Facial Image Dominance and Election Outcomes: An Analysis of Washington State Nonpartisan Judicial Candidates



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Distance Top of Head to chin : Used distance formula from top of head to bottom of chin

Distance Hair line to Chin : Used distance formula from hair line to bottom of chin

Distance right ear to left ear : Used distance formula from right ear to left ear

Distance right side of face to left : Used distance formula from left side of face to right side of face

Ratio(width of face(no ears) / height(chin to Top of Head)) : used distance formula twice to calculate height and width(no ears) and divided the results to get a ratio of height to width

Ratio(width of face(no ears) / height(chin to hairline)) : used distance formula twice to calculate height and width(with ears) and divided the results to get a ratio of height to width
Jaw

Width of Chin : Used distance formula from left side of chin to right side of chin

Slope of right side of jaw : Used slope formula to starting at right side of jaw to right side of chin

Slope of left side of jaw : Used slope formula to starting at Left side of jaw to Left side of chin
Eyes

Distance between eyes : Used distance formula from right side of left eye to the left side of right eye

Width of left eye : Used distance formula from left side to the right side of the left eye

Width of right eye : Used distance formula from left side to the right side of the right eye

Slope of left eye : Used slope formula for left side to the right side of the left eye

Slope of right eye : Used slope formula for left side to the right side of the right eye

width of both eyes : Used the distance formula from left side of left eye to right side of right eye
Head tilt

Slope of head(left ear to right ear) : Used Distance formula from left ear to right ear
Nose

Height of Nose : Used distance formula from top center of nose bridge to bottom center of nose

Width of Nose : Used distance formula from Left side of nose to right side of nose
Symmetry

Symmetry of X coordinates(distance off in pixels) : folded right side of face on left side and summed the pixels off each set of points were in x direction

Symmetry of Y coordinates(distance off in pixels) : compared the y component of the left side of face to the y component of right side of face and summed their difference

formulas:

distance: sqrt((x1 - x2) ^ 2 + (y1 - y2) ^ 2)

slope : (y1 - y2) / (x1 - x2)
APPENDIX 2: For each candidate code the following information

1.  Direction of face (up/down)



  1. very up  

  2. slightly up  

  3. straight  

  4. slightly down  

  5. very down

2. Direction of face (side-to-side)



  1. very left  

  2. slightly left  

  3. straight  

  4. slightly right  

  5. very right

3. Glasses 1. yes; 2. no

4. Bald 1. yes; 2. no

5. Facial hair (check all that apply)



  1. beard 

  2. mustache 

  3. side burns  

  4. stubble 

  5. goatee

6. Gender 1. Male 2. Female

7. Smiling


  1. very frowning  

  2. moderately frowning 

  3. slightly frowning  

  4. neutral  

  5. slightly smiling  

  6. moderately smiling 

  7. very smiling

8. Skin color/texture

  1. pale white 

  2. white, fair 

  3. white to olive 

  4. olive, moderate brown 

  5. brown 

  6. black

APPENDIX 3: Questions asked of the student coders

Please answer the following questions based on your personal demographics.

What is your Gender?


  • Male

  • Female

What is your ethnicity?

  • White

  • Black, African American, Negro

  • Spanish/Hispanic/Latino

  • American Indian or Alaskan Native

  • Asian/ Pacific Islander

  • Other Race

What is your age?



  • 18

  • 19

  • 20

  • 21

  • 22-23

  • 24-25

  • 26+

Are you a US Citizen?

  • Yes

  • No

How would you describe your voting habits?

What political party do you align with?

  • Democratic

  • Republican

  • None (Independent)

  • Other

When working on a project, do you prefer?

  • To work by yourself and delegate the work you do not find interesting

  • To work with others and promote/persuade your ideas to others

  • For your work environment to be stable, repetitive, and accommodating to others' needs

  • To take your time to insure accuracy, and enjoy challenges which require thought

Where primarily to direct time and energy

What way is your preference to process information

  • Based on facts and what is known

  • Not restricted to facts, but it can include ideas and future potential unknowns

How do you prefer to make decisions?

How do you prefer to organize life

Here are a number of personality traits that may or may not apply to you. Please indicate the extent to which the pair of traits apply to you. You should rate the extent to which the pair of traits applies to you, even if one characteristic applies more strongly than the other.




Disagree strongly (1)

Disagree moderately (2)

Disagree a little (3)

Neither agree nor disagree (4)

Agree a little (5)

Agree moderately (6)

Agree strongly (7)

Extroverted, enthusiastic (1)















Critical, quarrelsome (2)















Dependable, self disciplined (3)















Anxious, easily upset (4)















Open to new experiences, complex (5)















Reserved, quiet (6)















Sympathetic, warm (7)















Disorganized, careless (8)















Calm, emotionally stable (9)















Conventional, uncreative (10)















Individual Photos Section

(Note: Participants would see about 50 photo and asked a set of questions for each photo. The photos are public photos submitted for use in the public voters guide)

Based on the image, please rate the following facial characteristics






extremely

moderately

slightly

undecided

slightly

moderately

extremely































attractive















unattractive

untrustworthy















trustworthy

average















unique

servient















dominant

masculine















feminine

What is the likelihood of you voting for this candidate?

  • extremely likely

  • moderately likely

  • slightly likely

  • undecided

  • slightly unlikely

  • moderately unlikely

  • extremely unlikely

Candidate Pairing Section

(Note: Participants would be presented two of the previously viewed photos and asked which one they would vote for. This would be repeated for each of the candidate pairings.)

Which candidate would you vote for?



  • Candidate 1 (1)

  • Candidate 2 (2)



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