superscarpa;
nove formation: collar -> supercollar;
2. = multo; excessivemente, troppo de; p.ex. pagar -> superpagar;
nove formation: critic -> supercritic;
Nota: Antonymo de sub-.
 
 
 

trans- (in substantivos, adjectivos, e verbos) 1. = trans, ultra; superante; p.ex. portar -> transportar; Alpes -> transalpin; ration -> transrational;


nove formation: uranium -> transuranic; 2. = per, a tranverso de; p.ex. parer -> transparer;
nove formation: luminar -> transluminar;
Nota: In senso (1) synonymo de ultra-, in senso (2) de per-.
 
 
 

ultra- (in substantivos, adjectivos, e verbos) = extra, trans, ultra; p.ex. passar -> ultrapassar; violette -> ultraviolette;


nove formationes: micrometro -> ultramicrometro; stella -> ultrastellar;
Nota: Synonymo de per-.
 
 

vice- (in substantivos) = uno qui assume le position de ...; p.ex. rege -> vicerege;


nove formation: director -> vicedirector;

 
 

§ 157. II.A.a. -- The following GENERAL PREFIXES are used to modify nouns, adjectives, and/or verbs as indicated in every instance:

ad- (in verbs) 'to, toward, into' e.g. judicar 'to judge' > adjudicar 'to adjudge'; currer 'to run' > accurrer 'to come running'; costa 'coast' > accostar 'to accost';


new formations: rider 'to laugh' > arrider 'to laugh at'
Note: By extension of the meaning 'motion toward,' ad- expresses also 'change into,' 'increase of intensity,' etc. E.g. clar 'clear' > acclarar 'to make clearer, clarify.' --Subject to assimilation before consonants other than d, h, j, m, and v.

ante- (in nouns, adjectives, and verbs) 'preceding in time or space' e.g. camera 'room' > antecamera 'anteroom'; penultime 'penultimate' > antepenultime 'antepenultimate'; diluvio 'deluge' > antediluvian; poner 'to place' > anteponer 'to prepose';


new formations: eternitate 'eternity' > anteeternitate 'ante-eternity'; margine 'margin' > antemarginal [Bot.]; arar 'to plow' > antearar 'to plow before hand (preliminary to the real plowing)'
Note: Synonym of pre-. Antonym of post-.

anti- (in nouns and adjectives) 'opposed to, against; opposite' e.g. arctic > antarctic; papa 'Pope' > antipapa 'antipope';


new formations: idealista 'idealist' > antiidealista 'anti-idealist'; Freud > antifreudian 'anti-Freudian'
Note: The variant ant- (not in active use) appears before vowels and h, e.g. helminthe 'intestinal worm' > anthelminthic 'anthelmintic, vermifuge.' Antonym of pro-.

auto- (in nouns and adjectives) 'self' e.g. biographia 'biography' > autobiographia 'autobiography'; mobile 'mobile' > automobile 'self-propelling, automobile';


new formation: analyse 'analysis' > autoanalyse 'autoanalysis'
Note: The variant aut. (not in active use) appears before vowels, e.g. onym 'name' > autonymo 'autonym.'

circum- (in verbs and adjectives) 'about, around' e.g. navigar 'to navigate' > circumnavigar 'to circumnavigate'; polo 'pole' > circumpolar; vicin 'neighboring' > circumvicin 'circumjacent';


new formation: zenit 'zenith' > circumzenital [Meteorol.] 'circumzenithal'
Note: The variant circu- (not in active use) appears before i, e.g. ir 'to go' > circuir 'to go around, circuit.'

co- (in nouns and adjectives) 'joint, fellow' e.g. national > conational 'from the same country, conational'; hereditario 'heir' > cohereditario 'coheir';


new formations: naufrago 'shipwrecked person' > conaufrago 'fellow shipwrecked person'; ideal > coidealista 'adherent of the same ideal'
Note: Coincides with co-, a variant of con- used before vowels and h.

