Finding and discussion



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CHAPTER IV

FINDING AND DISCUSSION

There are two major sections presented in this chapter. Those are finding and discussion. The finding presents the data found along the research while discussion focuses on the explanation of the data found correspondent to the theorist and previous study.



  1. Findings

The researcher took the data from ten subjects as Torajan speakers of English. They are ten students of Christian University Indonesia Toraja who speak Torajan as their first language. This research aims to find out the pronunciation errors made by Torajan speakers of English in producing English sounds when tell a topic and the causal factors Torajan speakers of English make pronunciation error. In order to answer those questions, the researcher applied three instruments: free speech where the student is free to tell about a topic, recording and interview. The researcher reports and describes the data findings as follows:

  1. The pronunciation errors made by the students of UKI Toraja as Torajan speakers of English in producing English consonants and vowels through telling a topic

The data were taken from the students’ pronunciation when telling a topic. They chose one of available topics then talk about it about two minutes. After transcribing the data, the researcher employed error analysis theory to analyze the errors according to the sources of errors. They are interlingual errors and intralingual errors consonants and vowels.



  1. Interlingual error

Interlingual error is error caused by the interference of the learner’s mother tongue (Richard 1971 in 1994: 173). It derives from negative transfer from first language into target language. In this research, interlingual errors are those attributed to the influence of the Torajan language as paticicpant’s first language on English as the foreign language.

Based on the data recording of free speech test to the students of English education study program of UKI-Toraja, the researcher found interlingual error in consonants and vowels as follow:



  1. Interlingual errors in consonants

Table 4.1 Examples of the Participants’ Interlingual Errors in English Consonant



No.

Manner/ place of articulation

Process

English phonetic transcription

Torajan phonetic transcription

Incorrect pronunciation from student

Correct pronunciation

Spelling

1

Fricative alveolar voiced to fricative alveolar voiceless

/z/→/s/

/z/

/s/

ɪs

wɒs


sen

dɪˈss

prɪˈsenter

muːsɪk


njus

ɪz

wɒz/wəz


zn

dɪˈzz

prɪˈzentə

mjuːzɪk


njuːz

is

was


reason

disease


presenter

music


news

2

Fricative palato alveolar voiceless to fricative alveolar voiceless

/ʃ/→/s/

/ʃ/

/s/

nesɪɒn

presuer

profɪsɪonʌl

espesɪʌli



ʃn

preʃə

prəˈfeʃnəl

ɪspeʃəli



nation

pressure


professional

especially



3

Fricative palato alveolar voiced to fricative alveolar voiceless

/ʒ/→/s/

/ʒ/

/s/

ɪndɒnesɪa

ɪndəniʒə

Indonesia

4

Fricative labio-dental voiceless to plosive bilabial voiceless

/f/→/p/

/f/

/p/

pʊl

welper



fʊl

welf



full

welfare


5

Stop/ Plosive alveolar voiced

Ommision of final /d/

/d/

/d/ but no in final position


spen

maɪn


seken

kaɪn


tʃaɪl

spend

maɪnd

sekənd

kaɪnd


tʃaɪld

spend

mind


second

kind


child

6

Stop/ Plosive alveolar voiceless

Ommision of final /t/

/t/

/t/ but no in final position

kɒs

la:s


ɪnteres

ɪmpɒtʌn


tʌlen

kɒst

la:st

ɪntrəst

ɪmˈpɔːtnt

tælənt


cost

last


interest

important

talent


The table 4.1 above shows some examples that the participants of this research pronounced erroneously in ficative and plosive sounds. Example errors in fricatives are shown in number 1, 2, 3 and 4. Those are alveolar fricative voiced /z/, palato alveolar fricative voiceless /ʃ/, palato alveolar fricative voiced /ʒ/, and labio-dental fricative voiceless /f/. Then example errors in plosive are shown in number 5 and 6. Those are alveolar plosive voiced /d/ and alveolar plosive voiceless /t/ in final position. They are as elaborated in the following.

Number 1 shows the students pronounced alveolar fricative voiceless /s/ instead of the English fricatives as the alveolar fricative voiced /z/ in final and medial position. In final position for instances; they pronounce word “is” as [ɪs] instead of [ɪz], word “was” as [wɒs] instead of [wɒz/wəz]. Then, in medial position for instances; the word “reason” pronounced as [rɪsen] instead of [rɪzn], word “desease” pronounced as [dɪˈss] instead of [dɪˈzz], word “presenter” pronounced as [prɪˈsenter] instead of [prɪˈzentə], word “music” pronounced as [muːsɪk] instead of [mjuːzɪk].

