Federal agency for public health and social development volgograd state medical university



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FEDERAL AGENCY FOR PUBLIC HEALTH AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT VOLGOGRAD STATE MEDICAL UNIVERSITY

human anatomy department /general medicine faculty

Questions for examination

1.Modern principles and methods of anatomical research.

2.Axes and planes in anatomy. Topographical lines on the body surface, their significance for projection of organs on body surfaces.

3.Bone as an organ: development, structure, growth. Classification of bones.

4.Vertebrae: development, structure in various parts of the spine, variants and anomalies; junctions between vertebrae.

5.Spine as a whole: anatomy, formation of its curvatures.

6.Ribs and sternum: structure, variants and anomalies.

7.Development of skull during ontogenesis. First (mandibular) and second (hyoid) visceral arcs, their derivatives.

8.Bones of facial skull.

9.Orbit: structure of walls, foramina and their significance.

10.Temporal bone: parts, foramina, canals and their significance.

11.Sphenoid bone: parts, foramina and their significance.

12Pterygopalatine fossa: walls, foramina and their significance.

13Nasal cavity, structure of its walls.

14.External nose. Paranasal sinuses, their significance, variants and anomalies.

15Anatomy and topography of temporal and infratemporal fossae.

16.Middle cranial fossa: walls and boundaries. Foramina and their significance.

17.Characteristics of the internal surface of the base of the skull: foramina and their significance.

18External surface of the base of the skull. Foramina and their significance.

19Anterior cranial fossa: walls and boundaries. Foramina and their significance.

20.Posterior cranial fossa: walls and boundaries. Foramina and their significance.

21.Craniometry: craniometrical points and indices. «Contraforces».

22.Bones of the shoulder girdle.

23.Bones of the pelvis.

24.Pelvis as a whole. Age and sex features.

25.Bones of leg and foot: their joints. Passive and active «tightening» of foot arches, mechanism of their effect on foot.

26.Anatomical and biomechanical classification of joints. Continuous joints.

27.Structure of joint. Classification of joints according to the shape of articular
surfaces, number of axes and function. Range of motion in joints.

28.Joints of the skull, kinds of sutures. Temporomandibular joint: structure, shape, movements, muscles acting on TMJ, their blood supply and innervation.

29.Atlanto-occipital joint, movements in this joint.

30.Joints of ribs with vertebrae and sternum. Movements of ribs, muscles performing these movements, their blood supply and innervation.

31.Shoulder joint: structure, shape, biomechanics; muscles acting on shoulder joint, their blood supply and innervation.

32.Elbow joint: structure, shape, biomechanics. Muscles acting on elbow joint, their innervation and blood supply.

33.Joints of the pelvis.

34.Hip joint: structure, shape, movements; muscles involved in hip movements, their blood supply and innervation.

35.Knee joint: structure, shape, movements; muscles acting on knee joints, blood supply and innervation.

36.General anatomy of muscles. Muscle as an organ. Classification of skeletal muscles depending on form, structure, position, etc. Anatomical and physiological diameters of muscles.

37.Auxiliary apparatus of muscles: fascias, osteofibrous canals, synovial sheaths and sacks, blocks, their anatomy and significance. Muscles -synergists and antagonists.

38.Facial muscles: development, anatomy, topography, function, blood supply and innervation.

39.Masticatory muscles: development, anatomy, topography, function, blood supply and innervation. Fascias of masticatory muscles.

40.Muscles of the neck: their function, blood supply and innervation. Topography of muscles and fascias of the neck.

41.Regions of the neck, their boundaries. Triangles of the neck, their practical significance.

42.Muscles and fascias of the spine and thorax: their topography, structure, function, blood supply and innervation.

43.Muscles of the abdomen: their topography, function, blood supply and innervation. Rectus sheath. Linea alba.

44.Diaphragm: parts, topography function; blood supply, innervation.

45.Muscle and fascias of male and female perineum. Their blood supply and innervation.

46.Muscles and fascias of the arm: anatomy, topography, function, blood supply and innervation. 47.Muscles and fascias of the forearm: anatomy, topography, function, blood supply and innervation.