con- (in nouns, adjectives, and verbs) 'with, together, jointly, mutually' e.g. matre 'mother' > commatre 'godmother'; latere 'side' > collateral; temporanee 'temporal' > contemporanee 'contemporaneous, contemporary'; exister 'to exist' > coexister 'to coexist'; religion > correligionario 'co-religionist';


new formations: generic > congeneric; fixar 'to fix' > confixar 'to confix, fasten together'; partitario 'partisan, adherent of a party' > compartitario 'adherent of the same party'
Note: Appears as co- before h and vowels; col- before l; com- before b, m, p; cor- before r the variant co- coincides with the prefix co- above.

contra- (in nouns and verbs) 'against, opposing; counter or contrary to' e.g. balancia 'balance' > contrabalancia 'counterbalance'; dicer 'to say' > contradicer 'to contradict';


new formations: manifesto > contramanifesto 'countermanifesto'; fluer 'to flow' > contrafluer 'to counterflow'

dis- (in nouns, adjectives, and verbs)


1. 'apart, separately; divided, scattered' e.g. rumper 'to break' > disrumper 'to disrupt';
new formation: jacer 'to throw' > disjicer 'to scatter about';
2. 'not ..., contrary or opposite of' e.g. contente 'content, contented' > discontente 'discontent, discontented'; harmonia 'harmony' > disharmonia 'disharmony';
new formations: credentia 'belief' > discredentia 'disbelief'; acido 'acid' > disacidificar 'to disacidify'
Note: In sense (2) synonym of non- and in-.

ex- (in nouns) 'former' e.g. presiderite 'president' > ex-presidente 'ex-president';


new formation: convicto 'convict' > ex-convicto 'ex-convict'
Note: Preferably set off by hyphen.

extra-
1. (in nouns, adjectives, and verbs) 'outside; outside the scope of' e.g. dorso 'back' > extradorso [Arch.] 'extrados'; muro 'wall' > extramural; vaso '(blood) vessel' > extravasar [Anat.] 'to extravasate';


new formation: lege 'law' > extralegal;
2. (in adjectives) 'highly, unusually, very' e.g. fin 'fine' > extrafin 'extra-fine, superfine';
new formation: longe 'long' > extralonge 'extra-long'
Note: In sense (1) antonym of intra-.

gran- (in names of kinship) 'grand-, great-' e.g. patre 'father' > granpatre 'grandfather'; amita 'aunt' > granamita 'great-aunt';


new formation: papa > granpapa 'grandpa'
Note: For further reduplication, the prefix pro- is available; e.g. 'great-great-aunt' progranamita.

in-
I. (in verbs) 'in, into,' e.g. ducer 'to lead' > inducer 'to induce';


new formation: capsula 'capsule' > incapsular 'to incapsulate, enclose a capsule'
Note: Appears as il- before l; im- before b, m, and p; ir- before r; expresses position in or upon, motion into, change into, etc. The synonym en- occurs in technical words, § 158.
II. (in nouns and adjectives) 'not...; lacking; lack of' e.g. action > inaction; regular > irregular;
new formation: disciplina 'discipline' > indisciplina 'indiscipline'
Note: Appears as i- before gn; il- before l; im- before b, m, p; ir- before r. Synonym of dis- and non-.

inter- (in nouns, adjectives, and verbs) 'between, among' e.g. linear 'to line' > interlinear 'to interline'; acto 'act of a play' > interacto 'entr'acte'; maxilla 'jawbone' > intermaxiliar 'intermaxillary';


new formation: racia 'race' > interracial

intra- (in adjectives) 'inside, within' e.g. venose 'venous' > intravenose 'intravenous';


new formation: pelvic > intrapelvic [Anat.]
Note: Antonym of extra-.
 

intro- (in verbs) 'inwards, to the inside' e.g. ducer 'to lead, conduct' > introducer 'to introduce';


new formation: suger 'to suck' > introsuger 'to suck in'
Note: Specific formations may be given antonyms in extro-; e.g. introversion; extroversion

mis- (in verbs) 'badly, wrongly' e.g. interpretar 'to interpret' > misinterpretar 'to misinterpret';


new formation: nominar 'to name' > misnominar 'to misname'

non- (in nouns and adjectives) 'not . .., lack or absence of' e.g. conformista 'conformist' > nonconformista 'nonconformist'; senso 'sense' > nonsenso 'nonsense';


new formations: cyclic > noncyclic; usage 'use, usage' > nonusage 'disuse'
Note: Synonym of dis- and in-.

