The textile industry is comprised of a diverse, fragmented group of establishments that produce and/or process textile-related products, which include fiber, yarn, fabric for further processing into finished goods. These may range from small “back street” operations with few controls to large-scale highly sophisticated industrial operations with comprehensive pollution controls. The process of converting raw fibers into finished textile products is complex; thus, most textile mills specialize (US-EPA 1997b). The textile industry is being targeted as a potential source of PCDD/PCDF as:
Pesticides such as pentachlorophenol, known to be contaminated with PCDD/PCDF, can enter the plant via raw materials, e.g., cotton, being treated with PCP;
PCDD/PCDF emission factors for two source classes are listed in Table X. Whereas there are many data for PCDD/PCDF concentrations in final products (textiles), there are no data for residues and wastewater. Therefore, emission factors can be only given as upper bound and lower bound limits for the final product.
Detailed information on how these emission factors have been derived can be found in Annex 50.8
Table X: PCDD/PCDF emission factors for name of the textile industry
So far, there are no reports on PCDD/PCDF contamination at or around leather plants. However, contamination of commercial leather products has been reported, and based on the PCDD/PCDF pattern it can be assumed that PCP is the source for the contamination. This assumption is underlined by the fact that since the ban of PCP in Germany in the year 1989, which sets a maximum concentration of 5 mg PCP/kg in the final product, the PCDD/PCDF concentrations in leather goods decline. For leather goods, the PCP concentrations thus correlate with PCDD/PCDF concentrations at least qualitatively. The homologue and congener profiles and patterns strongly indicate that PCP is the source of PCDD/PCDF contamination.
PCDD/PCDF emission factors for two source classes are listed in Table X. For this Toolkit, only emission factors for the final product can be provided. There are no data available for effluents or wastes. Emissions to air are expected to be negligible. Releases to water and with residues could be high.
Detailed information on how these emission factors have been derived can be found in Annex 51.9
Table X: PCDD/PCDF emission factors for leather refining