Functions of Epthelial Tissue - To Protect, Absorb, Support, Filter, form Slippery Surfaces
Epithelial are Avascular - Has no blood supply
Apical Surface – the side of epithelial tissue that is exposed to the “out side”
Basement membrane – thin sheet of fibers that anchors epithelial tissue
Characteristics of Epithelial - Composed of mostly cells, very thin so oxygen and food can easily get to them, differing apical and basal cell regions, supported by an underlying connective tissue, avascular, and high capacity for regeneration
How is Epitheliums named - First name indicates number of cell layers, last name describes cell shape
Simple - One layer of cells
Stratified - More than one layer of cells
Squamous - Cells are wide, flat, plate-like
Cuboidal - Cells are like cubes
Columnar - Cells are tall, like columns
Simple Squamous Epithelium - Single layer of flattened cells
Endocrine Glands - Ductless glands that secrete substances directly into the bloodstream
Endocrine Glands - Glands that produce hormones in the body
Connective Tissue Connective Tissue - The most diverse and abundant type of tissue. Connects the tissues and organs of the body, form the basis of the skeleton, store and carry nutrients, surround all blood vessels and nerves of the body, and lead body's fight against infection.
Extracellular Matrix - Extracellular material that separates cells; composed of ground substance and fibers.
Ground Substance - This varies for each class of CT, sometimes is it a soft gel-like substance, other times it is calcified by inorganic calcium salts; this holds fluid
Collagen, Elastic, Reticular - Three types of fibers (alphabetical)
Attachment (\bind), defense, motion, protection, storage (fat), support, transport - Seven functions of connective tissue (alphabetical)
Loose CT - Areolar, adipose, and reticular make up this CT subtype. Fibers are distributed throughout these tissues but separated by ground substance.
Dense CT - Irregular, regular, and elastic make up this CT subtype. Fibers are closely packed together.
Areolar - adipose, reticular (three loose), regular, irregular, elastic (three dense) Six types of CT Proper
Loose CT, Areolar - Classify this tissue: gel-like matrix with all 3 fibers, fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, some WBC; wraps and cushions organs, phagocytize bacteria, holds tissue fluid
Loose CT, Adipose - Classify this tissue: gel-like matrix with all 3 fibers but very sparse, closely packed adipocytes; provides reserve food fuel, insulates against heat loss; supports and protects organs
Loose CT, Reticular - Classify this tissue: network of reticular fibers in (typically) a loose ground substance; reticular cells lie on the network; fibers form a soft internal skeleton that supports other cell types (WBC, mast cells, macrophages)
Dense CT, Dense Regular - Classify this tissue: primarily parallel collagen fibers, a few elastic fibers, fibroblast is major cell type with nuclei aligned parallel to collagen fibers; attaches muscles to bones or to muscles, withstands great tensile stress in one direction
Dense CT, Dense Irregular - Classify this tissue: primarily unarranged collagen fibers, some elastic fibers, fibroblast is major cell type; able to withstand tension exerted in many directions, provides structural strength
Dense CT, Elastic - Classify this tissue: Contains a high proportion of elastic fibers; allows recoil of tissue following stretching; maintains pulsatile flow of blood through arteries; aids passive recoil of lungs following inspiration
Supportive CT - Tissue subgroup type; resists compression/tension, functions in support; made up of chondrocytes & chondroblasts with gel-like ground substance, collagen and some elastic fibers or osteocytes & osteoblasts with gel-like ground substance calcified with inorganic calcium salts, collagen fibers