per- (in verbs)


1. 'through, throughout' e.g. forar 'to drill, bore' > perforar 'to perforate';
new formation: vader 'to go' > pervader 'to pervade';
2. 'thoroughly; extremely, very' e.g. venir 'to come' > pervenir 'to arrive, succeed in arriving';
new formation: leger 'to read' > perleger 'to read thoroughly'
Note: In sense (1) synonym of trans-. Also used as a technical prefix with chemical nouns and adjectives. E.g. oxydo 'oxide (= compound containing oxygen)' peroxydo 'peroxide (= compound containing the maximum of oxygen);
new formation: boric > perboric.

post- (in nouns, adjectives, and verbs) 'behind, after in time, location, or order' e.g. poner 'to put, lay' > postponer 'to postpone, delay'; glacie 'ice' > postglacial;


new formations: pagar 'to pay' > postpagar 'to pay in arrears'; impressionista 'impressionist' > postimpressionista 'postimpressionist'
Note: Antonym of pre- (and ante-).

pre- (in nouns, adjectives, and verbs) 'before in time, position or rank' e.g. dominar 'to dominate' > predominar 'to predominate'; historia 'history' > prehistoria 'prehistory'; matur 'mature' > prematur 'premature';


new formations: gustar 'to taste; to enjoy' > pregustar 'to foretaste'; newtonian 'Newtonian' > prenewtonian 'pre-Newtonian'
Note: Synonym of ante-, antonym of post-.

pro-
1. (in nouns and adjectives) 'in favor of, on the side of' e.g. semita 'Semite' prosemitic 'pro-Semitic'; german 'German' > progerman 'pro-German'; 2. (in verbs) 'forward, forth'


e.g. longe 'long' > prolongar 'to prolong';
new formation: traher 'to draw, drag' > protraher 'to protract'
Note: In sense (1) antonym of anti-. For use in names of kinship, see gran above.

re- (in verbs)


1. 'back, backwards' e.g. flecter 'to bend' > reflecter 'to reflect';
new formation: lancear 'to hurl, fling' > relancear 'to fling back';
2. 'again' e.g. nove 'new' > renovar 'to renew';
new formation: colonisar 'to colonize' > recolonisar 'to recolonize'
Note: In sense (1) synonym of the more explicit retro-.

retro- (in verbs) 'back, backwards' e.g. ceder 'to cede' > retroceder 'to retrocede';


new formation: ducer 'to lead, conduct' > retroducer 'to lead back'
Note: Synonym of the less explicit re-. Specific formations may be given antonyms in pro-; e.g. retrocession: procession.

sub- (in nouns, adjectives, and verbs)


1. 'under, underneath' e.g. lingua 'tongue' sublingual [Anat.]
new formation: currente 'current' > subcurrente 'undercurrent';
2. 'subordinate; subdivision of' e.g. division > subdivision;
new formation: chef 'head, chief' > subchef 'subchief; assistant manager';
3. 'slightly, slight' e.g. bullir 'to boil' > subbullir 'to simmer';
new formation: inflammation [Med.] > subinflammation [Med.]
Note: Subject to assimilation before c, f, g, m, p, r. Antonym of super-.

super- (in nouns, adjectives, and verbs)


1. 'over, above' e.g. poner 'to place' > superponer 'to superimpose,' scarpa 'shoe' > superscarpa 'overshoe';
new formation: collar 'to paste' > supercollar 'to paste over';
2. 'very; excessively, too much' e.g. pagar 'to pay' > superpagar 'to overpay';
new formation: critic 'critical' > supercritic 'overcritical'
Note: Antonym of sub-.

trans- (in nouns, adjectives, and verbs)