48.Muscles and fascias of leg: topography, function, blood supply and innervation.

49.Muscles and fascias of thigh: topography, function, blood supply and innervation. Muscular and vascular spaces.

50.Axillary fossa: its walls, foramina, their significance. Canal of radial nerve.

51.Inguinal canal: its walls, deep and superficial rings; contents of canal. Weak spots (sites of weakness) of anterior abdominal wall.

52.Development of digestive system. Relationships of stomach and gut with peritoneum at different stages of ontogenesis (dorsal and ventral mesenteries of stomach and gut).

53.Oral cavity: lips, vestibule of mouth, hard and soft palate. Their structure, function, blood supply and innervations.

54.Signs of the tooth side (the root sign, the crown angle sign, the crown curvature sign).

55.Milk and permanent teeth, their structure, replacement. A tooth row, formula of milk and permanent teeth. Blood supply and innervation of the teeth.

56.Tongue (muscles of tongue, papillae): development, structure, function, blood supply, innervations. Regional lymph nodes.

57.Parotid, sublingual and submandibular glands: topography, structure, ducts, blood supply, innervation.

58.Pharynx: topography, structure, blood supply and innervation. Regional lymph nodes. Pharyngeal lymphoid ring.

59.Esophagus: topography, structure, blood supply and innervation. Regional


lymph nodes.

60.Stomach: anatomy, topography, blood supply and innervation. Regional lymph nodes.

61.Small intestine: parts, their topography, relation to peritoneum, structure of wall, blood supply, innervation.

62.Duodenum: parts, structure, topography, relation to peritoneum, blood supply, innervation. Regional lymph nodes.

63.Mesenteric part of small intestine (jejunum and ileum), structure of wall, blood supply, innervation. Regional lymph nodes.

64.Large intestine: parts, their topography, relation to peritoneum; structure of wall, blood supply and innervation.

65.Caecum: structure, relation to peritoneum, topography of vermiform appendix; blood supply and innervations.

66.Rectum: topography, relation to peritoneum, structure of wall, blood supply and innervation. Regional lymph nodes.

67.Topography of peritoneum in upper, middle and lower compartments of peritoneal cavity; lesser omentum, omental, hepatic, pregastric recesses (bursae), their walls.

68.Topography of peritoneum. Greater and lesser omentum, «recesses» and mesenteric sinuses.

69.Liver: development, structure, topography. Blood supply and innervation of liver. Regional lymph nodes.

70.Gallbladder: structure, topography. Ducts of gallbladder and liver. Blood supply and innervation.

71.Pancreas: topography, structure, ducts, blood supply, innervation. Regional lymph nodes.

72.Blood supply and innervation of the mucous membrane of nasal cavity.

73.Larynx: topography, cartilages, their joints. Relief of the internal surface of laryngeal mucous membrane.

74.Muscles of the larynx: their classification, function, innervation and blood supply.

75.Trachea and bronchi: structure, topography, blood supply and innervation.

76.Lungs: topography. Segmental structure of lungs. Structure of the acinus.

77.Pleura: parts, borders; pleural cavity, pleural sinuses.

78.Topography of kidneys, their blood supply and innervation. Regional lymph nodes of kidneys.

79.Kidneys: development, anatomy, topography. . Anatomy of urinary tracts: nephron, calices, pelvis.

80.Ureters and bladder: structure, topography, blood supply and innervation. Male and female urethra: topography, parts, sphincters.

81.Uterus: development, parts, topography, ligaments, relation to peritoneum; blood supply, innervation, regional lymph nodes. Uterine tube: structure, topography, relation to peritoneum; blood supply and innervation.

82.Male and female urethra: topography, parts, sphincters.

83.Testis, epidydymis: structure, blood supply, innervation. Coverings of the testis.

84.Spermatic cord: topography, components. Male external genital organs, their anatomy.

85.Prostate, seminal vesicles, bulbo-urethral glands: anatomy, topography, relation to urethra, blood supply, innervation. Regional lymph nodes of the prostate.

