Forests as promoters of terrestrial life history strategies in East African amphibians Hendrik Müller, H. Christoph Liedtke, Michele Menegon, Jan Beck, Liliana Ballesteros-Mejia, Peter Nagel & Simon P. Loader



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Electronic Supplementary Material

Forests as promoters of terrestrial life history strategies in East African amphibians

Hendrik Müller, H. Christoph Liedtke, Michele Menegon, Jan Beck, Liliana Ballesteros-Mejia, Peter Nagel & Simon P. Loader
1. Species lists, breeding biology and habitat categorizations
Alphabetical list of species included in this study and their corresponding breeding strategies and predominant habitat categories are given in Table 1. We used a simplified three state coding scheme to categorize breeding biology: 0 – aquatic eggs and larvae, 1 – terrestrial eggs, aquatic larvae and 2 – complete development on land. Habitat categories are condensations of IUCN habitat categories with modifications according to Poynton et al. [1]: CLO- “Coastal Lowland Others” (ICUN categories: savanna, shrubland, tropical dry lowland grassland), CLF- “Coastal Lowland Forest” (IUCN category: tropical moist lowland forest), MF- “Montane Forest” (IUCN category: tropical moist montane forest) and MG- “Montane Grassland” (IUCN category: tropical dry high altitude grassland). Species marked with an asterisk (*) are not listed on the IUCN Red List database and breeding biology and habitat categories were assigned based on personal experience and published data.

Supplementary Table 1. Species included in this study and their corresponding breeding biology (degree of terrestrialization) and habitat preferences.