1. 'beyond, across; surpassing' e.g. portar 'to carry' > transportar 'to transport'; Alpes 'Alps' > transalpin 'transalpine'; ration 'reason' > transrational;
new formation: uranium > transuranic;
2. 'through, across' e.g. parer 'to appear' > transparer 'to show through';
new formation: luminar 'light' transluminar 'to shine through'
Note: In sense (1) synonym of ultra-, in sense (2) of per-.

ultra- (in nouns, adjectives, and verbs) 'beyond' e.g. passar 'to pass' > ultrapassar 'to go beyond'; violette 'violet' > ultraviolette 'ultraviolet';


new formations: micrometro 'micrometer' > ultramicrometro 'ultramicrometer'; stella 'star' > ultrastellar
Note: Synonym of per-.

vice- (in nouns) 'one who takes the place of' e.g. rege 'king' > vicerege 'viceroy';


new formation: director > vicedirector



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II.A.b Prefixos technic
-----------------------

§158 Le prefixos technic sequente es usate pro modificar substantivos e adjectivos:

a- = non ..., sin, carente ...; p.ex. esthesia -> anesthesia; gnostic: referente a cognoscentia -> agnostic;
nove formation: nocive -> anocive;
Nota: Le variante an- appare ante -h e vocales. Cf. le synonymos nontechnic in- e non-.
 
 

amphi-
1. = ambe, a ambe lateres; p.ex. bio- -> amphibie;


2. = circa, circum; p.ex. theatro -> amphitheatro;
nove formation: nucleo -> amphinucleo [Biologia];

ana- = de novo, repetite; p.ex. baptismo -> anabaptismo;

nove formation: genese -> anagenese [Physiologia];
Nota: Cf. le synonymo nontechnic re-.

apo-
1. = via, a distantia le plus remote; p.ex. geo- -> apogee;


nove formation: trachea -> apotracheal;
2. [Chimia] = formate de, habente relation a ...; p.ex. morphina -> apomorphina;
nove formation: quinina -> apoquinina;

cata-
1. = a basso; p.ex. rhino- -> catarrhin [Zoologia];


nove formation: phyllo- -> cataphyllo [Botanica];
2. = contra; reflectite; p.ex. -optro- -> catoptric;
nove formation: acustica -> catacustica [Physica];
Nota: Le variante cat- appare ante -h e vocales.
 

dia-
1. = per, a transverso, de latere a latere, trans; p.ex. metro -> diametro;


nove formation: nodo -> dianodal [Mathematica];
2. = via, a parte; p.ex. stas-: (acto de) star -> diastase;
nove formation: magnetic -> diamagnetic;
Nota: Le variante di- appare ante vocales. Cf. le synonymos nontechnic trans- e per-.

dys- = mal, non (functionante) ben, defectuosemente, deficientemente; p.ex. pepsia -> dyspepsia;


nove formation: genese -> dysgenese: difficultate in reproduction;
Nota: Cf. le synonymo nontechnic mis-.

ecto- = exterior, externe; p.ex. derma (in compositos) -> ectoderma [Zoologia];


nove formationes: cornea -> ectocornea; cranio -> ectocranial;
Nota: Le variante ect- appare ante vocales. Cf. le synonymo nontechnic extra-.
 

en- = in, a in; p.ex. demo [Antiquitate grec] -> endemia [Medicina];


nove formation: derma -> endermic [Medicina];
Nota: Le variante em- appare ante -b, -m, -p, -ph. Cf. le synonymo nontechnic in-.

endo- = interiormente, internemente, intra; p.ex. gamo- -> endogame: osmose -> endosmose;


nove formation: phag- -> endophage: mangiante co-membros de tribo;
Nota: Le variante end- appare ante vocales.
 

ento- = intra, al interior de; p.ex. -zoon -> entozoon: parasito intestinal;


nove formation: ot- -> entotic: pertinente al interior del aure;
Nota: Le variante ent- appare ante vocales.

epi- = super, supra; p.ex. -tapho- -> epitaphio;


nove formation: gastro: abdomine, stomacho -> epigastric;
Nota: Le variante ep- appare ante -h e vocales.
 