Then, in number 2 the students pronounced palato alveolar fricative voiceless /ʃ/ as alveolar fricative /s/ in medial position. For instances; they pronounce word “nation” as [nesɪɒn] instead of [næʃn], [presuer] instead of [preʃə]. Another example are word “professional” pronounced as [profɪsɪonʌl] instead of [prəˈfeʃnəl], word “especially” pronounced as [espesɪʌli] instead of [ɪspeʃəli].

In number 3 the students pronounced the palato alveolar fricative voiced /ʒ/ as alveolar fricative /s/. For example in medial of word, “Indonesia” was pronounced as [ɪndɒnesɪa] instead of [ɪndəniʒə].

The only fricatives sound that exists in Toraja phonetic system is fricative voiceless /s/. There is no other fricatives sound comparing with English such as alveolar fricative voiced /z/, palato alveolar fricative voiceless /ʃ/, and palato alveolar fricative voiced /ʒ/. Therefore, when those sounds that should be pronounced in English, the participants tend to pronounce as alveolar fricative voiceless /s/. It is clear that Torajan language influence the English.

Moreover, example number 4 shows that the participants did not pronounce the labio-dental fricative voiceless /f/ properly. They pronounced it as the bilabial plosive voiceless /p/. For instance word “full”, they pronounced as [pul] instead of [ful] and word “welfare” pronounced as [welper] instead of [welfer]. In actually there is no the labio-dental fricative voiceless /f/ in system of Torajan language. That is why Torajan Speaker often makes this error and this influence communication in English.

There are also errors in plosive. They are alveolar plosive voiced /d/ and alveolar plosive voiceless /t/ in final position (number 5 and 6). The students do not pronounce them in the final position when they should form consonant cluster [nd], [ld], [nt], and [st].

Example number 5 shows the students tend to omit the alveolar plosive voiced /d/ when it should be pronounced as consonant cluster [nd], [ld] in the final position. For instance, the word “spend” was pronounced as [spen] instead of [spend], word “mind” was pronounced as [maɪn] instead of [maɪnd], word “second” was pronounced as [seken] instead of [sekənd], word “kind” was pronounced as [kaɪn] instead of [kaɪnd], and word “child” was pronounced as [tʃaɪl] instead of [tʃaɪld].

Example number 6 shows the students omit the alveolar plosive voiceless /t/ when it should be pronounced as consonant cluster [nt], [st] in the final position. For instance, they pronounce word “cost” as [kɒs] instead of [kɒst], word “last” as [la:s] instead of [la:st], word “interest” as [interes] instead of [ɪntrəst]. Those examples presented error in pronouncing the cluster [st]. Another that presented error in pronouncing cluster [nt] for instance word “important” was pronounced as [ɪmpɒtʌn] instead of [ɪmˈpɔːtnt], and word “talent” was pronounced as [tʌlen] that should be [tælənt].

In Torajan sound system alveolar plosive sounds /d, t/ are used in initial and medial position, while in English, it has them in initial, medial, and in final position. Similar with the fricatives sound, alveolar plosives /d, t/ in the final position are not exist in Torajan system. Therefore, when those sounds should be pronounced in final position in English the participant tend to omit those sounds.

Those two findings show the first language influence the errors made by participants in pronouncing consonant the target language.


  1. Interlingual errors in vowels

Table 4.2 Example of the Participants’ Interlingual Errors in English Vowels

No.