Species

Terrestrialization

Habitat

Afrixalus cf. uluguruensis*

1

MF

Afrixalus delicatus

1

CLO

Afrixalus dorsimaculatus

1

MF

Afrixalus fornasini

1

CLO

Afrixalus morerei

1

MG

Afrixalus sp.1*

1

MF

Afrixalus stuhlmanni

1

CLO

Afrixalus sylvaticus

1

CLF

Afrixalus uluguruensis

1

MF

Amietia angolensis

0

CLO

Amietia tenuoplicata

0

CLO

Amietia viridireticulata

0

CLO

Amietophrynus brauni

0

MF

Amietophrynus garmani

0

CLO

Amietophrynus gutturalis

0

CLO

Amietophrynus maculatus

0

CLO

Amietophrynus reesi

0

CLO

Amietophrynus xeros

0

CLO

Arthroleptis affinis

2

MF

Arthroleptis anotis*

2

MF

Arthroleptis cf. fichika*

2

MF

Arthroleptis cf. xenodactyloides*

2

MF

Arthroleptis fichika

2

MF

Arthroleptis kidogo*

2

MF

Arthroleptis lonnbergi

2

CLO

Arthroleptis nguruensis*

2

MF

Arthroleptis nikeae

2

MF

Arthroleptis reichei

2

MF

Arthroleptis sp. 1*

2

MF

Arthroleptis sp. 2*

2

MF

Arthroleptis stenodactylus

2

CLO

Arthroleptis stridens

2

CLO

Arthroleptis tanneri

2

MF

Arthroleptis xenodactyloides

2

CLF

Arthroleptis xenodactylus

2

MF

Boulengerula boulengeri

2

MF

Boulengerula cf. boulengeri*

2

MF

Boulengerula cf. ulugurensis*

2

MF

Boulengerula changamwensis

2

CLF

Boulengerula niedeni

2

MF

Boulengerula taitanus

2

MF

Boulengerula uluguruensis

2

MF

Breviceps fichus

2

MG

Breviceps mossambicus

2

CLO

Callulina dawida*

2

MF

Callulina hanseni*

2

MF

Callulina kanga*

2

MF

Callulina kisiwamsitu

2

MF

Callulina kreffti

2

MF

Callulina laphami

2

MF

Callulina shengena

2

MF

Callulina meteora*

2

MF

Callulina sp. 2*

2

MF

Callulina sp.1*

2

CLF

Callulina stanleyi*

2

MF

Chiromantis kelleri

1

CLO

Chiromantis petersii

1

CLO

Chiromantis xerampelina

1

CLO

Churamiti maridadi

NA

MF

Hemisus marmoratus

1

CLO

Hildebrandtia macrotympanum

0

CLO

Hildebrandtia ornata

0

CLO

Hoplophryne cf. rogersi*

1

MF

Hoplophryne cf. uluguruensis*

1

MF

Hoplophryne rogersi

1

MF

Hoplophryne sp. 1*

1

MF

Hoplophryne uluguruensis

1

MF

Hylarana galamensis

0

CLO

Hyperolius argus

0

CLO

Hyperolius cf. puncticulatus*

1

MF

Hyperolius glandicolor

0

CLO

Hyperolius kihangensis

NA

MF

Hyperolius mariae

0

CLO

Hyperolius minutissimus

0

CLO

Hyperolius mitchelli

1

CLF

Hyperolius nasutus

0

CLO

Hyperolius parkeri

1

CLO

Hyperolius pictus

1

MG

Hyperolius pseudargus

0

MG

Hyperolius puncticulatus

1

CLO

Hyperolius pusillus

0

CLO

Hyperolius reesi

0

CLO

Hyperolius rubrovermiculatus

1

CLF

Hyperolius sp. 1*

NA

CLO

Hyperolius sp. 2*

NA

MF

Hyperolius spinigularis

1

MF

Hyperolius tanneri

NA

MF

Hyperolius tuberilinguis

1

CLO

Hyperolius viridiflavus

0

CLO

Kassina maculata

0

CLO

Kassina senegalensis

0

CLO

Kassina somalica

0

CLO

Leptopelis argenteus

1

CLO

Leptopelis barbouri

1

MF

Leptopelis bocagii

1

CLO

Leptopelis cf. barbouri*

1

MF

Leptopelis cf. uluguruensis*

1

MF

Leptopelis concolor

1

CLO

Leptopelis flavomaculatus

1

CLF

Leptopelis parbocagii

1

CLO

Leptopelis parkeri

1

MF

Leptopelis uluguruensis

1

MF

Leptopelis vermiculatus

1

MF

Mertensophryne (S.) loveridgei

0

CLF

Mertensophryne (S.) usambarae

0

CLF

Mertensophryne lindneri

0

CLO

Mertensophryne micranotis

0

CLF

Mertensophryne taitana

0

CLO

Mertensophryne uzunguensis

NA

MG

Nectophrynoides asperginis

2

MF

Nectophrynoides cryptus

2

MF

Nectophrynoides frontierei

2

MF

Nectophrynoides laevis

2

MF

Nectophrynoides laticeps

2

MF

Nectophrynoides minutus

2

MF

Nectophrynoides paulae

2

MF

Nectophrynoides poyntoni

2

MF

Nectophrynoides pseudotornieri

2

MF

Nectophrynoides sp. 1*

2

MF

Nectophrynoides sp. 2*

2

MF

Nectophrynoides sp. 3*

2

MF

Nectophrynoides sp. 4*

2

MF

Nectophrynoides sp. 5*

2

MF

Nectophrynoides sp. 6*

2

MF

Nectophrynoides sp. 7*

2

MF

Nectophrynoides tornieri

2

MF

Nectophrynoides vestergaardi

2

MF

Nectophrynoides viviparus

2

MF

Nectophrynoides wendyae

2

MF

Parhoplophryne usambarica

NA

MF

Petropedetes cf. yakusini*

1

MF

Petropedetes martiensseni

1

MF

Petropedetes yakusini

1

MF

Phlyctimantis keithae

0

MF

Phrynobatrachus acridoides

0

CLO

Phrynobatrachus breviceps

0

MG

Phrynobatrachus krefftii

1

MF

Phrynobatrachus mababiensis

0

CLO

Phrynobatrachus natalensis

0

CLO

Phrynobatrachus pallidus

0

CLO

Phrynobatrachus parvulus

0

MG

Phrynobatrachus rungwensis

0

MG

Phrynobatrachus scheffleri

0

CLO

Phrynobatrachus sp. 1*

0

MG

Phrynobatrachus ukingensis

0

MG

Phrynobatrachus uzungwensis

0

MF

Phrynomantis bifasciatus

0

CLO

Probreviceps cf. durirostris*

2

MF

Probreviceps durirostris

2

MF

Probreviceps loveridgei

2

MF

Probreviceps macrodactylus

2

MF

Probreviceps rungwensis

2

MF

Probreviceps uluguruensis

2

MF

Ptychadena anchietae

0

CLO

Ptychadena grandisonae

0

MG

Ptychadena mascareniensis

0

CLO

Ptychadena mossambica

0

CLO

Ptychadena oxyrhynchus

0

CLO

Ptychadena porosissima

0

MG

Ptychadena schillukorum

0

CLO

Ptychadena taenioscelis

0

CLO

Ptychadena uzungwensis

0

MG

Pyxicephalus adspersus

0

CLO

Pyxicephalus edulis

0

CLO

Schismaderma carens

0

CLO

Schistometopum gregorii

2

CLO

Scolecomorphus cf. kirkii*

2

MF

Scolecomorphus cf. vittatus*

2

MF

Scolecomorphus kirkii

2

MF

Scolecomorphus sp.1*

2

MF

Scolecomorphus uluguruensis

2

MF

Scolecomorphus vittatus

2

MF

Spelaeophryne methneri

2

CLF

Strongylopus fuelleborni

1

MG

Tomopterna cryptotis

0

CLO

Tomopterna luganga

0

CLO

Xenopus borealis

0

MG

Xenopus muelleri

0

CLO

Xenopus petersii

0

CLO

Xenopus victorianus

0

CLO





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