 

exo- = extra, al exterior de; p.ex. gamo- -> exogame; osmose -> exosmose;


nove formation: phag- -> exophage: practicante cannibalismo foras le tribo;
Nota: Le variante ex- appare ante vocales.
 
 

hyper- = super, supra, trans; ultra; troppo; p.ex. critic -> hypercritic; tension -> hypertension;


nove formation: dimension -> hyperdimensional;
Nota: Cf. le synonymo nontechnic super-.

hypo-
1. = in basso, sub, infra; p.ex. derma -> hypodermatic;


nove formation: carpo- -> hypocarpio;
2. = a un grado plus basse, reducite; aliquanto; p.ex. troph- -> hypotrophia;
nove formation: esthesia -> hypoesthesia;
3. [Chimia] = indicante un grado plus basse de oxydation, o un position plus basse in un serie de compositos; p.ex. phosphato -> hypophosphato;
nove formation: acide -> hypoacide;
Nota: Cf. le synonymo nontechnic sub-.
 
 
 

meta-
1. = post; p.ex. carpo [Anatomia] -> metacarpo [Anatomia];


nove formation: branchia [Zoologia] -> metabranchial;
2. = ultra, transcendente, plus alte; p.ex. physica -> metaphysica;
nove formation: mathematica -> metamathematica;
3. = depost, subsequente a; p.ex. zoon -> metazoon;
nove formation: arthritis -> metaarthritic;
4. [Chimia] = designante compositos derivate, metameric o similar; p.ex. globulina [Biochimia] -> metaglobulina;
nove formation: gelatina -> metagelatina;
Nota: Le variante met- appare ante vocales e -h. Cf. le synonymos nontechnic trans- e ultra-.
 
 

para-
1. = al latere de, preter; p.ex. site- -> parasite;


nove formation: centro -> paracentral;
2. = mal, defective, false; p.ex. -dox- -> paradoxe;
nove formation: -phem- -> paraphemia;
3. = resimilante; modification de ...; p.ex. typhoide -> paratyphoide;
nove formation: physic -> paraphysic;
Nota: Le variante par- appare ante vocales e -h.
 
 

peri- = circa, circum; p.ex. metro -> perimetro;


nove formation: arteria -> periarterial;
Nota: Cf. le synonymo nontechnic circum-.
 

syn- = con, insimul; similar; p.ex. logos -> syllogisar; phon-: voce, sono -> symphone;


nove formation: chrono- -> synchrone; dactyl- -> syndactyle [Zoologia, Medicina];
Nota: Appare como syl- ante -l; sym- ante -b, -m, -p, -ph. Cf. le synonymo nontechnic con-.

 
 

§ 158. II.A.b.- The following technical prefixes are used to modify nouns and adjectives:

a- 'not...; without . .., lacking ...' e.g. esthesia > anesthesia; gnostic 'relating to knowledge' > agnostic;


new formation: nocive 'harmful' > anocive 'innoxious'
Note: The variant an- appears before h and vowels. Cf. the nontechnical synonyms in- and non-.

amphi-
1. 'both, on both sides' e.g. bio- 'life' > amphibie 'amphibious';


2. 'around, about' e.g. theatro 'theater' > amphitheatro 'amphitheater';
new formation: nucleo 'nucleus' > amphinucleo [Biol.] 'amphinucleus'

ana- 'again' e.g. baptismo 'baptism' > anabaptismo 'anabaptism';

new formation: genese 'genesis' > anagenese [Physiol.] 'anagenesis'
Note: Cf. the nontechnical synonym re-.

apo- 1. 'off, away' e.g. geo- 'earth' > apogee 'apogean';


new formation: trachea 'windpipe' > apotracheal;
2. [Chem.] 'formed from, related to' e.g. morphina 'morphine' > apomorphina 'apomorphine';
new formation: quinina 'quinine' > apoquinina 'apoquinine'

cata-
1. 'down, downwards' e.g. rhino- 'nose' > catarrhin [Zool.] 'catarrhine';


new formation: phyllo- 'leaf' > cataphyllo [Bot.] 'cataphyll';
2. 'against; reflected' e.g. -optro- > catoptric;
new formation: acustica 'acoustics' > catacustica [Phys.] 'catacoustics'
Note: The variant cat- appears before h and vowels.

