Eye Glasses in History Submitted by Abdul Nasser Kaadan, md, Phd ayman Foad Bankasly Contents

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-Lenses in the 11th century

Widespread use of lenses did not occur until the use of reading stones in the 11 th century and the invention of spectacles, probably in Italy in the 1280s. Scholars have noted that spectacles were invented not long after the translation of Ibn al-Haytham’s Book of Optics into Latin, [11] but it is not clear what role,if any,the optical theory of the time played in the discovery.Ibn Sahl’s treatise was used by Ibn al-Haitham.

Abu Ali al-Hasan ibn al-Hasan ibn al-Haytham(965 in Basra – c.1040 in cairo) (1) was a Persian[12] or Arab[13] scientist and polymath. [14] He made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as to physics,

anatomy, astronomy, engineering, mathematics, medicine,ophthalmology, philosophy, psychology, visual perception, and to science in general with his early application of the scientific method. He is sometimes called al-Basri, after his birthplace in the city of Basra. [15] He was also nicknamed Ptolemaeus Secundus (“Ptolemy the Second”) [16] or simply “The Physicist”[17] in medieval Europe. Alhazen wrote insightful comm -entaries on works by Aristotle, Ptolemy, and the Greek mathematician Euclid. [18]

Born circa 965, in Basra, Iraq and part of Buyid Persia at that time, [20] he lived mainly in Cairo, Egypt, dying there at age 76. [16] Over-confident about practical application of his mathematical knowledge, he assumed that he could regular the floods of the Nile. [19]

Figure 11: Ibn Al-Haytham,s anatomy Figure 12: Eye Diagram Ibn

of the eye Al-Haytham

Figure 13: Optics (dated 1083): Ibn al-Haytham's Optics, written in Eqypt in the first half of the 11th Century, represented a theory of vision that went beyond Galen, Euclid and Ptolemy. This diagram of the two eyes seen from above, shows the principal tunics and humours and the optic nerves connecting the eyeballs to the brain

-Lenses in the 12th century

Sunglasses, in the form of flat panes of smoky quartz, protected the eyes from glare and were used in China in the 12th century or possibly earlier. Similarly, the Inuit have used snow goggles for eye protection. However, they did not offer any corrective benefits[21] and the use by historians of the term "sunglasses" is anachronistic before the twentieth century.

Figure 14: Smoky Quartz Gemstone. Figure 15: Smoky Quartz, Large loose

– 800X566.

Figure 16: Smoky Quartz – 336X330. Figure 17: Natural Smoky Quartz

-Lenses in the 13th century

Englishman Robert Grosseteste's treatise De iride ("On the Rainbow"), written between 1220 and 1235, mentions using optics to "read the smallest letters at incredible distances". A few years later, Roger Bacon is also known to have written on the magnifying properties of lenses in 1262.[22]

Reportedly, spectacles were in use in China by the rich and elderly at the time of Marco Polo's arrival in 1270 or 1271,[23][24] although the Chinese credit their invention to Arabia in the 11th century.[23]

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