86.Ovaries: topography, structure, relation to peritoneum; blood supply, innervation. Age features of the ovary.

87.Vagina: structure, topography, blood supply, innervation, relation to peritoneum. Female external genital organs: structure, blood supply, innervation.

88.Heart: topography, projection of borders and valves on anterior thoracic wall.

89.Chambers of heart, their anatomy, relief of internal surface. Papillary muscles.

90.Structure of atrial and ventricular myocardium. Conducting system of heart.

91.Valves of the heart, their structure, mechanism of regulation of blood inside heart.

92.Arteries of heart. Veins of heart.

93.Pericardium: structure, topography; pericardial sinuses.

94.Mediastinum: compartments, their topography; organs of the mediastinum.

95.Features of blood circulation in fetus changes of hemocirculation system after birth.

96.Features of blood circulation in fetus and changes of cardiovascular system after birth.

97.Vessels of greater circle of blood flow (general characteristics). Vessels of lesser (pulmonary) circle of blood flow (general characteristics).

98.Aorta and its parts. Branches of aortic arch: their anatomy, topography, regions of branching (blood supply).

99.Subclavian artery, topography branches and supplied areas.

100.Axillary and brachial arteries: topography, branches and supplied areas.

101.Anterior branches of the external carotid artery: their topography, branches and supplied areas.

102.External carotid artery: topography, branches and supplied areas.

103.Internal carotid artery: topography, branches and supplied areas.

104.Arteries of the brain, sources of blood supply. Greater arterial (Willis) circle of brain.

105.Branches of the thoracic aorta (parietal and visceral): their topography and supplied areas.

106.Parietal and visceral (paired and unpaired) branches of abdominal aorta. Regularities of their branching and anastomoses.

107.Common, external and internal iliac arteries, their branches, regions of branching.

108.Parietal and visceral (paired and unpaired) branches of abdominal aorta. Regularities of their branching and anastomoses.

109.Arteries of the hand. Arterial palmar arcs and their branches.

110.Arteries of forearm: topography, branches and supplied areas. Blood supply of elbow joint.

111.Arteries of leg: topography, branches and supplied areas. Arteries of foot: topography, branches, areas of supply.

112.Femoral artery: topography, branches and supplied areas. Blood supply of hip joint.

113.Arteries of the foot: topography, branches and areas of supply.

114.Veins of the brain. Venous sinuses of dura mater. Venous emissaries and diploic veins.

115.Intra- and extracranial pats of venous outflow from brain.

116.Superior vena cava: sources of derivation and topography. Azygos and hemiazygos veins, tributaries and anastomoses.

117.Inferior vena cava: sources of derivation and topography. Tributaries of inferior vena cava and their anastomoses.

118.Portal vein: tributaries, their topography; branching of portal vein in the liver. Anastomoses of portal vein and its tributaries.

119.Venous plexuses. Inter- and intrasystemic venous anastomoses (cava-caval, cava-cava-portal, porto-caval), structure, topography.

120.Superficial and deep veins of the upper and lower extremities: their anatomy, topography.

121.Principles of the structure of the lymphatic system (capillaries, vessels, trunks and ducts, their general characteristics). Paths of lymph outflow from regions of the body into venous bed.

122.Lymph node as an organ (structure, function). Classification of lymph nodes.

123.Thoracic duct: formation, structure, topography, variants of inflow to venous bed. Right lymphatic duct, formation, topography, site of inflow into venous bed.

124.Anatomy and topography of vessels and regional lymph nodes of the head and neck.

125.Anatomy and topography of lymphatic vessels and regional lymph nodes of abdominal organs.

126.Paths of lymph outflow from the mammary gland; topography of regional lymph nodes.

127.Anatomy and topography of lymphatic vessels and regional lymph nodes of the upper and lower extremities.

128.Anatomy and topography of lymphatic vessels and regional lymph nodes of the pelvis.

129.Concept of the neuron (neurocyte). Nervous fibres, roots and fascicles; neural nodes, their classification and structure.