dia-
1. 'through' e.g. metro 'measure' > diametro 'diameter';


new formation: nodo 'knot' > dianodal [Math.];
2. 'away, apart' e.g. stas- '(act of) standing' > diastase 'diastasis';
new formation: magnetic > diamagnetic
Note: The variant di- appears before vowels. Cf. the nontechnical synonyms trans- and per-.

dys- 'bad, badly, not well' e.g. pepsia 'digestion' > dyspepsia;


new formation: genese 'genesis' > dysgenese 'difficulty in breeding, dysgenesis'
Note: Cf. the nontechnical synonym mis-.
 

ecto- 'outside, external' e.g. derma (in compounds) 'skin' > ectoderma [Zool.] 'ectoderm';


new formations: cornea 'cornea' > ectocornea; cranio 'cranium' > ectocranial
Note: The variant ect- appears before vowels. Cf. the nontechnical synonym extra-.

en- 'in, into' e.g. demo [Gr. Antiq.] 'demos' > endemia [Med.] 'endemic';


new formation: derma > endermic [Med.]
Note: The variant em- appears before b, m, p, ph. Cf. the nontechnical synonym in-.

endo- 'within' e.g. gamo- 'marriage' > endogame 'endogamous'; osmose 'osmosis' > endosmose 'endosmosis';


new formation: phag- 'to eat' > endophage 'endophagous, eating fellow-tribesmen'
Note: The variant end- appears before vowels.

ento- 'within, inside' e.g. -zoon 'animal' > entozoon 'entozoen, intestinal parasite';


new formation: ot- 'ear' > entotic, 'entotic, pertaining to the interior of the ear'
Note: The variant ent- appears before vowels.

epi- 'on, upon' e.g. -tapho- 'tomb' > epitaphio 'epitaph';


new formation: gastro 'abdomen, stomach' > epigastric
Note: The variant ep- appears before h and vowels.

exo- 'without, outside' e.g. gamo- 'marriage' > exogame 'exogamous'; osmose 'osmosis' > exosmose 'exosmosis';


new formation: phag- 'to eat' > exophage 'exophagous, practicing cannibalism outside the tribe'
Note: The variant ex- appears before vowels.

hyper- 'over; beyond; too much' e.g. critic 'critical' > hypercritic 'hypercritical'; tension > hypertension;


new formation: dimension > hyperdimensional
Note: Cf. the nontechnical synonym super-.

hypo-
1. 'below, beneath, under' e.g. derma > hypodermatic 'hypodermic';


new formation: carpo- 'fruit' > hypocarpio 'hypocarp';
2. 'to a lower degree; somewhat' e.g. troph- 'nourishment' > hypotrophia 'hypotrophy';
new formation: esthesia > hypoesthesia;
3. [Chem.] 'indicating a lower state of oxidation, or a lower position in a series of compounds' e.g. phosphato 'phosphate' > hypophosphato 'hypophosphate';
new formation: acide 'acid' > hypoacide 'hypeacid'
Note: Cf. the nontechnical synonym sub-.

meta-
1. 'behind' e.g. carpo [Anat.] 'wrist, carpus' > metacarpo [Anat.] 'metacarpus';


new formation: branchia [Zool.] 'gill, branchia' > metabranchial;
2. 'beyond, transcending, higher' e.g. physica 'physics' > metaphysica 'metaphysics';
new formation: mathematica 'mathematics' > metamathematica 'metamathematics';
3. 'after, subsequent to' e.g. zoon > metazoon;
new formation: arthritis > metaarthritic;
4. [Chem.] 'designating derived, metameric or similar compounds' e.g. globulina [Biochem.] 'globulin' > metaglobulina 'metaglobulin';
new formation: gelatina 'gelatin' > metagelatina 'metagelatin'
Note: The variant met- appears before vowels and h. Cf. the nontechnical synonyms trans- and ultra-.

