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THE CELL
You have probably heard that you and every other living thing are made out of cells. But:

  • Do all cells look the same? If not, why do they look different?

  • How do materials travel through your cell?

  • Why are we made up of so many cells instead of just a few?

  • Why are cells surrounded by membranes? Why are some organelles and proteins within cells surrounded by membranes?

  • Why is the inside of the cell divided into a few specialized compartments (organelles)?

The hierarchical order in a complex living organism goes as such from smallest to largest: atoms  biomolecules (carbs, fats, proteins, DNA)  cells  tissues  organs  organ systems  organism.


You will hopefully be able to answer these questions at the end of this unit. I will expect you to do a lot of the work on your own.


  1. Draw a Venn diagram that compares the two major types of cells: prokaryotic and eukaryotic. (5 pts)




  1. What are the 2 main types of eukaryotic cells? (2 pts)


HOW BIG ARE CELLS?

Go to http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/

Go to CELL SIZE AND SCALE. Fill in the following chart (13 pts)





Object

Sketch

Size in picometers, nanometers, micrometers or millilmeters

Grain of salt

 

 





Amoeba

 

 





Human egg cell

 

 





Skin cell

 

 





Red blood cell

 

 





e-coli bacteria

 

 





Mitochondrion







Flu virus







HIV virus







Ribosome







Hemoglobin







Phospholipid







Glucose molecule







WHAT IS INSIDE A CELL?

Click on AMAZING CELLS, go to INSIDE A CELL.

Use the information to fill in the following chart: (24 pts)


Cell Part

Sketch (use COLOR)

What it does

Nucleus







Nucleolus







Mitochondria







Cytoplasm (Cytosol)







Ribosome







Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum







Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum







Golgi apparatus







Lysosome







Vesicles







Cytoskeleton







Cell Membrane








CONVERT THE CELL INTO A PLANT CELL (10 points)

Plants have some special features. Explore these.



1. What type of cell other than plants, have cell walls?

 

2. What do Chloroplasts do?



 

3. In plant cells, what does the vacuole do?

 


Sketch the following

Chloroplast

 

 



 

Vacuole

 

 



 




Overview (5 pts)

For the chart below, place a check in the box if the cell has that component.









EUKARYOTIC

PROKARYOTIC

ORGANELLE

Plant

Animal

Bacteria

Chloroplast










Vacuole










Ribosome










Mitochondria










DNA










Endoplasmic Reticulum










Cell Wall










Golgi Apparatus










Cell membrane










Nucleus










What 3 parts do all living cells need? (3 pts) _________________________________________________________________

Organelle review game
Go to http://www.sheppardsoftware.com/health/anatomy/cell/index.htm and take the quizzes for each type of cell.

All cells, from the most simple bacteria, to complex nerve and muscle cells, are basically protein factories, creating proteins either for the cell or for the body / plant that it is a part of. Some examples include nerves making neurotransmitters, stomach cells making digestive enzymes, and follicle cells making hair proteins. Below is an analogy, asking you to match cell organelles with a corresponding part in an ipod factory.



Use organelles from the following word bank to complete the analogy table: Mitochondria, cell membrane, membrane proteins, ribosomes, nucleus, golgi vesicles, golgi apparatus, rough endoplasmic reticulum, Lysosomes, DNA, proteins. (22 points)

Ipod Factory

Matching Organelle or cell part

ipod part design plans





Design plan store room – manager’s office




Assembly worker (makes the separate parts using copies of the plans)




Separate ipod parts





Conveyor belt used to send parts made by assembly worker to shipping plant





Factory power plant





Shipping plant that puts parts together, packages, labels and prepares complete Ipods to be sent to Apple stores




Truck driver that delivers completed Ipods to Apple stores




Factory security barrier





Factory security gate for shipping and receiving




Room where all defective parts are broken down and recycled





Key Questions:


  1. Why do cells look so different? The simple answer is in your favorite mantra : “structure fits function”. In your own words tell me what this means when talking about different types of cells (4 pts)



  1. In your own words, describe how the cytoskeleton, endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus work together to facilitate the transport of materials within a cell. (4 pts)



  1. Why is the inside of cells divided into specialized compartments surrounded by membranes? What advantage does this type of arrangement provide? (4 pts)






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