Grade 4 Social Studies Standards



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Grade 4 Social Studies Standards


Indiana in the Nation and the World

Students in Grade 4 study Indiana and its relationships to regional, national and world communities, including the influence of physical and cultural environments on the state’s growth and development and principles and practices of citizenship and government in Indiana.

The Indiana’s K – 8 academic standards for social studies are organized around four content areas. The content area standards and the types of learning experiences they provide to students in Grade 4 are described below. On the pages that follow, age-appropriate concepts are listed for each standard. Skills for thinking, inquiry and participation in a democratic society, including the examination of Individuals, Society and Culture, are integrated throughout. Specific terms are defined and examples are provided when necessary.

Standard 1 — History

Students will trace the historical periods, places, people, events and movements that have led to the development of Indiana as a state.



Standard 2 — Civics and Government

Students will describe the components and characteristics of Indiana’s constitutional form of government; explain the levels and three branches of Indiana’s government; understand citizenship rights and responsibilities; investigate civic and political issues and problems; use inquiry and communication skills to report findings in charts, graphs, written and verbal forms; and demonstrate responsible citizenship by exercising civic virtues and participation skills.



Standard 3 — Geography

Students will explain how the Earth/sun relationship influences the climate of Indiana; identify the components of Earth’s physical systems; describe the major physical and cultural characteristics of Indiana; give examples of how people have adapted to and modified their environment, past and present; and identify regions of Indiana.



Standard 4 — Economics

Students will study and compare the characteristics of Indiana’s changing economy in the past and present.



Standard 1
History


Students will trace the historical periods, places, people, events and movements that have led to the development of Indiana as a state.

Historical Knowledge

American Indians and the Arrival of Europeans to 1770

4.1.1 Identify and compare the major early cultures that existed in the region that became Indiana prior to contact with Europeans. (Individuals, Society and Culture)



Example: Paleo-Indians such as the Hopewell, Adena and the Mississippian cultures

4.1.2 Identify and describe historic Native American Indian groups that lived in Indiana at the time of early European exploration, including ways these groups adapted to and interacted with the physical environment. (Individuals, Society and Culture)



Example: Miami, Shawnee, Potawatomi and Lenape (Delaware)

The American Revolution and the Indiana Territory: 1770s to 1816

4.1.3 Explain the importance of the Revolutionary War and other key events and people that influenced Indiana’s development.



Example: George Rogers Clark and the Fall of Vincennes (1779), development of the Northwest Territory, Indiana becoming a U.S. Territory, Chief Little Turtle, Tecumseh, Tenskwatawa (the Prophet), William Henry Harrison, and the Battle of Tippecanoe (1811)

4.1.4 Summarize and explain the significance of key documents in Indiana’s development from a United States territory to statehood.



Example: The Land Ordinance of 1784; The Northwest Ordinance (1787), which made Indiana part of the United States territory; and the 1816 Indiana Constitution, which established the first state government

Statehood: 1816 to 1851

4.1.5 Identify the causes of removal of Native American Indian groups in the state and their resettlement during the 1830s. (Individuals, Society and Culture)

4.1.6 Explain how key individuals and events influenced the early growth of and changes in Indiana.

Example: Indiana’s first governor, Jonathan Jennings; Robert Owen and the New Harmony settlement; moving the state capitol from Corydon to Indianapolis; development of roads and canals in Indiana; and the Indiana Constitution of 1851

The Civil War Era and Later Development: 1850 to 1900

4.1.7 Explain the roles of various individuals, groups and movements in the social conflicts leading to the Civil War. (Individuals, Society and Culture)



Example: Levi and Catherine Coffin, abolition and anti-slavery groups, The Underground Railroad, and the Liberia colonization movement

4.1.8 Summarize the impact of Abraham Lincoln’s presidency on Indiana and describe the participation of Indiana citizens in the Civil War.



Example: Indiana’s volunteer soldiers, the Twenty-eighth Regiment of the United States Colored Troops, Camp Morton, John Hunt Morgan, The Battle of Corydon, Lew Wallace and women on the home front

4.1.9 Give examples of Indiana’s increasing agricultural, industrial, political and business development in the nineteenth century.