para-
1. 'besides, alongside' e.g. site- 'food' > parasite 'parasitic';


new formation: centro 'center' > paracentral;
2. 'amiss, faulty, wrong' e.g. -dox- 'opinion' > paradoxe 'paradoxical';
new formation: -phem- 'voice' > paraphemia;
3. 'resembling; modification of' e.g. typhoide 'typhoid' > paratyphoide 'paratyphoid';
new formation: physic 'physical' > paraphysic 'paraphysical'
Note: The variant par- appears before vowels and h.

peri- 'around, about' e.g. metro 'measure' > perimetro 'perimeter';


new formation: arteria 'artery' > periarterial
Note: Cf. the nontechnical synonym circum-.

syn- 'with, together; alike' e.g. logos 'logos' > syllogisar 'to syllogize'; chrono- 'time' > synchrone 'synchronous'; phon- 'voice, sound' > symphone 'symphonicus';


new formation: dactyl- 'finger' > syndactyle [Zool., Med.] 'syndactyl'
Note: Appears as syl- before l; sym- before b, m, p, ph. Cf. the nontechnical synonym con-.



------------------------------------
II.B Composition per medio de formas
compositori
------------------------------------

§159 Compositos que resulta del COMBINATION DE DUO VOCABULOS COMPLETE es formate o per juxtaposition simple - como illustrate per anglese {teapot}, {thunderstorm}, {goose flesh}, etc. - o involve le uso de un tracto compositori - p.ex. {cylindr-o-cellular}, {man-i-cure}, etc. Interlingua manca del illimitate possibilitate de composition active per juxtaposition simple que es characteristic (ben que non un tracto distinctive) del linguas germanic. Inter le expedientes expressive disponibile in Interlingua como complementos de su systema de composition, le sequentes es a notar:

(a) Compositos anglese sovente corresponde a formationes de suffixo in Interlingua (-ero/-era, -iero/-iera, -eria, ...):

 
 
 

§ 159. II.B. -- Compounds which result from the COMBINATION OF TWO FULL-FLEDGED WORDS are formed either by simple juxtaposition -- as illustrated by English 'teapot,' 'thunderstorm,' 'goose flesh,' etc. -- or involve the use of a compounding feature -- e.g. 'cylindr-o-cellular,' 'man-i-cure,' etc. Interlingua lacks the unlimited possibility of active compounding by simple juxtaposition which is characteristic (although not a distinctive feature) of the Teutonic languages. Among the expressive devices available in Interlingua as complements of its compounding system, the following are to be noted:

(a) English compounds often correspond to Interlingua suffix formations.



lactero: milkman

lactera: milkmaid

lacteria: (milk shop) dairy

risiera: rice field

porchero: swineherd

porchiera: pigsty

porcheria: pork shop

pruniero: plum tree

frambesiero: raspberry bush


(b) Compositos anglese corresponde multo frequentemente a expressiones prepositional in Interlingua. Le selection del preposition permitte sovente un clar exposition del relation inter le elementos que in anglese es lassate al contexto e senso commun; p.ex. in le anglese le parolas {sea-man} e {milkman} in se non nos dice que le secunde non naviga super le lacte e que le prime non vende aqua de mar.

(b) English compounds correspond very frequently to Interlingua prepositional phrases. The choice of the preposition permits often a clear statement of the relationship between the elements which in English is left to context and common sense. E.g.: it is not the words 'seaman' and 'milkman' which tell us that the latter does not sail on milk and that the former does not sell sea water.

~ de ~

------


station de omnibus: bus station

libro de cassa: cashbook

musica de camera: chamber music
~ a ~

-----


tractor a erucas: caterpillar tractor

sala a attender: waiting room

sacco a mano: handbag


(c) In numerose casos, compositos anglese es rendite le melio in Interlingua per substantivos modificate per adjectivos.

(c) In numerous instances English compounds are best rendered in Interlingua by nouns modified by adjectives.

~ ~(adj)

--------


lumine solar : sunlight

sacco lacrimal : tearpit

pelle rubie : redskin

vaso sanguinari: blood vessel


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