Vowels

Process

English phonetic transcription

Torajan phonetic transcription

learner’s performance

Correct pronunciation

Spelling

1

Long close front vowel to short close front vowel

/i:/→/ɪ/

/i:/

/ɪ/

nɪs

rɪtʃ


dɪp

rɪlɪs


ni:s

ri:tʃ


di:p

rɪli:s


niece

reach


deep

release


2

Open front vowel to mid front vowel

/æ/→/e/

/æ/

/e/

pek

demeɪdʒ

fektor

eksɪden


edʌls

pæk

dæmɪdʒ

fæk.tə

æksɪdənt


ædʌlt

pack

damage


factor

accident


adult

3

Open front vowel to open back vowel

/æ/→ /a/

/æ/

/a/

a s.pek

alkɒhɒl

taba

bɒraks

saŋaɪ



æs.pekt

ælkəhɒl

təˈbæk.əʊ

bɔː.ræks

ʃæŋˈhaɪ



aspect

alcohol


tobacco

borax


Shanghai

4

Mid centre vowel (schwa) to mid front vowel

/ə/→/e/

/ə/

/e/

eˈtek

ebaut

edʌktɪf

seken



əˈtæk

əbaut

ədɪktɪv

sekənd



attack

about


addictive

second


5

Mid centre vowel (schwa) to open back vowel

/ə/→ /ɒ/

/ə/

/ɒ/

ɒpɪnjɒn

əpɪnjən

opinion

6

Mid back vowel to open back vowel

/ɔː/→ /ɒ/

/ɔː/

/ɒ/

ɒl

ɔːl

all

7

Closing diphthong to open back vowel

/əʊ/→/ɒ/

/əʊ/

/ɒ/

mɒmens

prɒses

hɒp


məʊmənts

prəʊ.ses

həʊp


moments

process


hope

8

Long close back vowel to short close back vowel

/u:/→/ʊ/

/u:/

/ʊ/

skʊl

sku:l

school

9

Mid centre vowel to mid front vowel

/ɜː/→/e/

/ɜː/

/e/

fes

f ɜːst

first

Torajan learners are confused in pronouncing the close front vowel /i:/. They tend to pronounce this vowel errorly as half-close front vowel /ɪ/. In number 1 shows some examples of errors that the students made. For example, word “niece” was pronounced as [nɪs] instead of [niːs], word “reach” was pronounced as [rɪtʃ] instead of [ri:tʃ], word “deep” was pronounced as [dɪp] instead of [di:p], and word “release” was pronounced as [rɪlɪs] instead of [rɪli:s].

From those some examples of error in pronouncing the close front vowel /i:/, it shows that their pronounciation can make misunderstanding to the lwastener. Mispronounciation can make misunderstanding. For instance when the speaker mean “reach” but pronounces it as [rɪtʃ] instead of [ri:tʃ], the listener will listen and understand it as word “rich”. It was clear that the effect of first language (Toraja language) to target language (English) occur where Torajan has half-close front vowel /ɪ/ but not close front vowel /i:/.

The half-open front vowel /æ/ was difficult for Torajan learners to pronounce it correctly. There was no half-open front vowel /æ/ in system of Torajan. Therefore, students pronounced it errorly shown in example 2 and 3 in table 4.2. They pronounced the half-open front vowel /æ/ as half-open centre back vowel /a/ and as mid front vowel /e/ in initial and medial position.

Example 2 shows examples of words students pronounced the half-open front vowel /æ/ as mid front vowel /e/. For instance, words “pack” was pronounced as [pek] instead of [pæk], “damage” was pronounced as [demeɪdʒ] instead of [dæmɪdʒ], word “factor” was pronounced as [fektor] instead of [fæk.tə], word “accident” was pronounced as [eksɪden] instead of [æksɪdənt], and word “adult” was pronounced as [edʌls] instead of [ædʌlt].

Example 3 shows words students pronounced the half-open front vowel /æ/ as half-open centre back vowel /a/. The process occurred in initial and medial position too. For instance in initial position, they pronounced words such “aspect” as [aspek] instead of [æs.pekt], “alcohol” as [alkɒhɒl] instead of [ælkəhɒl]. In addition, in medial position, students pronounced words “tobacco” as [tabakɒ] instead of [təˈbæk.əʊ], “borax” as [bɒraks] instead of [bɔːræks], and “Shanghai” as [saŋaɪ] instead of [ʃæŋˈhaɪ].

In example 4, Torajan learners pronounce the schwa sound (mid centre vowel) /ə/ as mid front vowel /e/. It has shown when they pronounced word “attack” [etek] instead of [əˈtæk], word “about” as [ebaut] instead of [əbaut], word “addictive” as [edʌktɪf] instead of [ədɪktɪv], and word “second” pronounced as [seken] instead of [sekənd]. The errors occurs in initial and medial position of the word.

Then, in example 5 the mid centre vowel /ə/ was pronounced as short open back vowel /ɒ/ on the word “opinion”. It should be pronounced [əpɪnjən], but it was pronounced as [ɒpɪnjɒn]. It was clear that students are difficult to pronounce the mid centre vowel /ə/ correctly.