Example: Growth of railroads and urban centers, such as Indianapolis, South Bend, Evansville, Fort Wayne and Gary; President Benjamin Harrison; expansion of the educational system and universities; the growth of labor unions; and the start of Eli Lilly’s pharmaceutical business

Growth and Development: 1900 to 1950

4.1.10 Describe the participation of Indiana citizens in World War I and World War II.



Example: Homefront activities such as planting victory gardens, air raid drills and rationing; the use of Indiana steel mills to manufacture weapons; contribution of troops; and the war reports of Ernie Pyle

4.1.11 Identify and describe important events and movements that changed life in Indiana in the early twentieth century.



Example: Women’s suffrage, the Great Depression, World War I, African-American migration from the South and World War II

4.1.12 Describe the transformation of Indiana through immigration and through developments in agriculture, industry and transportation. (Individuals, Society and Culture)



Example: The impact of improved farming methods on Indiana agriculture; the development of Indiana’s automobile industry such as the Studebaker and the Duesenberg; the glass industry; the Ball Brothers; the growth of the steel industry in northern Indiana; and immigrant influence on cities and coal mining regions of the state

Contemporary Indiana: 1950 – Present

4.1.13 Identify and describe important events and movements that changed life in Indiana from the mid- twentieth century to the present.



Example: The civil rights movement and school integration in Indiana; Indiana’s participation in the Korean War; Asian and Hispanic immigration; and growth in advanced manufacturing and the life sciences industry.

4.1.14 Research Indiana’s modern growth emphasizing manufacturing, new technologies, transportation and global connections.



Example: Use Indiana government Web sites and other online resources to learn about the development of the interstate highway system, establishment of ports in Indiana, aerospace engineering, and pharmaceutical and high-tech industries.

Chronological Thinking, Historical Comprehension, Analysis and Interpretation, Research

4.1.15 Create and interpret timelines that show relationships among people, events, and movements in the history of Indiana. (Individuals, Society and Culture)



Example: Immigration patterns such as the settlement of the French and Germans, and automobile manufacturing

4.1.16 Distinguish fact from opinion and fact from fiction in historical documents and other information resources* and identify the central question each narrative addresses.



Example: Identify different opinions regarding Indiana’s participation in the Civil War, using political cartoons, newspaper editorials and writings found in digitalized collections of local and state libraries, museums and historic sites.

4.1.17 Using primary and secondary sources* and online source materials, construct a brief narrative about an event in Indiana history.



Example: The first Indianapolis 500 mile race in 1911, The Battle of Tippecanoe 1811, The Ohio River Flood of 1913 and the 1965 Palm Sunday tornadoes

4.1.18 Research and describe the contributions of important Indiana artists and writers to the state’s cultural landscape. (Individuals, Society and Culture)



Example: Painters: T.C. Steele, the Hoosier Group and Robert Indiana; Authors: James Whitcomb Riley and Jean Stratton Porter; Musicians: Cole Porter, Hoagy Carmichael, Wes Montgomery, Joshua Bell and John Mellencamp; Other entertainers: Red Skelton and David Letterman

* primary source: developed by people who experienced the events being studied (i.e., autobiographies, diaries, letters, government documents)

* secondary source: developed by people who have researched events but did not experience them directly (i.e., articles, biographies, Internet resources, nonfiction books)

* information resources: print media, such as books, magazines and newspapers; electronic media, such as radio, television, Web sites and databases; and community resources, such as individuals and organizations

Standard 2
Civics and Government


Students will describe the components and characteristics of Indiana’s constitutional form of government; explain the levels and three branches of Indiana’s government; understand citizenship rights and responsibilities; investigate civic and political issues and problems; use inquiry and communication skills to report findings in charts, graphs, written and verbal forms; and demonstrate responsible citizenship by exercising civic virtues and participation skills.

Foundations of Government

4.2.1 Explain the major purposes of Indiana’s Constitution as stated in the Preamble.

4.2.2 Describe individual rights, such as freedom of speech, freedom of religion and the right to public education, that people have under Indiana’s Bill of Rights (Article I of the Constitution).

Functions of Government

4.2.3 Identify and explain the major responsibilities of the legislative, executive and judicial branches of state government as written in the Indiana Constitution.

4.2.4 Identify major state offices, the duties and powers associated with them, and how they are chosen, such as by election or appointment.

Example: Governor, lieutenant governor, chief justice, state senators and state representatives.

Roles of Citizens

4.2.5 Give examples of how citizens can participate in their state government and explain the right and responsibility of voting.

4.2.6 Define and provide examples of civic virtues* in a democracy.

Example: Individual responsibility, self-discipline/self-governance, civility, respect for the rights and dignity of all individuals, honesty, respect for the law, courage, compassion, patriotism, fairness and commitment to the common good

4.2.7 Use a variety of information resources* to take a position or recommend a course of action on a public issue relating to Indiana’s past or present.



Example: Use local, state and federal Web sites, as well as newspapers, television and video images, to research and write an editorial related to Indiana’s environment.

* civic virtues: behaviors that contribute to the healthy functioning of a democracy

* information resources: print media, such as books, magazines and newspapers; electronic media, such as radio, television, Web sites and databases; and community resources, such as individuals and organizations

Standard 3
Geography


Students will explain how the Earth/sun relationship influences the climate of Indiana; identify the components of Earth’s physical systems; describe the major physical and cultural characteristics of Indiana; give examples of how people have adapted to and modified their environment, past and present; and identify regions of Indiana.