130.Spinal cord: localization in vertebral canal, internal structure, blood supply.

131.Nuclei of grey matter of the spinal cord, their significance. Localization of conducting tracts in white substance of the spinal cord.

132.Anatomy and topography of medulla oblongata. Localization of nuclei and conducting tracts in medulla oblongata.

133.Anatomy of rhomboid fossa: its relief. Projection of nuclei of cranial nerves on the surface of rhomboid fossa.

134.Anatomy and topography of the pons; parts, internal structure. Localization of nuclei and conducting tracts in pons.

135.Cerebellum: external and internal structure; peduncles, their fibrillar composition.

136.Anatomy and topography of the midbrain; parts, internal structure. Localization of nuclei and conducting tracts in mesencephalon.

137.Anatomy and topography of the diencephalon; parts, external and internal structure.

138.Sulci and gyri of superolateral, medial and inferior surfaces of cerebral hemispheres. Localization of cortical centers.

139.Topography of basal nuclei, localization and functional significance of nervous tracts in internal capsule.

140.Meninges, their structure. Subdural and subarachnoid spaces.

141.Conducting tracts of exteroceptive sensitivity (tactile, pain and temperature sensitivity). Localization of conducting tracts of in different parts of brain and spinal cord.

142.Conducting tracts of proprioceptive sensitivity of cerebellar direction. Localization in different parts of the brain and spinal cord.

143.Conducting tracts of proprioceptive sensitivity of cortical direction. Localization in different parts of brain and spinal cord.

144.Motor pyramidal conducting tracts. Localization in different parts of the brain and spinal cord.

145.Olfactory and optic nerves: their anatomy and topography. Conducting tract of analyzer of vision.

146.Oculomotor, trochlear and abducens nerves: their anatomy, topography, areas of innervation.

147.Trigeminal nerve: branches, their anatomy, topography, areas of innervation.

148.Facial nerve: branches, their anatomy, topography, areas of innervation.

149.Vestibulocochlear nerve: anatomy, topography, areas of innervation.

150.Glossopharyngeal nerve: branches, their anatomy, topography, areas of innervation.

151.Vagus nerve: branches, their anatomy, topography, areas of innervation.

152.Accessory and hypoglossal nerves: their anatomy, topography, branches, areas of innervation.

153.Spinal nerve: formation, branches. Posterior branches of the spinal nerves, areas of their distribution. Formation of plexuses of the spinal nerves.

154.Autonomic nervous system: classification, characteristics of its parts.

155.Sympathetic part of autonomic nervous system, general characteristic; centers and peripheral part (nodes, distribution of branches).

156.Parasympathetic part of autonomic nervous system, general characteristics; centers and peripheral part (nodes, distribution of branches).

157.Cervical part of sympathetic trunk: topography, nodes, branches, areas of innervation.

158.Thoracic part of sympathetic trunk: topography, nodes, branches, areas of innervation.

159.Lumbar and sacral parts of the sympathetic trunk: topography, nodes, branches, areas of innervation.

160.Limbic system, its nuclei, localization in the brain, connections, functional significance.

161.Cervical plexus: topography, nerves, area of innervation.

162.Branches of supraclavicular part of the brachial plexus, areas of innervation.

163.Branches of subclavicular part of brachial plexus, areas of innervation.

164.Lumbar plexus: topography, nerves, areas of innervation.

165.Sacral plexus: topography, nerves, areas of innervation. Sciatic nerve: branches, areas of innervation.

166.Organ of vision: general plan of structure. Eyeball and its auxiliary apparatus.

167.Auxiliary apparatus of eyeball: muscles, eyelids, lacrimal apparatus, conjunctiva, their anatomical characteristics, blood supply, innervation.

168.Organs of taste and smell: structure, topography, blood supply, innervation.

169.Organ of hearing and balance: general plan of structure and functional features.

170.Classification of endocrine glands, their general characteristics.



171.Branchiogenic endocrine glands: thyroid, parathyroid, their topography, structure, blood supply, innervation.

172.Hypophysis, topography, structure, role in the system of endocrine glands.


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