The long mid back vowel /ɔː/ (6) and the closing diphthong /əʊ/ (7) were pronounced as short open back vowel /ɒ/. For instance, the students pronounced word “all” as [ɒl] that should be pronounced as [ɔːl]. The others words like “moments” pronounced as [mɒmens] instead of [məʊmənts], and “process” as [prɒses] instead of [prəʊses]. It shows that Torajan learners have difficulty to pronounce sounds long mid back vowel /ɔː/ and closing diphthong /əʊ/. It dues to the absence of both sounds in Torajan language and there was just sound short open back vowel /ɒ/ in Torajan system. That was way, Torajan tends to pronounce letter ‘o’ as sound short open back vowel /ɒ/ then the real sound in English.

In number 8, the long close back vowel /ʊ:/ was pronounced as the short close back vowel /ʊ/ in the word “school”. The learners pronounce it as [skʊl] instead of [sk ʊ:l]. Due to the absence of the long close back vowel / ʊ:/ in Torajan system, they are difficult to be produced properly

Furthermore, the learners tend to pronounce the mid centre vowel /ɜː/ in (9) as mid front vowel /e/. For instance at the word “first” was pronounced as [fes] that should be pronounced as [fɜːst]. It is cause the absence of sound mid centre vowel /ɜː/ in Torajan system. Whenever Torajan learners pronounce the sound, they have difficulty and tend to pronounce it as mid front vowel /e/. It was clear that there is the influence of the first language (Torajan) to the target language (English).



  1. Intralingual error and development error

According to (Richard 1971 in 1994: 174) “Intralingual errors are those, which reflect the general characteristics of rule learning, such as faulty generalization, incomplete application of rules, and failure to learn conditions under which rule apply. Developmental errors illustrate the learning attempting to build up hypotheses about English language from his limited experience of it in the classroom or textbook”.

Based on the data recording of free speech test to the students of English education study program of UKI-Toraja, it was found intralingual and developmental errors in consonants and vowels as follow:



  1. Intralingual errors in consonant

Table 4.3 Examples of the Participants’ Intralingual Errors in English Consonant

No.

Manner of articulation

Process

English phonetic transcription

phonetic transcription performance

learner’s performance

Correct pronunciation

Spelling

1

Fricative dental voiced to plosive alveolar voiced

/ð/→/d/

/ð/

/d/

det

deɪ


ʌder

tugeder


ðæt

ðeɪ


ʌðə

təˈgeð.ə


that

they


other

together


2

Fricative dental voiced to fricative dental voiceless

/ð/→/θ/

/ð/

/ θ/

ɒlθəʊ

ɔːlˈðəʊ

although

3

Fricative dental voiced to plosive alveolar voiceless

/ð/→/t/

/ð/

/t/

wɪt

wɪð

with

4

Fricative dental voiceless to plosive alveolar voiceless

/θ/→/t/

/θ/

/t/

soʊt

taʊsʌn̩


teŋ

det


saʊθ

θaʊzn̩d


θæŋk

deθ


south

thousand


thank

death


5

Fricative labio-dental voiced to fricative labio-dental voiceless

/v/→/f/

/v/

/f/

ɒf

f



əv

v



of

live


6

Stop/ plosive alveolar voiceless to plosive alveolar voiced and vice versa

/d/→/t/

/d/

/t/

bɪˈsaɪt

bɪˈsaɪd

beside

7

/t/→/d/

/t/

/d/

lɪdl

lɪtl

little

8

Affricate palato-alveolar voiceless to plosive alveolar voiceless

/tʃ/→/t/

/tʃ/

/t/

kʌlter

senturi


ʌnfortunetli

kʌltʃə

sentʃəri

ʌnfɔːənətli


culture

century


unfortunately

9

Affricate palato-alveolar voiceless to fricative palato-alveolar voiceless

/tʃ/→/ʃ/

/tʃ/

/ʃ/

kweɪʃən

kwes.tʃən

question

10

Plosive velar voiceless

Ommision of final /k/

/k/

/k/

θɪŋ

θɪŋk


think


11

Plosive velar voiced to plosive velar voiceless

/gz/→/ks/

/gz/

/ks/

eksɑːm.pl

ɪgzɑːm.pl

example

12

Approximant palatal voiced

Ommision of medial /j/

/j/

-

music

ʌnual


kɒnˈsʊm

regʊlar


mju:zik

ænjuəl


kənˈsjuːm

reg.jʊ.lə



music

annual


consume

regular


13

Fricative dental voiceless

Ommision final /θ/

/θ/

-

dep

mʌn


depθ

mʌnθ


depth

month

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