The World in Spatial Terms

4.3.1 Use latitude* and longitude* to identify physical and human features of Indiana.



Example: transportation routes and major bodies of water (lakes and rivers)

4.3.2 Estimate distances between two places on a map, using a scale of miles, and use cardinal* and intermediate directions* when referring to relative location.



* latitude: imaginary lines that circle the globe from east to west; the equator is the line of latitude that divides the globe into two equal hemispheres

* longitude: imaginary lines that circle the globe from north to south and pass through the poles

* cardinal directions: north, south, east and west

* intermediate directions: northeast, southeast, northwest and southwest

Places and Regions

4.3.3 Locate Indiana on a map as one of the 50 United States. Identify and describe the location of the state capital, major cities and rivers in Indiana, and place these on a blank map of the state.

4.3.4 Map and describe the physical regions of Indiana and identify major natural resources and crop regions.

Example: Northern Lakes and Moraines, Central Till Plain and Southern Lowlands

Physical Systems

4.3.5 Explain how glaciers shaped Indiana’s landscape and environment.

4.3.6 Describe Indiana’s landforms (lithosphere*), water features (hydrosphere*), and plants and animals (biosphere*).

4.3.7 Explain the effect of the Earth/sun relationship* on the climate of Indiana.



Example: Describe seasonal changes and use USDA hardiness zone maps to select plants and trees for a community park.

4.3.8 Identify the challenges in the physical landscape of Indiana to early settlers and modern day economic development. (Individuals, Society and Culture)



Example: Forest growth and transportation routes

* lithosphere: the soil and rock that form Earth’s surface

* hydrosphere: all the water on Earth’s surface, including the hydrologic cycle (precipitation, evaporation, and condensation

* biosphere: all plants and animals

* Earth/sun relationship: the Earth revolves around the sun and this process takes one year. The Earth tilts on its axis causing the seasons.

Human Systems

4.3.9 Explain the importance of major transportation routes, including rivers, in the exploration, settlement and growth of Indiana and in the state’s location as a crossroad of America.

4.3.10 Identify immigration patterns and describe the impact diverse ethnic and cultural groups have had on Indiana. (Individuals, Society and Culture)

Example: Use the U.S. Census Bureau Web site, digital map sites and software to create a map showing ethnic population distribution in Indiana.

Environment and Society

4.3.11 Create maps of Indiana at different times in history showing regions and major physical and cultural features; give examples of how people in Indiana have modified their environment over time.

4.3.12 Read and interpret thematic maps — such as transportation, population and products — to acquire information about Indiana in the present and the past.

Standard 4
Economics


Students will study and compare the characteristics of Indiana’s changing economy in the past and present.

4.4.1 Give examples of the kinds of goods* and services* produced in Indiana in different historical periods.

4.4.2 Define productivity* and provide examples of how productivity has changed in Indiana during the past 100 years.

Example: Improved farm equipment has helped farms produce more. Technology has helped businesses run more efficiently. Improved education has provided individuals with the knowledge and skills to run businesses and work more productively.

4.4.3 Explain how both parties can benefit from trade* and give examples of how people in Indiana engaged in trade in different time periods.

4.4.4 Explain that prices change as a result of changes in supply* and demand* for specific products.

4.4.5 Describe Indiana’s emerging global connections.



Example: Identify international companies in Indiana, such as Toyota, Daimler Chrysler and Roche Diagnostics, and Indiana companies that have an international presence such as Biomet, Eli Lilly and Cummins Engine.

4.4.6 List the functions of money* and compare and contrast things that have been used as money in the past in Indiana, the United States and the world.

4.4.7 Identify entrepreneurs* who have influenced Indiana and the local community.

Example: The Studebaker brothers, Madam C.J. Walker, Eli Lilly and Marie Webster

4.4.8 Define profit* and describe how profit is an incentive for entrepreneurs.

4.4.9 Identify important goods and services provided by state and local governments by giving examples of how state and local tax revenues are used.

4.4.10 Explain how people save, and develop a savings plan in order to make a future purchase.



* goods: tangible objects, such as food or toys, that can satisfy people’s wants

* services: actions that someone does for someone else, such as dental care or trash removal

* productivity: the amount of goods and services produced in a period of time divided by the productive resources used

* trade: the voluntary exchange of goods or services

* supply: what producers are willing and able to sell at various prices

* demand: what consumers are willing and able to buy at various prices

* functions of money: helps people trade, measures the value of items, facilitates saving

* entrepreneur: a person who takes a risk to start a business

* profit: revenues from selling a good or service minus the costs of producing the good or service

Approved October 2007 Grade 4, Page


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