First draft Part II default Emission Factors, Source Group 7 Chemicals and Consumer Goods



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7 d Textile Production


The textile industry is comprised of a diverse, fragmented group of establishments that produce and/or process textile-related products, which include fiber, yarn, fabric for further processing into finished goods. These may range from small “back street” operations with few controls to large-scale highly sophisticated industrial operations with comprehensive pollution controls. The process of converting raw fibers into finished textile products is complex; thus, most textile mills specialize (US-EPA 1997b). The textile industry is being targeted as a potential source of PCDD/PCDF as:

  • Pesticides such as pentachlorophenol, known to be contaminated with PCDD/PCDF, can enter the plant via raw materials, e.g., cotton, being treated with PCP;

  • Dyestuffs on the basis of chloranil can be used to color the textiles;

  • Finishing processes may utilize chlorinated chemicals contaminated with PCDD/PCDF and washing processes at alkaline media are part of the textile finishing processes; and

  • Large volumes of effluent water are released into the environment.

The process description is detailed in the BAT&BEP Guidelines.7

Sources of PCDD/PCDF in the final products can be due to:



  • Use of chlorinated chemicals, esp. PCP, to protect the raw material (cotton, wool or other fibers, leather, etc.)

  • Use of dioxin-contaminated dye-stuffs

  • Formation of PCDD/PCDF during finishing.

Emission Factors


PCDD/PCDF emission factors for two source classes are listed in Table X. Whereas there are many data for PCDD/PCDF concentrations in final products (textiles), there are no data for residues and wastewater. Therefore, emission factors can be only given as upper bound and lower bound limits for the final product.

Detailed information on how these emission factors have been derived can be found in Annex 50.8



Table X: PCDD/PCDF emission factors for name of the textile industry


7c

Textile Industry

Emission factors - µg TEQ/ t of textile




Classification

Air

Water

Land

Product

Residue

1

Upper limit

NA

ND

NA

100

ND

2

Lower limit

NA

ND

NA

0.1

ND

Activity rates


Activity rates may be obtained from various sources, in particular:

  • Owners/operators of the relevant facilities (by questionnaires);

  • State, provincial, national and/or international agencies that gather centralized statistical information.

Uncertainty


Data quality rating is provided for the default emission factors

7 e Leather refining


So far, there are no reports on PCDD/PCDF contamination at or around leather plants. However, contamination of commercial leather products has been reported, and based on the PCDD/PCDF pattern it can be assumed that PCP is the source for the contamination. This assumption is underlined by the fact that since the ban of PCP in Germany in the year 1989, which sets a maximum concentration of 5 mg PCP/kg in the final product, the PCDD/PCDF concentrations in leather goods decline. For leather goods, the PCP concentrations thus correlate with PCDD/PCDF concentrations at least qualitatively. The homologue and congener profiles and patterns strongly indicate that PCP is the source of PCDD/PCDF contamination.

Emission Factors


PCDD/PCDF emission factors for two source classes are listed in Table X. For this Toolkit, only emission factors for the final product can be provided. There are no data available for effluents or wastes. Emissions to air are expected to be negligible. Releases to water and with residues could be high.

Detailed information on how these emission factors have been derived can be found in Annex 51.9



Table X: PCDD/PCDF emission factors for leather refining


7e

Leather Refining

Emission factors - µg TEQ/ t




Classification

Air

Water

Land

Product

Residue

1

Upper limit

NA

ND

NA

1,000

ND

2

Lower limits

NA

ND

NA

10

ND

Activity rates


Activity rates may be obtained from various sources, in particular:

  • Owners/operators of the relevant facilities (by questionnaires);

  • State, provincial, national and/or international agencies that gather centralized statistical information.

Uncertainty


Data quality rating is provided for the default emission factors



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