Forensics Chapter 3 The Study of Hair
Explain how hair can be considered class evidence as well as individual evidence.
Class evidence if alone and without follicle cells attached; if follicle cells are attached then DNA can be extracted and an individual may be identified We use a compound microscope in lab but explain why a comparison microscope would make analysis of the suspect and victim’s hair more advantageous.
You can place the two samples side- by -side for a better comparison. Explain how hair helps to regulate body temperature.
If the outside temperature is cold, muscles in the skin pull the hair strands upright, creating pockets that trap air. This trapped air provides a warm, insulating layer next to the skin. If the temperature outside is warm, the muscles relax and the hair becomes flattened against the body, releasing the trapped air. How many hair follicles do we have at birth? What percentage is found on our head?
Makes hair brittle and can disturb the scales on the cuticle How fast does anagen hair grow in a month?
1.3 centimeters per month or approximately 0.44mm per day Would hair be individual evidence if considering racial differences?
No ---there are generalities but may exist in people of different races. Explain how human and animal hair can be distinguished from each other considering the medulla and cuticle.
In animals the pigmentation is denser toward the medulla and in humans it is denser toward the cuticle.
Animal pigments are often found in sold masses called ovoid bodies and human hairs are usually one color along the length of the shaft but animal hairs may change color more abruptly Why is Locard’s principle mentioned again in this chapter?
Hair is considered trace evidence. What characteristics of hair are examined macroscopically?
Length, color and curliness What characteristics of hair are examined microscopically?
Pattern of medulla, pigmentation of the cortex and types of scales on the cuticle. Medullary index can be measured as well What is fluorescence and why is this an important tool in examining hair?
Absorption of light and then reemitting the light in a different color.
Chemicals that skin can absorb can become incorporated into hair as well. Ingested toxins such as arsenic, lead and drugs can be detected by chemical analyses too . Identify 5 elements of the 14 that can be identified when using Neutron Activation Analysis.
Probability of two individuals having same concentration of nine different elements is about one in a million.
NAA involves bombarding hair in a nuclear reactor with high-energy neutrons. Different elements give off gamma radiation with different signals and these signals can be recorded and interpreted to determine concentrations of element in the sample. Does the Neutron Activation Analysis lend itself more to class or individual evidence?
Individual What is a follicular tag? What can be obtained from obtaining a hair with a follicle on it?
A hair containing the follicle. Blood and tissue may be analyzed. DNA may be studied as well as blood type. Does a follicular tag lend itself more to class or individual evidence?