Functions of Epthelial Tissue To Protect, Absorb, Support, Filter, form Slippery Surfaces Epithelial are Avascular

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  1. Epithelial Tissue - Tissue that covers a body surface of lines a body cavity, forms parts of most glands

  2. Functions of Epthelial Tissue - To Protect, Absorb, Support, Filter, form Slippery Surfaces

  3. Epithelial are Avascular - Has no blood supply

  4. Apical Surface – the side of epithelial tissue that is exposed to the “out side”

  5. Basement membrane – thin sheet of fibers that anchors epithelial tissue

  6. Characteristics of Epithelial - Composed of mostly cells, very thin so oxygen and food can easily get to them, differing apical and basal cell regions, supported by an underlying connective tissue, avascular, and high capacity for regeneration

  7. How is Epitheliums named - First name indicates number of cell layers, last name describes cell shape

  8. Simple - One layer of cells

  9. Stratified - More than one layer of cells

  10. Squamous - Cells are wide, flat, plate-like

  11. Cuboidal - Cells are like cubes

  12. Columnar - Cells are tall, like columns

  13. Simple Squamous Epithelium - Single layer of flattened cells

  14. Function of Simple Squamous Epithelium - To allow passage of materials

  15. Location of Simple Squamous Epithelium - Found in lungs, kidney, blood vessels

  16. Simple Cuboidal Epithelium - Single layer of cube-like cells with large special central nuclei

  17. Location of Simple Cuboidal Epithelium - Kidney and ducts of small glands

  18. Simple Columnar Epithelium - Single layer of tall cells with round to oval nuclei

  19. Function of Simple Columnar Epithelium - To asbsorb and secrete substances and decide what needs to go in and what goes out

  20. Location of Simple Columnar Epithelium - Stomach

  21. Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium - Single layer of cells of differing heights, giving the false appearance of more than one layer, when it is actually a single layer

  22. Function of Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium - Offers protection from stuff you inhale

  23. Location of Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium - Found in the Trachea, windpipe

  24. Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium - Two layers of cube-like cells

  25. Function of Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium - Protection

  26. Location of Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium - Found in Gland Ducts

  27. Stratified Columnar Epithelium - Several cell layers, in an enlongated column shape

  28. Function of Stratified Columnar Epithelium - To Protect and Secrete

  29. Location of Stratified Columnar Epithelium - Rare, but sometimes found in small amounts in ducts of some glands and male uretha

  30. Function of Simple Cuboidal Epithelium - to secrete and absorb

  31. Transitional Epithelium - Resembles both stratified squamous and stratifed cuboidal.

  32. Function of Transitional Epithelium - To stretch, go from one shape to another without breaking

  33. Location of Transitional Epithelium - Found in the Bladder, Ureters

  34. Glands - cells that make and secrete product

  35. Exocrine Glands - Ducts that carry products to the epithelial surface

  36. Exocrines Glands - secrete products onto the body surface (skin) or into body cavities (digestive tube)

  37. Examples of Exocrine Glands - sweat glands, oil glands, mammary glands, salivary glands, pancreas, mucus

  38. Endocrine Glands - Ductless glands that secrete substances directly into the bloodstream

  39. Endocrine Glands - Glands that produce hormones in the body

Connective Tissue

  1. Connective Tissue - The most diverse and abundant type of tissue. Connects the tissues and organs of the body, form the basis of the skeleton, store and carry nutrients, surround all blood vessels and nerves of the body, and lead body's fight against infection.

  2. Extracellular Matrix - Extracellular material that separates cells; composed of ground substance and fibers.

  3. Ground Substance - This varies for each class of CT, sometimes is it a soft gel-like substance, other times it is calcified by inorganic calcium salts; this holds fluid

  4. Collagen, Elastic, Reticular - Three types of fibers (alphabetical)

  5. Attachment (\bind), defense, motion, protection, storage (fat), support, transport - Seven functions of connective tissue (alphabetical)

  6. Loose CT - Areolar, adipose, and reticular make up this CT subtype. Fibers are distributed throughout these tissues but separated by ground substance.

  7. Dense CT - Irregular, regular, and elastic make up this CT subtype. Fibers are closely packed together.

  8. Areolar - adipose, reticular (three loose), regular, irregular, elastic (three dense) Six types of CT Proper

  9. Loose CT, Areolar - Classify this tissue: gel-like matrix with all 3 fibers, fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, some WBC; wraps and cushions organs, phagocytize bacteria, holds tissue fluid

  10. Loose CT, Adipose - Classify this tissue: gel-like matrix with all 3 fibers but very sparse, closely packed adipocytes; provides reserve food fuel, insulates against heat loss; supports and protects organs

  11. Loose CT, Reticular - Classify this tissue: network of reticular fibers in (typically) a loose ground substance; reticular cells lie on the network; fibers form a soft internal skeleton that supports other cell types (WBC, mast cells, macrophages)

  12. Dense CT, Dense Regular - Classify this tissue: primarily parallel collagen fibers, a few elastic fibers, fibroblast is major cell type with nuclei aligned parallel to collagen fibers; attaches muscles to bones or to muscles, withstands great tensile stress in one direction

  13. Dense CT, Dense Irregular - Classify this tissue: primarily unarranged collagen fibers, some elastic fibers, fibroblast is major cell type; able to withstand tension exerted in many directions, provides structural strength

  14. Dense CT, Elastic - Classify this tissue: Contains a high proportion of elastic fibers; allows recoil of tissue following stretching; maintains pulsatile flow of blood through arteries; aids passive recoil of lungs following inspiration

  15. Supportive CT - Tissue subgroup type; resists compression/tension, functions in support; made up of chondrocytes & chondroblasts with gel-like ground substance, collagen and some elastic fibers or osteocytes & osteoblasts with gel-like ground substance calcified with inorganic calcium salts, collagen fibers

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