There are two major sections presented in this chapter. Those are finding and discussion. The finding presents the data found along the research while discussion focuses on the explanation of the data found correspondent to the theorist and previous study.
The researcher took the data from ten subjects as Torajan speakers of English. They are ten students of Christian University Indonesia Toraja who speak Torajan as their first language. This research aims to find out the pronunciation errors made by Torajan speakers of English in producing English sounds when tell a topic and the causal factors Torajan speakers of English make pronunciation error. In order to answer those questions, the researcher applied three instruments: free speech where the student is free to tell about a topic, recording and interview. The researcher reports and describes the data findings as follows:
The pronunciation errors made by the students of UKI Toraja as Torajan speakers of English in producing English consonants and vowels through telling a topic
The data were taken from the students’ pronunciation when telling a topic. They chose one of available topics then talk about it about two minutes. After transcribing the data, the researcher employed error analysis theory to analyze the errors according to the sources of errors. They are interlingual errors and intralingual errors consonants and vowels.
Interlingual error is error caused by the interference of the learner’s mother tongue (Richard 1971 in 1994: 173). It derives from negative transfer from first language into target language. In this research, interlingual errors are those attributed to the influence of the Torajan language as paticicpant’s first language on English as the foreign language.
Based on the data recording of free speech test to the students of English education study program of UKI-Toraja, the researcher found interlingual error in consonants and vowels as follow:
Interlingual errors in consonants
Table 4.1 Examples of the Participants’ Interlingual Errors in English Consonant
The table 4.1 above shows some examples that the participants of this research pronounced erroneously in ficative and plosive sounds. Example errors in fricatives are shown in number 1, 2, 3 and 4. Those are alveolar fricative voiced /z/, palato alveolar fricative voiceless /ʃ/, palato alveolar fricative voiced /ʒ/, and labio-dental fricative voiceless /f/. Then example errors in plosive are shown in number 5 and 6. Those are alveolar plosive voiced /d/ and alveolar plosive voiceless /t/ in final position. They are as elaborated in the following.
Number 1 shows the students pronounced alveolar fricative voiceless /s/ instead of the English fricatives as the alveolar fricative voiced /z/ in final and medial position. In final position for instances; they pronounce word “is” as [ɪs] instead of [ɪz], word “was” as [wɒs] instead of [wɒz/wəz]. Then, in medial position for instances; the word “reason” pronounced as [rɪsen] instead of [rɪzn], word “desease” pronounced as [dɪˈsiːs] instead of [dɪˈziːz], word “presenter” pronounced as [prɪˈsenter] instead of [prɪˈzentə], word “music” pronounced as [muːsɪk] instead of [mjuːzɪk].
Then, in number 2 the students pronounced palato alveolar fricative voiceless /ʃ/ as alveolar fricative /s/ in medial position. For instances; they pronounce word “nation” as [nesɪɒn] instead of [næʃn], [presuer] instead of [preʃə]. Another example are word “professional” pronounced as [profɪsɪonʌl] instead of [prəˈfeʃnəl], word “especially” pronounced as [espesɪʌli] instead of [ɪspeʃəli].
In number 3 the students pronounced the palato alveolar fricative voiced /ʒ/ as alveolar fricative /s/. For example in medial of word, “Indonesia” was pronounced as [ɪndɒnesɪa] instead of [ɪndəniʒə].
The only fricatives sound that exists in Toraja phonetic system is fricative voiceless /s/. There is no other fricatives sound comparing with English such as alveolar fricative voiced /z/, palato alveolar fricative voiceless /ʃ/, and palato alveolar fricative voiced /ʒ/. Therefore, when those sounds that should be pronounced in English, the participants tend to pronounce as alveolar fricative voiceless /s/. It is clear that Torajan language influence the English.
Moreover, example number 4 shows that the participants did not pronounce the labio-dental fricative voiceless /f/ properly. They pronounced it as the bilabial plosive voiceless /p/. For instance word “full”, they pronounced as [pul] instead of [ful] and word “welfare” pronounced as [welper] instead of [welfer]. In actually there is no the labio-dental fricative voiceless /f/ in system of Torajan language. That is why Torajan Speaker often makes this error and this influence communication in English.
There are also errors in plosive. They are alveolar plosive voiced /d/ and alveolar plosive voiceless /t/ in final position (number 5 and 6). The students do not pronounce them in the final position when they should form consonant cluster [nd], [ld], [nt], and [st].
Example number 5 shows the students tend to omit the alveolar plosive voiced /d/ when it should be pronounced as consonant cluster [nd], [ld] in the final position. For instance, the word “spend” was pronounced as [spen] instead of [spend], word “mind” was pronounced as [maɪn] instead of [maɪnd], word “second” was pronounced as [seken] instead of [sekənd], word “kind” was pronounced as [kaɪn] instead of [kaɪnd], and word “child” was pronounced as [tʃaɪl] instead of [tʃaɪld].
Example number 6 shows the students omit the alveolar plosive voiceless /t/ when it should be pronounced as consonant cluster [nt], [st] in the final position. For instance, they pronounce word “cost” as [kɒs] instead of [kɒst], word “last” as [la:s] instead of [la:st], word “interest” as [interes] instead of [ɪntrəst]. Those examples presented error in pronouncing the cluster [st]. Another that presented error in pronouncing cluster [nt] for instance word “important” was pronounced as [ɪmpɒtʌn] instead of [ɪmˈpɔːtnt], and word “talent” was pronounced as [tʌlen] that should be [tælənt].
