Genes are the basic unit of inheritance by which characteristics are passed on from one generation to another



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Genes

  • Genes are the basic unit of inheritance by which characteristics are passed on from one generation to another.

  • DNA-Deoxyribonucleic acid, contains instructions in the form of 4 chemicals which act as code letters.

  • DNA forms double helix and has 4 bases- Adenine (A), guanine(G), cytosine(C), thymine(T). They form pairs, A and T; G and C.

  • Chromosomes – long strands of DNA. In each cell, the nucleus has 46 chromosomes, 23 from mother and 23 from father.





  • Trait- Physical characteristics that are passed down / inherited from one generation to next, genes code for specific traits.

  • Alleles- Different versions of the same gene.

  • Allele-One version of the pair of genes that appear at a particular location on a particular chromosome and control the same characteristics like eye color.

  • Organisms typically have two alleles for a trait


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