In Torajan sound system alveolar plosive sounds /d, t/ are used in initial and medial position, while in English, it has them in initial, medial, and in final position. Similar with the fricatives sound, alveolar plosives /d, t/ in the final position are not exist in Torajan system. Therefore, when those sounds should be pronounced in final position in English the participant tend to omit those sounds.
Those two findings show the first language influence the errors made by participants in pronouncing consonant the target language.
Torajan learners are confused in pronouncing the close front vowel /i:/. They tend to pronounce this vowel errorly as half-close front vowel /ɪ/. In number 1 shows some examples of errors that the students made. For example, word “niece” was pronounced as [nɪs] instead of [niːs], word “reach” was pronounced as [rɪtʃ] instead of [ri:tʃ], word “deep” was pronounced as [dɪp] instead of [di:p], and word “release” was pronounced as [rɪlɪs] instead of [rɪli:s].
From those some examples of error in pronouncing the close front vowel /i:/, it shows that their pronounciation can make misunderstanding to the lwastener. Mispronounciation can make misunderstanding. For instance when the speaker mean “reach” but pronounces it as [rɪtʃ] instead of [ri:tʃ], the listener will listen and understand it as word “rich”. It was clear that the effect of first language (Toraja language) to target language (English) occur where Torajan has half-close front vowel /ɪ/ but not close front vowel /i:/.
The half-open front vowel /æ/ was difficult for Torajan learners to pronounce it correctly. There was no half-open front vowel /æ/ in system of Torajan. Therefore, students pronounced it errorly shown in example 2 and 3 in table 4.2. They pronounced the half-open front vowel /æ/ as half-open centre back vowel /a/ and as mid front vowel /e/ in initial and medial position.
Example 2 shows examples of words students pronounced the half-open front vowel /æ/ as mid front vowel /e/. For instance, words “pack” was pronounced as [pek] instead of [pæk], “damage” was pronounced as [demeɪdʒ] instead of [dæmɪdʒ], word “factor” was pronounced as [fektor] instead of [fæk.tə], word “accident” was pronounced as [eksɪden] instead of [æksɪdənt], and word “adult” was pronounced as [edʌls] instead of [ædʌlt].
Example 3 shows words students pronounced the half-open front vowel /æ/ as half-open centre back vowel /a/. The process occurred in initial and medial position too. For instance in initial position, they pronounced words such “aspect” as [aspek] instead of [æs.pekt], “alcohol” as [alkɒhɒl] instead of [ælkəhɒl]. In addition, in medial position, students pronounced words “tobacco” as [tabakɒ] instead of [təˈbæk.əʊ], “borax” as [bɒraks] instead of [bɔːræks], and “Shanghai” as [saŋaɪ] instead of [ʃæŋˈhaɪ].
In example 4, Torajan learners pronounce the schwa sound (mid centre vowel) /ə/ as mid front vowel /e/. It has shown when they pronounced word “attack” [etek] instead of [əˈtæk], word “about” as [ebaut] instead of [əbaut], word “addictive” as [edʌktɪf] instead of [ədɪktɪv], and word “second” pronounced as [seken] instead of [sekənd]. The errors occurs in initial and medial position of the word.
Then, in example 5 the mid centre vowel /ə/ was pronounced as short open back vowel /ɒ/ on the word “opinion”. It should be pronounced [əpɪnjən], but it was pronounced as [ɒpɪnjɒn]. It was clear that students are difficult to pronounce the mid centre vowel /ə/ correctly.
The long mid back vowel /ɔː/ (6) and the closing diphthong /əʊ/ (7) were pronounced as short open back vowel /ɒ/. For instance, the students pronounced word “all” as [ɒl] that should be pronounced as [ɔːl]. The others words like “moments” pronounced as [mɒmens] instead of [məʊmənts], and “process” as [prɒses] instead of [prəʊses]. It shows that Torajan learners have difficulty to pronounce sounds long mid back vowel /ɔː/ and closing diphthong /əʊ/. It dues to the absence of both sounds in Torajan language and there was just sound short open back vowel /ɒ/ in Torajan system. That was way, Torajan tends to pronounce letter ‘o’ as sound short open back vowel /ɒ/ then the real sound in English.
In number 8, the long close back vowel /ʊ:/ was pronounced as the short close back vowel /ʊ/ in the word “school”. The learners pronounce it as [skʊl] instead of [sk ʊ:l]. Due to the absence of the long close back vowel / ʊ:/ in Torajan system, they are difficult to be produced properly
Furthermore, the learners tend to pronounce the mid centre vowel /ɜː/ in (9) as mid front vowel /e/. For instance at the word “first” was pronounced as [fes] that should be pronounced as [fɜːst]. It is cause the absence of sound mid centre vowel /ɜː/ in Torajan system. Whenever Torajan learners pronounce the sound, they have difficulty and tend to pronounce it as mid front vowel /e/. It was clear that there is the influence of the first language (Torajan) to the target language (English).
Intralingual error and development error
According to (Richard 1971 in 1994: 174) “Intralingual errors are those, which reflect the general characteristics of rule learning, such as faulty generalization, incomplete application of rules, and failure to learn conditions under which rule apply. Developmental errors illustrate the learning attempting to build up hypotheses about English language from his limited experience of it in the classroom or textbook”.
Based on the data recording of free speech test to the students of English education study program of UKI-Toraja, it was found intralingual and developmental errors in consonants and vowels as follow:
Intralingual errors in consonant
Table 4.3 Examples of the Participants’ Intralingual Errors in English Consonant